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Slow wave sleep

V M Kovalzon, L S Moiseenko, A V Ambaryan, S Kurtenbach, V I Shestopalov, Y V Panchin
Pannexins are membrane channel proteins that play a role in a number of critical biological processes (Panchin et al., 2000; Shestopalov, Panchin, 2008). Among other cellular functions, pannexin hemichannels serve as purine nucleoside conduits providing ATP efflux into the extracellular space (Dahl, 2015), where it is rapidly degraded to adenosine. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is abundantly expressed in the brain and has been shown to contribute to adenosine signaling in nervous system tissues (Prochnow, 2012)...
October 18, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Olena Bukalo, Philip R Lee, R Douglas Fields
Action-potential-induced LTD (AP-LTD) is a form of synaptic plasticity that reduces synaptic strength in CA1 hippocampal neurons firing antidromically during sharp-wave ripples. This firing occurs during slow-wave sleep and quiet moments of wakefulness, which are periods of offline replay of neural sequences learned during encoding sensory information. Here we report that rapid and persistent down-regulation of different mRNA transcripts of the BDNF gene accompanies AP-LTD, and that AP-LTD is abolished in mice with the BDNF gene knocked out in CA1 hippocampal neurons...
October 16, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Amanda B Weber, Dara V Albert, Han Yin, Timothy Held, Anup Patel
INTRODUCTION: Strategies for diagnosing electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep (ESES) vary among interpreting neurologists. Our aim was to evaluate if the spike-wave index (SWI) for the first 100 seconds of sleep is reflective of the SWI when compared to a conventional method. METHODS: We reviewed electroencephalograms (EEGs) from 2005-2011 that were considered diagnostic of ESES based on unspecified methods. The SWI for the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep cycle (long method) was calculated by two neurophysiologists...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Jukka Kortelainen, Eero Väyrynen, Usko Huuskonen, Jouko Laurila, Juha Koskenkari, Janne T Backman, Seppo Alahuhta, Tapio Seppänen, Tero Ala-Kokko
BACKGROUND: Slow waves (less than 1 Hz) are the most important electroencephalogram signatures of nonrapid eye movement sleep. While considered to have a substantial importance in, for example, providing conditions for single-cell rest and preventing long-term neural damage, a disturbance in this neurophysiologic phenomenon is a potential indicator of brain dysfunction. METHODS: Since, in healthy individuals, slow waves can be induced with anesthetics, the authors tested the possible association between hypoxic brain injury and slow-wave activity in comatose postcardiac arrest patients (n = 10) using controlled propofol exposure...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
Nicolas Fraize, Julien Carponcy, Mickaël Antoine Joseph, Jean-Christophe Comte, Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Paul-Antoine Salin, Gaël Malleret, Régis Parmentier
STUDY OBJECTIVES: It is commonly accepted that sleep is beneficial to memory processes, but it is still unclear if this benefit originates from improved memory consolidation or enhanced information processing. It has thus been proposed that sleep may also promote forgetting of undesirable and non-essential memories, a process required for optimization of cognitive resources. We tested the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) promotes forgetting of irrelevant information, more specifically when processing information in working memory (WM), while REM sleep (REMS) facilitates the consolidation of important information...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Laura M J Fernandez, Jean-Christophe Comte, Pierre Le Merre, Jian-Sheng Lin, Paul-A Salin, Sylvain Crochet
Although low-frequency (LF < 10 Hz) activities have been considered as a hallmark of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, several studies have recently reported LF activities in the membrane potential of cortical neurons from different areas in awake mice. However, little is known about the spatiotemporal organization of LF activities across cortical areas during wakefulness and to what extent it differs during NREM sleep. We have thus investigated the dynamics of LF activities across cortical areas in awake and sleeping mice using chronic simultaneous local field potential recordings...
October 14, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Dong V Wang, Satoshi Ikemoto
: Hippocampal-cortical interaction during sleep promotes transformation of memory for long-term storage in the cortex. In particular, hippocampal sharp-wave ripple-associated neural activation is important for this transformation during slow-wave sleep. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been shown to be crucial for expression and likely storage of long-term memory. However, little is known about how ACC activity is influenced by hippocampal ripple activity during sleep. We report here about coordinated interactions between hippocampal ripple activity and ACC neural firings...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Naomi Onisawa, Hiroyuki Manabe, Kensaku Mori
During slow-wave sleep, inter-areal communications via coordinated slow oscillatory activities occur in the large-scale networks of the mammalian neocortex. Because olfactory cortex (OC) areas, which belong to paleocortex, show characteristic sharp-wave activity during slow-wave sleep, we examined whether OC sharp-waves in freely behaving rats occur in temporal coordination with up- and down-states of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) slow oscillation. Simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and spike activities in the OC and OFC showed that during the down-state in the OFC, the OC also exhibited down-state with greatly reduced neuronal activity and suppression of sharp-wave generation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
K A Waters, A Lowe, P Cooper, S Vella, Hiran Selvadurai
BACKGROUND: In Cystic Fibrosis (CF), early detection and treatment of respiratory disease is considered the standard for respiratory care. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) may help identify respiratory deterioration in young patients with CF. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 46 patients with CF, aged 8-12years, from a specialist clinic in a tertiary paediatric hospital. Daytime pulmonary function, shuttle test exercise testing and overnight PSG were studied...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Kathryn E Atherton, Anna C Nobre, Alpar S Lazar, Katharina Wulff, Roger G Whittaker, Vandana Dhawan, Zsolt I Lazar, Adam Z Zeman, Christopher R Butler
We investigated whether the benefit of slow wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation typically observed in healthy individuals is disrupted in people with accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) due to epilepsy. SWS is thought to play an active role in declarative memory in healthy individuals and, furthermore, electrographic epileptiform activity is often more prevalent during SWS than during wakefulness or other sleep stages. We studied the relationship between SWS and the benefit of sleep for memory retention using a word-pair associates task...
September 12, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Salome Kurth, Douglas C Dean, Peter Achermann, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Reto Huber, Sean C L Deoni, Monique K LeBourgeois
Brain networks respond to sleep deprivation or restriction with increased sleep depth, which is quantified as slow-wave activity (SWA) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). When adults are sleep deprived, this homeostatic response is most pronounced over prefrontal brain regions. However, it is unknown how children's developing brain networks respond to acute sleep restriction, and whether this response is linked to myelination, an ongoing process in childhood that is critical for brain development and cortical integration...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Pedro Andrade, Jari Nissinen, Asla Pitkanen
Sleep disturbances commonly occur after traumatic brain injury and may predispose patients to epileptic seizures. We hypothesized that unprovoked seizure occurrence after traumatic brain injury depends on the sleep-wake cycle, and that the electrographic characteristics of a given sleep stage provide biomarkers for post-traumatic epilepsy. We show in a rat lateral fluid-percussion model that 92% of spontaneous generalized seizures occur during the transition from stage III to rapid-eye-movement sleep. Moreover, a reduction in spindle duration and dominant frequency during the transition stage present as specific and sensitive non-invasive biomarkers for experimentally induced post-traumatic epilepsy with generalized electrographic seizures...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Mitsuaki Kashiwagi, Yu Hayashi
Our sleep is composed of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. REM sleep is the major source of dreams, whereas synchronous cortical oscillations, called slow waves, are observed during NREM sleep. Both stages are unique to certain vertebrate species, and therefore, REM and NREM sleep are thought to be involved in higher-order brain functions. While several studies have revealed the importance of NREM sleep in growth hormone secretion, memory consolidation and brain metabolite clearance, the functions of REM sleep are currently almost totally unknown...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
P Schüssler, M Kluge, W Gamringer, T C Wetter, A Yassouridis, M Uhr, R Rupprecht, A Steiger
We reported previously that repetitive intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) around sleep onset prompt depression-like changes in certain sleep and endocrine activity parameters (e.g. decrease of slow-wave sleep during the second half of the night, blunted growth hormone peak, elevated cortisol concentration during the first half of the night). Furthermore a sexual dimorphism of the sleep-endocrine effects of the hormones growth hormone-releasing hormone and ghrelin was observed. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of pulsatile administration of 4×50μg CRH on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal cortisol and GH concentration in young healthy women...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Niels Niethard, Masashi Hasegawa, Takahide Itokazu, Carlos N Oyanedel, Jan Born, Takashi R Sato
Sleep is characterized by unique patterns of cortical activity alternating between the stages of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. How these patterns relate to the balanced activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in cortical circuits is unknown. We investigated cortical network activity during wakefulness, SWS, and REM sleep globally and locally using in vivo calcium imaging in mice. Wide-field imaging revealed a reduction in pyramidal cell activity during SWS compared with wakefulness and, unexpectedly, a further profound reduction in activity during REM sleep...
September 20, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Armand Mensen, Brady Riedner, Giulio Tononi
BACKGROUND: Analysis of individual slow waves in EEG recording during sleep provides both greater sensitivity and specificity compared to spectral power measures. However, parameters for detection and analysis have not been widely explored and validated. NEW METHOD: We present a new, open-source, Matlab based, toolbox for the automatic detection and analysis of slow waves; with adjustable parameter settings, as well as manual correction and exploration of the results using a multi-faceted visualization tool...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
G W Reynolds, R G Lentle, P W M Janssen, C M Hulls
BACKGROUND: Electrogastrography in conjunction with Fast Fourier transform has limited success in detecting low grade abnormalities in gastric electrophysiological activity owing to the non-stationarity of the signal. Analysis by continuous wavelet transform is suitable for non-stationary signals and was used to analyse EGG activity in babies with and without colic. METHODS: Thirty minute postprandial EGG recordings were obtained from 23 sleeping breast-fed infants with clinically validated recurrent colic and 26 breast-fed non-colicky infants...
September 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Andrea M Spaeth, David F Dinges, Namni Goel
STUDY OBJECTIVES: We objectively measured body composition, energy expenditure, caloric intake and sleep in a large, diverse sample of healthy men and women and determined how energy balance and diet associated with sleep physiology. METHODS: Healthy adults (n=50; 21-50y) participated in an in-laboratory study involving two baseline sleep nights (BL1-2, 10h time-in-bed/night, 2200h-0800h). Polysomnography was recorded on BL2. Demographic information, body composition and energy expenditure measurements were collected at study admittance and on BL1...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Patrick H Finan, Phillip J Quartana, Bethany Remeniuk, Eric L Garland, Jamie L Rhudy, Matthew Hand, Michael R Irwin, Michael T Smith
OBJECTIVE: Ample behavioral and neurobiological evidence links sleep and affective functioning. Recent self-report evidence suggests that the affective problems associated with sleep loss may be stronger for positive versus negative affective state, and that those effects may be mediated by changes in electroencepholographically measured slow wave sleep. In the present study, we extend those preliminary findings using multiple measures of affective functioning. DESIGN: In a within-subject randomized crossover experiment, we tested the effects of one night of sleep continuity disruption via forced awakenings (FA) compared to one night of uninterrupted sleep (US) on three measures of positive and negative affective functioning: self-reported affective state, affective pain modulation, and affect-biased attention...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Charmaine Demanuele, Ullrich Bartsch, Bengi Baran, Sheraz Khan, Mark G Vangel, Roy Cox, Matti Hämäläinen, Matthew W Jones, Robert Stickgold, Dara S Manoach
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia patients have correlated deficits in sleep spindle density and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition to spindle density, memory consolidation is thought to rely on the precise temporal coordination of spindles with slow waves (SWs). We investigated whether this coordination is intact in schizophrenia and its relation to motor procedural memory consolidation. METHODS: Twenty-one chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 17 demographically-matched healthy controls underwent two nights of polysomnography with training on the finger tapping motor sequence task (MST) on the second night and testing the following morning...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
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