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Hiromi Ogino, Sonoko Ishino, Daisuke Kohda, Yoshizumi Ishino
RecJ/cell division cycle 45 (Cdc45) proteins are widely conserved in the three domains of life, i.e., in Bacteria, Eukarya and Archaea. Bacterial RecJ is a 5' 3' exonuclease and functions in DNA repair pathways, while using its 5' 3' exonuclease activity. Eukaryotic Cdc45 has no identified enzymatic activity, but participates in the CMG complex so named because it is composed of Cdc45, minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM) proteins 2-7, and GINS complex proteins (Sld5, Psf11 to 3). Eukaryotic Cdc45 and bacterial/archaeal RecJ share similar amino acid sequences and are considered functional counterparts...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shuai Wang, Iker Agirrezabal-Telleria, Aditya Bhan, Dante Simonetti, Kazuhiro Takanabe, Enrique Iglesia
This account illustrates concepts in chemical kinetics underpinned by the formalism of transition state theory using catalytic processes that enable the synthesis of molecules suitable as fuels from C1 and oxygenate reactants. Such feedstocks provide an essential bridge towards a carbon-free energy future, but their volatility and low energy density require the formation of new C-C bonds and the removal of oxygen. These transformations are described here through recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and site requirements in catalysis by surfaces, with emphasis on enabling concepts that tackle ubiquitous reactivity and selectivity challenges...
March 16, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Gregory-George Zafiropoulos, Giorgio Deli, Oliver Hoffmann, Gordon John
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the treatment outcome of the use of a porcine monolayer collagen matrix (mCM) to increase soft-tissue volume as a part of implant site development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Implants were placed in single sites in 27 patients. In the test group, mCM was used for soft-tissue augmentation. No graft was placed in the control group. Soft-tissue thickness (STTh) was measured at the time of surgery (T0) and 6 months postoperatively (T1) at two sites (STTh 1, 1 mm below the gingival margin; STTh 2, 3 mm below the mucogingival margin)...
July 2016: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Anja Wüest, Daniel Surbek, Roland Wiest, Christian Weisstanner, Harald Bonel, Maja Steinlin, Luigi Raio, Boris Tutschek
INTRODUCTION: The primary aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence the individual conditions and of associated anomalies in fetuses with the prenatal diagnosis of enlarged posterior fossa and to explore the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in these anomalies. The secondary aim was to evaluate the post-natal outcome of children affected by posterior fossa anomalies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All fetuses with enlarged posterior fossa detected by prenatal sonography at a referral center from 2001-2015 were analyzed retrospectively...
March 14, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Valentina Nairi, Luca Medda, Maura Monduzzi, Andrea Salis
In this work the adsorption and the release of ampicillin - a β-lactam penicillin-like antibiotic - from MCM-41, SBA-15, and (amino functionalized) SBA-15-NH2 ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) materials were investigated. The silica matrices differ for their pore size (SBA-15 vs. MCM-41) mainly, and also for surface charge (SBA-15 and MCM-41, vs. SBA-15-NH2). OMS samples were characterized through small-angle X-rays scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and potentiometric titrations...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Raffael Schaffrath, Roland Klassen
Modified nucleosides in tRNA anticodon loops such as 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5)s(2)U) and pseuduridine (Ψ) are thought to be required for an efficient decoding process. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the simultaneous presence of mcm(5)s(2)U and Ψ38 in tRNA(Gln)UUG was shown to mediate efficient synthesis of the Q/N rich [PIN(+)] prion forming protein Rnq1. (1) In the absence of these two tRNA modifications, higher than normal levels of hypomodified tRNA(Gln)UUG, but not its isoacceptor tRNA(Gln)CUG can restore Rnq1 synthesis...
January 2, 2017: Prion
Navid Ahmadi Nasab, Hassan Hassani Kumleh, Mojtaba Beygzadeh, Shahram Teimourian, Mahmood Kazemzad
Mesoporous silica nanocarriers as accommodate drug molecule capsules were synthesized and capped by chitosan natural polymer. This nanocarrier acts as a pH-responsive shield to increase the solubility and improvement of anticancer properties of curcumin against U87MG glioblastoma cancer cell line. The encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading content were measured 88.1 ± 4.76% and 8.81 ± 0.47%, respectively. The curcumin release from the CS-MCM-41 was slow and sustained at low pH (42.72 ± 2.29%) compared to the environment pH (19...
February 23, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Robert C Alver, Gaganmeet Singh Chadha, Peter J Gillespie, J Julian Blow
Dbf4-dependent kinases (DDKs) are required for the initiation of DNA replication, their essential targets being the MCM2-7 proteins. We show that, in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and human cells, hyper-phosphorylation of DNA-bound Mcm4, but not phosphorylation of Mcm2, correlates with DNA replication. These phosphorylations are differentially affected by the DDK inhibitors PHA-767491 and XL413. We show that DDK-dependent MCM phosphorylation is reversed by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeted to chromatin by Rif1...
March 7, 2017: Cell Reports
David Akopian, Michael Rape
Anomalies in dismantling the machinery of DNA replication can compromise genome integrity and contribute to tumorigenesis and aging. In this issue of Genes & Development, Dewar and colleagues (pp. 275-290) identified an E3 ubiquitin ligase, CUL2(LRR2), that modifies a subunit of the replicative CMG (Cdc45, minichromosome maintenance [MCM] subunits 2-7, and the GINS complex) helicase and triggers disassembly of the replication machinery. Their study offers critical insight into the mechanism of DNA replication termination while at the same time raising important questions for future research...
February 1, 2017: Genes & Development
Yao Chen, Seongmin Hong, Chung-Wei Fu, Tran Hoang, Xiao Li, Veronica Valencia, Zhenjie Zhang, Jason A Perman, Shengqian Ma
Mesoporous materials, Tb-mesoMOF and MCM-41, were used to study the transport phenomena of biomolecules entering the interior pores from solution. Vitamin B12 and B2weresuccessfully encapsulated into these mesoporous materials; whereas, Tb-mesoMOF (0.33g B12/g, 0.01 g B2/g)adsorbed a higher amount of vitamin per mass than MCM-41 (0.21g B12/g, 0.002 g B2/g). The diffusion mechanism of the biomolecules entering Tb-mesoMOF were evaluated using a mathematical model. The Raman spectroscopy studies showed vitamin B12has been encapsulated within Tb-mesoMOF's pores and evaluation of the peak shifts indicated strong interactions linking vitamin B12'spyrroline moiety with Tb-mesoMOF's triazine and benzoate rings...
March 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Amanpreet Kaur, Sameer S Katiyar, Varun Kushwah, Sanyog Jain
Current work reports the development and optimization of clobitasol propionate (CP) and calcipotriol (CT) loaded nanoemulsion based gel for topical treatment of psoriasis. Components of nanoemulsion viz., oil and surfactant/co-surfactant were selected depending upon solubility and emulsification potential respectively. The optimized ratio of 5:3:2 of Capmul MCM C8 EP, Cremophor RH 40 and Labrafil 1944 CS was selected. Carbopol 980 was used as gelling agent to achieve final drug concentration of 0.05% w/w and 0...
March 1, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yasser Iturria-Medina, Félix M Carbonell, Roberto C Sotero, Francois Chouinard-Decorte, Alan C Evans
Generative models focused on multifactorial causal mechanisms in brain disorders are scarce and generally based on limited data. Despite the biological importance of the multiple interacting processes, their effects remain poorly characterized from an integrative analytic perspective. Here, we propose a spatiotemporal multifactorial causal model (MCM) of brain (dis)organization and therapeutic intervention that accounts for local causal interactions, effects propagation via physical brain networks, cognitive alterations, and identification of optimum therapeutic interventions...
February 28, 2017: NeuroImage
Haiyan Xiang, Dengxin Fan, Huan Li, Shuyun Shi
Rapid and selective extraction of target compounds from complex matrices was significantly important for their quantification. Here, hollow porous molecular imprinted polymers (HPMIPs) were prepared using cinnamic acid (CMA) as template, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer, and MCM-48 as sacrificial support. Hollow porous structure with large surface area (534.1m(2)/g) made most recognition sites locate on the surface of HPMIPs, resulting in high binding capacity (14.84mg/g) and fast kinetic binding (40min)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
V K Shormanov, L L Kvachakhiya
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of amlodipine distribution in the organism of the warm-blooded animals (rats) following a single intragastric administration of the poisonous substance at a dose of 686 mg/kg b/w/ (LD50). Amlodipine was isolated from the blood and various organs of the animals by means of acetone extraction and purified on the silica gel column (100/160 mcm) with the elution by an ethanol-hexane (7:3) mixture. The identification and the quantitative measurement of amlodipine were performed with the use of the TLC, GC-M, and UV-spectrophotometry...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Chau T H Nguyen, Richard I Webb, Lynette K Lambert, Ekaterina Strounina, Edward C Lee, Marie-Odile Parat, Michael A McGuckin, Amirali Popat, Peter J Cabot, Benjamin P Ross
Conventional oral drug formulations for colonic diseases require the administration of high doses of drug to achieve effective drug concentrations at the target site. However, this exposes patients to serious systemic toxicity in order to achieve efficacy. To overcome this problem, an oral drug delivery system was developed by loading a large amount (ca. 34% w/w) of prednisolone into 3-aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MCM-NH2) and targeting prednisolone release to the colon by coating the nanoparticle with succinylated ε-polylysine (SPL)...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
M De Marzio, G Camisasca, M M Conde, M Rovere, P Gallo
We derive by computer simulation the radial distribution functions of water confined in a silica pore modeled to reproduce MCM-41. We perform the calculations in a range of temperatures from ambient to deep supercooling for the subset of water molecules that reside in the inner shell (free water) by applying the excluded volume corrections. By comparing with bulk water we find that the first shell of the oxygen-oxygen and hydrogen-hydrogen radial distribution functions is less sharp and the first minimum fills in while the oxygen-hydrogen structure does not significantly change, indicating that the free water keeps the hydrogen bond short range order...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
E Sayed, R Haj-Ahmad, K Ruparelia, M S Arshad, M-W Chang, Z Ahmad
Innovative methods and materials have been developed to overcome limitations associated with current drug delivery systems. Significant developments have led to the use of a variety of materials (as excipients) such as inorganic and metallic structures, marking a transition from conventional polymers. Inorganic materials, especially those possessing significant porosity, are emerging as good candidates for the delivery of a range of drugs (antibiotics, anticancer and anti-inflammatories), providing several advantages in formulation and engineering (encapsulation of drug in amorphous form, controlled delivery and improved targeting)...
February 28, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
M Matin, R Kulkarni, A Thamizhavel, S K Dhar, A Provino, P Manfrinetti
Motivated by the report of superconductivity in R3TiSb5 (R  =  La and Ce) and possibly Nd3TiSb5 at  ∼4 K, we grew single crystals of La3TiSb5 and Ce3TiSb5 by the high-temperature solution method using Sn as a flux. While in both compounds we observed a superconducting transition at 3.7 K for resistivity and low-field magnetization, our data conclusively show that it arose from residual Sn flux present in the single crystals. In particular, the heat capacity data do not present any of the anomalies expected from a bulk superconducting transition...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Zhijie Liang, Wenxin Shi, Zhiwei Zhao, Tianyi Sun, Fuyi Cui
The spherical mesoporous silica (meso-silica) MCM-41 and those with different dosage of the retained templates were prepared and characterized. Particularly, effects of the retained template and its dosage on the adsorption of typical heavy metals (Cu(2+) and Cd(2+)) in the synthesized materials were investigated. The results indicated that the retained templates acted as "helpers" for the adsorption of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) in the spherical meso-silica MCM-41, and the maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) increased with the increase of the retained template dosage...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ling Guan, Peng He, Fang Yang, Yuan Zhang, Yunfei Hu, Jienv Ding, Yu Hua, Yi Zhang, Qiong Ye, Jiazhi Hu, Tao Wang, Changwen Jin, Daochun Kong
A central step in the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotes is the assembly of pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) at late M and early G1 phase of the cell cycles. Since 1973, four proteins or protein complexes, including cell division control protein 6 (Cdc6)/Cdc18, minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM), origin recognition complex (ORC), and Cdt1, are known components of the pre-RC. Previously, we reported that a non-ORC protein binds to the essential element delta 9 of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA replication origin ARS3001...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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