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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872192/the-chromatin-assembly-factor-complex-1-caf1-and-5-azacytidine-5-azac-affect-cell-motility-in-src-transformed-human-epithelial-cells
#1
Akinori Endo, Tony Ly, Raffaella Pippa, Dalila Bensaddek, Armel Nicolas, Angus I Lamond
Tumor invasion into surrounding stromal tissue is a hallmark of high-grade, metastatic cancers. Oncogenic transformation of human epithelial cells in culture can be triggered by activation of v-Src kinase, resulting in increased cell motility, invasiveness and tumorigenicity and provides a valuable model for studying how changes in gene expression cause cancer phenotypes. Here, we show that epithelial cells transformed by activated Src show increased levels of DNA methylation and that the methylation inhibitor, 5-AzaC, potently blocks the increased cell motility and invasiveness induced by Src activation...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714489/novel-interaction-between-ccr4-and-caf1-in-rice-ccr4-not-deadenylase-complex
#2
Wei-Lun Chou, Yue-Lin Chung, Jhen-Cheng Fang, Chung-An Lu
Rice is an important crop in the world. However, little is known about rice mRNA deadenylation, which is an important regulation step of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The CCR4-NOT1 complex contains two key components, CCR4 and CAF1, which are the main cytoplasmic deadenylases in eukaryotic cells. In yeast and humans, CCR4 can interact with CAF1 via its N-terminal LRR domain. However, no CCR4 protein containing N-terminal LRR motifs have been found in plants. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel pattern of interaction between OsCCR4 and OsCAF1 in the rice CCR4-NOT complex, and that OsCAF1 acts as a bridge between OsCCR4 and OsNOT1 in this complex...
October 6, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635759/acetylation-dependent-control-of-global-poly-a-rna-degradation-by-cbp-p300-and-hdac1-2
#3
Sahil Sharma, Fabian Poetz, Marius Bruer, Thi Bach Nga Ly-Hartig, Johanna Schott, Bertrand Séraphin, Georg Stoecklin
Acetylation of histones and transcription-related factors is known to exert epigenetic and transcriptional control of gene expression. Here we report that histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) also regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by controlling poly(A) RNA stability. Inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 induces massive and widespread degradation of normally stable poly(A) RNA in mammalian and Drosophila cells. Acetylation-induced RNA decay depends on the HATs p300 and CBP, which acetylate the exoribonuclease CAF1a, a catalytic subunit of the CCR4-CAF1-NOT deadenlyase complex and thereby contribute to accelerating poly(A) RNA degradation...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609860/optimization-of-light-harvesting-pigment-improves-photosynthetic-efficiency
#4
Honglei Jin, Mengshu Li, Sujuan Duan, Mei Fu, Xiaoxiao Dong, Bing Liu, Dongru Feng, Jinfa Wang, Hong-Bin Wang
Maximizing light capture by light harvesting pigment optimization represents an attractive but challenging strategy to improve photosynthetic efficiency. Here, we report that loss of a previously uncharacterized gene HIGH PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY 1 (HPE1) optimizes light harvesting pigments leading to improved photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. Arabidopsis hpe1 mutants show faster electron transport and increased contents of carbohydrates. HPE1 encodes a chloroplast protein containing a RNA recognition motif which directly associates with and regulates the splicing of target RNAs of plastid genes...
September 8, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606595/yersinia-pestis-caf1-protein-effect-of-sequence-polymorphism-on-intrinsic-disorder-propensity-serological-cross-reactivity-and-cross-protectivity-of-isoforms
#5
Pavel Kh Kopylov, Mikhail E Platonov, Vitaly G Ablamunits, Tat'yana I Kombarova, Sergey A Ivanov, Lidiya A Kadnikova, Aleksey N Somov, Svetlana V Dentovskaya, Vladimir N Uversky, Andrey P Anisimov
Yersinia pestis Caf1 is a multifunctional protein responsible for antiphagocytic activity and is a key protective antigen. It is generally conserved between globally distributed Y. pestis strains, but Y. pestis subsp. microtus biovar caucasica strains circulating within populations of common voles in Georgia and Armenia were reported to carry a single substitution of alanine to serine. We investigated polymorphism of the Caf1 sequences among other Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains, which have a limited virulence in guinea pigs and in humans...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605379/the-btg4-and-caf1-complex-prevents-the-spontaneous-activation-of-eggs-by-deadenylating-maternal-mrnas
#6
Michał Pasternak, Sybille Pfender, Balaji Santhanam, Melina Schuh
Once every menstrual cycle, eggs are ovulated into the oviduct where they await fertilization. The ovulated eggs are arrested in metaphase of the second meiotic division, and only complete meiosis upon fertilization. It is crucial that the maintenance of metaphase arrest is tightly controlled, because the spontaneous activation of the egg would preclude the development of a viable embryo (Zhang et al. 2015 J. Genet. Genomics 42, 477-485. (doi:10.1016/j.jgg.2015.07.004); Combelles et al. 2011 Hum. Reprod. 26, 545-552...
September 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558897/ythdf2-destabilizes-m-6-a-containing-rna-through-direct-recruitment-of-the-ccr4-not-deadenylase-complex
#7
Hao Du, Ya Zhao, Jinqiu He, Yao Zhang, Hairui Xi, Mofang Liu, Jinbiao Ma, Ligang Wu
Methylation at the N6 position of adenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant RNA modification within protein-coding and long noncoding RNAs in eukaryotes and is a reversible process with important biological functions. YT521-B homology domain family (YTHDF) proteins are the readers of m(6)A, the binding of which results in the alteration of the translation efficiency and stability of m(6)A-containing RNAs. However, the mechanism by which YTHDF proteins cause the degradation of m(6)A-containing RNAs is poorly understood...
August 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484313/ccr4-and-caf1-deadenylases-have-an-intrinsic-activity-to-remove-the-post-poly-a-sequence
#8
Sho Niinuma, Takashi Fukaya, Yukihide Tomari
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) recruit the CCR4-NOT complex, which contains two deadenylases, CCR4 and CAF1, to promote shortening of the poly(A) tail. Although both CCR4 and CAF1 generally have a strong preference for poly(A) RNA substrates, it has been reported from yeast to humans that they can also remove non-A residues in vitro to various degrees. However, it remains unknown how CCR4 and CAF1 remove non-A sequences. Herein we show that Drosophila miRNAs can promote the removal of 3'-terminal non-A residues in an exonucleolytic manner, but only if an upstream poly(A) sequence exists...
October 2016: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458447/a-recombinant-trivalent-fusion-protein-f1-lcrv-hsp70-ii-augments-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-and-imparts-full-protection-against-yersinia-pestis
#9
Shailendra K Verma, Lalit Batra, Urmil Tuteja
Plague is one of the most dangerous infections in humans caused by Yersinia pestis, a Gram-negative bacterium. Despite of an overwhelming research success, no ideal vaccine against plague is available yet. It is well established that F1/LcrV based vaccine requires a strong cellular immune response for complete protection against plague. In our earlier study, we demonstrated that HSP70(II) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates the humoral and cellular immunity of F1/LcrV vaccine candidates individually as well as in combinations in a mouse model...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426699/low-and-moderate-doses-of-caffeine-late-in-exercise-improve-performance-in-trained-cyclists
#10
Jason L Talanian, Lawrence L Spriet
The aim of the present study was to assess if low and moderate doses of caffeine delivered in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) late in exercise improved time-trial (TT) performance. Fifteen (11 male, 4 female) cyclists (age, 22.5 ± 0.9 years; body mass, 69.3 ± 2.6 kg; peak oxygen consumption, 64.6 ± 1.9 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) completed 4 double-blinded randomized trials. Subjects completed 120 min of cycling at ∼60% peak oxygen consumption with 5 interspersed 120-s intervals at ∼82% peak oxygen consumption, immediately followed by 40-s intervals at 50 W...
August 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358572/caf1-knockout-mice-are-more-susceptive-to-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury
#11
Jia-Xin Shi, Jia-Shu Li, Rong Hu, Xiao-Min Li, Hong Wang
The carbon catabolite repressor protein 4 (CCR4)-negative on TATA (NOT) complex includes multiple subunits and is conserved in the eukaryotic cells. The CCR4-NOT complex can regulate gene expression at different levels. Two subunits of the CCR4-NOT complex, CCR4 and CCR4-associated factor 1 (CAF1), possess deadenylase activity. In yeast, the deadenylase activity is mainly provided by the CCR4 subunit; however, the deadenylase activity is provided by both CCR4 and CAF1 in other eukaryotes. A previous study reported that CAF1 but not CCR4 is required for the decay of a reporter mRNA with AU-rich elements...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170642/a-replication-defective-human-type-5-adenovirus-based-trivalent-vaccine-confers-complete-protection-against-plague-in-mice-and-nonhuman-primates
#12
Jian Sha, Michelle L Kirtley, Curtis Klages, Tatiana E Erova, Maxim Telepnev, Duraisamy Ponnusamy, Eric C Fitts, Wallace B Baze, Satheesh K Sivasubramani, William S Lawrence, Igor Patrikeev, Jennifer E Peel, Jourdan A Andersson, Elena V Kozlova, Bethany L Tiner, Johnny W Peterson, David McWilliams, Snehal Patel, Eric Rothe, Vladimir L Motin, Ashok K Chopra
Currently, no plague vaccine exists in the United States for human use. The capsular antigen (Caf1 or F1) and two type 3 secretion system (T3SS) components, the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) and the needle protein YscF, represent protective antigens of Yersinia pestis We used a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) vector and constructed recombinant monovalent and trivalent vaccines (rAd5-LcrV and rAd5-YFV) that expressed either the codon-optimized lcrV or the fusion gene designated YFV (consisting of ycsF, caf1, and lcrV)...
July 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106059/establishment-of-a-promoter-based-chromatin-architecture-on-recently-replicated-dna-can-accommodate-variable-inter-nucleosome-spacing
#13
Ross T Fennessy, Tom Owen-Hughes
Nucleosomes, the fundamental subunits of eukaryotic chromatin, are organized with respect to transcriptional start sites. A major challenge to the persistence of this organization is the disassembly of nucleosomes during DNA replication. Here, we use complimentary approaches to map the locations of nucleosomes on recently replicated DNA. We find that nucleosomes are substantially realigned with promoters during the minutes following DNA replication. As a result, the nucleosomal landscape is largely re-established before newly replicated chromosomes are partitioned into daughter cells and can serve as a platform for the re-establishment of gene expression programmes...
September 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26952104/the-deadenylase-components-not2p-not3p-and-not5p-promote-mrna-decapping
#14
Najwa Alhusaini, Jeff Coller
Decay of mRNA is essential for the efficient regulation of gene expression. A major pathway of mRNA degradation is initiated by the shortening of the poly(A) tail via the CCR4/NOT deadenylase complex. Deadenylation is followed by removal of the 5' cap (i.e., decapping) and then 5' to 3' exonucleolytic decay of the message body. The highly conserved CCR4/NOT deadenylase complex consists of the exonucleases CCR4 and POP2/CAF1, as well as a group of four or five (depending on organism) accessory factors of unknown function, i...
May 2016: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912148/btg2-bridges-pabpc1-rna-binding-domains-and-caf1-deadenylase-to-control-cell-proliferation
#15
Benjamin Stupfler, Catherine Birck, Bertrand Séraphin, Fabienne Mauxion
While BTG2 plays an important role in cellular differentiation and cancer, its precise molecular function remains unclear. BTG2 interacts with CAF1 deadenylase through its APRO domain, a defining feature of BTG/Tob factors. Our previous experiments revealed that expression of BTG2 promoted mRNA poly(A) tail shortening through an undefined mechanism. Here we report that the APRO domain of BTG2 interacts directly with the first RRM domain of the poly(A)-binding protein PABPC1. Moreover, PABPC1 RRM and BTG2 APRO domains are sufficient to stimulate CAF1 deadenylase activity in vitro in the absence of other CCR4-NOT complex subunits...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26784394/gene-expression-regulatory-networks-in-trypanosoma-brucei-insights-into-the-role-of-the-mrna-binding-proteome
#16
Smiths Lueong, Clementine Merce, Bernd Fischer, Jörg D Hoheisel, Esteban D Erben
Control of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level is essential in all organisms, and RNA-binding proteins play critical roles from mRNA synthesis to decay. To fully understand this process, it is necessary to identify the complete set of RNA-binding proteins and the functional consequences of the protein-mRNA interactions. Here, we provide an overview of the proteins that bind to mRNAs and their functions in the pathogenic bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei. We describe the production of a small collection of open-reading frames encoding proteins potentially involved in mRNA metabolism...
May 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26586808/a-novel-role-for-the-histone-acetyltransferase-hat1-in-the-cenp-a-cid-assembly-pathway-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Mark Boltengagen, Anming Huang, Anastasiya Boltengagen, Lukas Trixl, Herbert Lindner, Leopold Kremser, Martin Offterdinger, Alexandra Lusser
The incorporation of CENP-A into centromeric chromatin is an essential prerequisite for kinetochore formation. Yet, the molecular mechanisms governing this process are surprisingly divergent in different organisms. While CENP-A loading mechanisms have been studied in some detail in mammals, there are still large gaps to our understanding of CENP-A/Cid loading pathways in Drosophila. Here, we report on the characterization and delineation of at least three different CENP-A preloading complexes in Drosophila...
March 18, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26525978/a-bioinformatic-survey-of-rna-binding-proteins-in-plasmodium
#18
B P Niranjan Reddy, Sony Shrestha, Kevin J Hart, Xiaoying Liang, Karen Kemirembe, Liwang Cui, Scott E Lindner
BACKGROUND: The malaria parasites in the genus Plasmodium have a very complicated life cycle involving an invertebrate vector and a vertebrate host. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are critical factors involved in every aspect of the development of these parasites. However, very few RBPs have been functionally characterized to date in the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum. METHODS: Using different bioinformatic methods and tools we searched P. falciparum genome to list and annotate RBPs...
November 2, 2015: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26524218/viability-of-yersinia-pestis-subcultures-in-agar-stabs
#19
N C Leal, M Sobreira, A F Q Araújo, J L O Magalhães, A J Vogler, M C Bollig, R Nottingham, P Keim, D M Wagner, A M P Almeida
UNLABELLED: Since its identification as the causative agent of plague in 1894, thousands of Yersinia pestis strains have been isolated and stored. Here, we report the ability of Y. pestis to survive up to 47 years in agar stabs, in rubber-stoppered tubes, under refrigeration (+4 to +10°C), although overall subculture recovery rates were poor and inversely related to the length of time stored. Genetic characterization of virulence gene presence among these subcultures was suggestive of significant variation in the genomic stability of Y...
January 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26486609/adaptive-selection-and-coevolution-at-the-proteins-of-the-polycomb-repressive-complexes-in-drosophila
#20
J M Calvo-Martín, P Librado, M Aguadé, M Papaceit, C Segarra
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are important epigenetic regulatory proteins that modulate the chromatin state through posttranslational histone modifications. These interacting proteins form multimeric complexes that repress gene expression. Thus, PcG proteins are expected to evolve coordinately, which might be reflected in their phylogenetic trees by concordant episodes of positive selection and by a correlation in evolutionary rates. In order to detect these signals of coevolution, the molecular evolution of 17 genes encoding the subunits of five Polycomb repressive complexes has been analyzed in the Drosophila genus...
February 2016: Heredity
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