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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433001/principal-cell-types-of-sleep-wake-regulatory-circuits
#1
REVIEW
Barbara E Jones
Electrophysiological recordings indicate that neurons which discharge maximally in association with distinct sleep-wake states are distributed through the brain, albeit in differing proportions. As studied using juxtacellular recording and labeling within the basal forebrain, four functional principal cell types are distinguished as: wake/paradoxical sleep (W/PS)-, slow wave sleep (SWS)-, W- and PS-max active. They are each comprised by both GABA and glutamate neurons, in addition to acetylcholine neurons belonging to the W/PS group...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432135/molecular-mechanisms-of-sleep-homeostasis-in-flies-and-mammals
#2
Ravi Allada, Chiara Cirelli, Amita Sehgal
Sleep is homeostatically regulated with sleep pressure accumulating with the increasing duration of prior wakefulness. Yet, a clear understanding of the molecular components of the homeostat, as well as the molecular and cellular processes they sense and control to regulate sleep intensity and duration, remain a mystery. Here, we will discuss the cellular and molecular basis of sleep homeostasis, first focusing on the best homeostatic sleep marker in vertebrates, slow wave activity; second, moving to the molecular genetic analysis of sleep homeostasis in the fruit fly Drosophila; and, finally, discussing more systemic aspects of sleep homeostasis...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431626/sleep-patterns-in-villagers-and-urban-african-volunteers-in-a-humid-tropical-climate-influence-of-accessibility-to-electric-light
#3
Alain Buguet, Pascal Bogui, Stéphane Picot, Raymond Cespuglio
Recent publications focusing on sleep-wake alternation, using actigraphic recordings in hunter-gatherers, stressed the existence of a potential effect of electricity availability on sleep habits. These reports prompted us to achieve a new analysis of the polysomnographic data already obtained in healthy African volunteers in equatorial Africa during two different investigations. Comparison of the 24-h polysomnographic sleep patterns were done between 9 volunteers sleeping in a laboratory in Abidjan (Abidjan cohort) and 11 villagers living in electricity-free bush villages (Sinfra cohort)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431164/low-activity-microstates-during-sleep
#4
Hiroyuki Miyawaki, Yazan N Billeh, Kamran Diba
Study Objectives: To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-REM sleep, which we call "LOW" activity sleep. Methods: We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (262-363g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle, as well as data from other brain regions obtained from http://crcns...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424466/the-role-of-the-brown-adipose-tissue-in-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-activation-induced-sleep-metabolic-and-feeding-responses
#5
Éva Szentirmai, Levente Kapás
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system via β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological stimulation of β3-ARs leads to increased sleep in mice and if this change is BAT dependent. In wild-type (WT) animals, administration of CL-316,243, a selective β3-AR agonist, induced significant increases in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) lasting for 4-10 h. Simultaneously, electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (SWA) was significantly decreased and body temperature was increased with a delay of 5-6 h...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412986/effects-of-subacute-ingestion-of-chlorogenic-acids-on-sleep-architecture-and-energy-metabolism-through-activity-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blinded-cross-over-trial
#6
Insung Park, Ryuji Ochiai, Hitomi Ogata, Momoko Kayaba, Sayaka Hari, Masanobu Hibi, Yoshihisa Katsuragi, Makoto Satoh, Kumpei Tokuyama
Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are the most abundant polyphenols in coffee. Continuous consumption of CGA reduces body fat and body weight. Since energy metabolism and sleep are controlled by common regulatory factors, consumption of CGA might modulate sleep. Lack of sleep has been identified as a risk factor for obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting CGA over 5 d on energy metabolism and sleep quality in humans. A total of nine healthy subjects (four male and five female) completed a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over intervention study...
April 17, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412559/interictal-ripples-nested-in-epileptiform-discharge-help-to-identify-the-epileptogenic-zone-in-neocortical-epilepsy
#7
Shuang Wang, Norman K So, Bo Jin, Irene Z Wang, Juan C Bulacio, Rei Enatsu, Shenyi Dai, Zhong Chen, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Imad M Najm
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the subtype of interictal ripples that help delineate the epileptogenic zone in neocortical epilepsy. METHODS: Totally 25 patients with focal neocortical epilepsy who had invasive electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation and subsequent surgery were included. They were followed up for at least 2years. Interictal ripples (80-250Hz) and fast ripples (250-500Hz) during slow-wave sleep were identified. Neocortical ripples were defined as type I ripples when they were superimposed on epileptiform discharges, and as type II ripples when they occurred independently...
March 25, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408638/blindfolding-during-wakefulness-causes-decrease-in-sleep-slow-wave-activity
#8
Eva Magdalena Korf, Matthias Mölle, Jan Born, Hong-Viet V Ngo
Slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) represents the predominant EEG oscillatory activity during slow wave sleep (SWS). Its amplitude is considered in part a reflection of synaptic potentiation in cortical networks due to encoding of information during prior waking, with higher amplitude indicating stronger potentiation. Previous studies showed that increasing and diminishing specific motor behaviors produced corresponding changes in SWA in the respective motor cortical areas during subsequent SWS Here, we tested whether this relationship can be generalized to the visual system, that is, whether diminishing encoding of visual information likewise leads to a localized decrease in SWA over the visual cortex...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399441/sleep-architecture-in-insomniacs-with-severe-benzodiazepine-abuse
#9
Mauro Manconi, Raffaele Ferri, Silvia Miano, Michelangelo Maestri, Valentina Bottasini, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most commonly prescribed compounds in insomnia. A long-term of BZDs use may cause dependence and abuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep architecture and microstructure (in terms of cyclic alternating pattern - CAP - analysis and of sleep EEG power spectral analysis) in a group of long-term users of high doses of BZDs for their primary chronic insomnia. METHODS: Twenty patients consecutively admitted at the Sleep Centre for drug discontinuation and 13 matched healthy controls underwent a full nocturnal video-polysomnographic recording, after one adaptation night...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396638/physiological-mechanisms-mediating-the-coupling-between-heart-period-and-arterial-pressure-in-response-to-postural-changes-in-humans
#10
Alessandro Silvani, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Blair D Johnson, Noud van Helmond, Giorgio Barletta, Anna G Cecere, Michael J Joyner, Pietro Cortelli
The upright posture strengthens the coupling between heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) consistently with a greater contribution of the arterial baroreflex to cardiac control, while paradoxically decreasing cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS). To investigate the physiological mechanisms that mediate the coupling between HP and SAP in response to different postures, we analyzed the cross-correlation functions between low-frequency HP and SAP fluctuations and estimated cBRS with the sequence technique in healthy male subjects during passive head-up tilt test (HUTT, n = 58), during supine wakefulness, supine slow-wave sleep (SWS), and in the seated and active standing positions (n = 8), and during progressive loss of 1 L blood (n = 8) to decrease central venous pressure in the supine position...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393914/coupled-variability-in-primary-sensory-areas-and-the-hippocampus-during-spontaneous-activity
#11
Nivaldo A P de Vasconcelos, Carina Soares-Cunha, Ana João Rodrigues, Sidarta Ribeiro, Nuno Sousa
The cerebral cortex is an anatomically divided and functionally specialized structure. It includes distinct areas, which work on different states over time. The structural features of spiking activity in sensory cortices have been characterized during spontaneous and evoked activity. However, the coordination among cortical and sub-cortical neurons during spontaneous activity across different states remains poorly characterized. We addressed this issue by studying the temporal coupling of spiking variability recorded from primary sensory cortices and hippocampus of anesthetized or freely behaving rats...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391285/while-isolated-periodic-limb-movement-disorder-significantly-impacts-sleep-depth-and-efficiency-co-morbid-restless-leg-syndrome-mainly-exacerbates-perceived-sleep-quality
#12
Florent-Xavier Hardy De Buisseret, Olivier Mairesse, Johan Newell, Paul Verbanck, Daniel Neu
BACKGROUND: Restless leg syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement (PLM) disorder (PLMD) can affect sleep quality and interfere with daytime functioning. Whether the co-morbidity of RLS further worsens daytime symptoms, sleep architecture and quality in patients with PLMs, is not yet fully clarified. METHODS: Sleep (polysomnography) and daytime symptoms of 47 drug-free patients, assigned to isolated PLMD or co-morbid RLS subgroups, were compared to controls in a retrospective cohort-study (n = 501)...
April 8, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389910/sleep-duration-and-quality-in-heart-failure-patients
#13
Anke Türoff, Ulrich Thiem, Henrik Fox, Jens Spießhöfer, Thomas Bitter, Renaud Tamisier, Naresh M Punjabi, Dieter Horstkotte, Olaf Oldenburg
PURPOSE: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-REF). SDB is classified as predominant obstructive (OSA) or central (CSA) and may alter sleep duration, sleep quality, and quality of life. This study describes sleep quality and duration in well-characterized cohorts of these patients. METHODS: Two hundred fifty consecutive patients with HF-REF (NYHA class ≥II, ejection fraction ≤45%) underwent cardiac and pulmonary examination, plus full attended in-hospital overnight polysomnography (PSG)...
April 7, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385552/intranasal-insulin-decreases-circulating-cortisol-concentrations-during-early-sleep-in-elderly-humans
#14
Matthias Thienel, Ines Wilhelm, Christian Benedict, Jan Born, Manfred Hallschmid
Aging is associated with increases in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity that can predispose to metabolic and cognitive impairments. We investigated in elderly and young subjects whether intranasal insulin administration to the human brain reduces early-sleep nadir concentrations of adrenocorticotropin and cortisol, that is, indicators of baseline HPA axis activity. In within-subject comparisons, intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo was administered to 14 elderly (mean age 70.0 years) and 30 young (23...
March 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369624/the-impact-of-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-on-sleep-wake-behavior-a-prospective-electrophysiological-study-in-50-parkinson-patients
#15
Heide Baumann-Vogel, Lukas L Imbach, Oguzkan Sürücü, Lennart Stieglitz, Daniel Waldvogel, Christian R Baumann, Esther Werth
Study Objectives: This prospective observational study was designed to systematically examine the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on subjective and objective sleep-wake parameters in Parkinson patients. Methods: In 50 consecutive Parkinson patients undergoing subthalamic DBS, we assessed motor symptoms, medication, the position of DBS electrodes within the subthalamic nucleus, subjective sleep-wake parameters, two-week actigraphy, video-polysomnography studies and sleep EEG frequency and dynamics analyses before and 6 months after surgery...
March 23, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366332/a-review-of-short-naps-and-sleep-inertia-do-naps-of-30%C3%A2-min-or-less-really-avoid-sleep-inertia-and-slow-wave-sleep
#16
REVIEW
Cassie J Hilditch, Jillian Dorrian, Siobhan Banks
OBJECTIVES: Napping is a widely used countermeasure to sleepiness and impaired performance caused by sleep loss and circadian pressure. Sleep inertia, the period of grogginess and impaired performance experienced after waking, is a potential side effect of napping. Many industry publications recommend naps of 30 min or less to avoid this side effect. However, the evidence to support this advice is yet to be thoroughly reviewed. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched, and defined criteria were applied to select articles for review...
April 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365867/inactivation-of-the-tuberomammillary-nucleus-by-gabaa-receptor-agonist-promotes-slow-wave-sleep-in-freely-moving-rats-and-histamine-treated-rats
#17
Jun-Fan Xie, Kun Fan, Can Wang, Peng Xie, Min Hou, Le Xin, Guang-Fu Cui, Lin-Xin Wang, Yu-Feng Shao, Yi-Ping Hou
A prominent hypothesis, the "flip-flop switch" model, predicts that histaminergic (HAergic) neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), an important component of the ascending arousal system, are inactivated by GABA mainly from the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus to allow the appearance and maintenance of sleep. However, which sleep state and the band of EEG activity induced by GABAergic inactivation of the TMN are unclear. In this study, alterations of sleep-wake states and cortical EEG power spectral density were investigated following muscimol, a GABAA-receptor agonist, microinjected bilaterally into the TMN in freely moving rats and HA pretreated rats, respectively...
April 1, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364504/effects-of-tiagabine-on-slow-wave-sleep-and-arousal-threshold-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#18
Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Scott A Sands, Bradley A Edwards, Ali Azarbarzin, Melania Marques, Camila de Melo, Danny J Eckert, David P White, Andrew Wellman
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity is markedly reduced during slow-wave sleep (SWS) even in patients with a severe disease. The reason for this improvement is uncertain but likely relates to non-anatomical factors (i.e. reduced arousability, chemosensitivity, and increased dilator muscle activity). The anticonvulsant tiagabine produces a dose-dependent increase in SWS in subjects without OSA. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that tiagabine would reduce OSA severity by raising the overall arousal threshold during sleep...
February 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364467/partial-sleep-deprivation-attenuates-the-positive-affective-system-effects-across-multiple-measurement-modalities
#19
Patrick H Finan, Phillip J Quartana, Bethany Remeniuk, Eric L Garland, Jamie L Rhudy, Matthew Hand, Michael R Irwin, Michael T Smith
Objective: Ample behavioral and neurobiological evidence links sleep and affective functioning. Recent self-report evidence suggests that the affective problems associated with sleep loss may be stronger for positive versus negative affective state and that those effects may be mediated by changes in electroencepholographically measured slow wave sleep (SWS). In the present study, we extend those preliminary findings using multiple measures of affective functioning. Design: In a within-subject randomized crossover experiment, we tested the effects of one night of sleep continuity disruption via forced awakenings (FA) compared to one night of uninterrupted sleep (US) on three measures of positive and negative affective functioning: self-reported affective state, affective pain modulation, and affect-biased attention...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364465/coordination-of-slow-waves-with-sleep-spindles-predicts-sleep-dependent-memory-consolidation-in-schizophrenia
#20
Charmaine Demanuele, Ullrich Bartsch, Bengi Baran, Sheraz Khan, Mark G Vangel, Roy Cox, Matti Hämäläinen, Matthew W Jones, Robert Stickgold, Dara S Manoach
Study Objectives: Schizophrenia patients have correlated deficits in sleep spindle density and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition to spindle density, memory consolidation is thought to rely on the precise temporal coordination of spindles with slow waves (SWs). We investigated whether this coordination is intact in schizophrenia and its relation to motor procedural memory consolidation. Methods: Twenty-one chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 17 demographically matched healthy controls underwent two nights of polysomnography, with training on the finger tapping motor sequence task (MST) on the second night and testing the following morning...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
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