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Slow wave sleep

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093830/age-affects-sleep-microstructure-more-than-sleep-macrostructure
#1
Johanna F A Schwarz, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Eva Lindberg, Georg Gruber, Håkan Fischer, Jenny Theorell-Haglöw
It is well known that the quantity and quality of physiological sleep changes across age. However, so far the effect of age on sleep microstructure has been mostly addressed in small samples. The current study examines the effect of age on several measures of sleep macro- and microstructure in 211 women (22-71 years old) of the 'Sleep and Health in Women' study for whom ambulatory polysomnography was registered. Older age was associated with significantly lower fast spindle (effect size f(2)  = 0.32) and K-complex density (f(2)  = 0...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078839/widespread-membrane-potential-changes-and-cardiorespiratory-synchronization-involved-in-anxiety-and-sleep-wake-transitions
#2
R Jerath, S M Cearley, M Jensen
Located within the ascending reticular activating system are nuclei which release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These nuclei have widespread projections that extend into the limbic system and throughout cortex. Activation of these neurotransmitters during awake states leads to arousal, while inhibition leads to the loss of consciousness experienced during slow-wave sleep. Previously, we proposed a mechanism in which cardiorespiratory synchronization may underlie the widespread hyperpolarization that occurs throughout the brain during slow-wave sleep...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057087/sleep-homeostatic-and-waking-behavioral-phenotypes-in-egr3-deficient-mice-associated-with-serotonin-receptor-5-ht2-deficits
#3
Janne Grønli, William C Clegern, Michelle A Schmidt, Rahmi S Nemri, Michael J Rempe, Amelia L Gallitano, Jonathan P Wisor
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The expression of the immediate early gene early growth response 3 (Egr3) is a functional marker of brain activity including responses to novelty, sustained wakefulness, and sleep. We examined the role of this gene in regulating wakefulness and sleep. METHODS: Electroencephalogram/electromyogram (EEG/EMG) were recorded in Egr3-/- and wild-type (WT) mice during 24 h baseline, 6 h sleep disruption and 6 h recovery. Serotonergic signaling was assessed with 6 h EEG/EMG recordings after injections of nonselective 5-HT2 antagonist (clozapine), selective 5-HT2 antagonists (5-HT2A; MDL100907 and 5-HT2BC; SB206553) and a cocktail of both selective antagonists, administered in a randomized order to each animal...
December 1, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053819/thalamic-atrophy-contributes-to-low-slow-wave-sleep-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#4
Lei Su, Yujuan Han, Rong Xue, Kristofer Wood, Fu-Dong Shi, Yaou Liu, Ying Fu
Slow wave sleep abnormality has been reported in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), but mechanism for such abnormality is unknown. To determine the structural defects in the brain that account for the decrease of slow wave sleep in NMOSD patients. Thirty-three NMOSD patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Polysomnography was used to monitor slow wave sleep and three-dimensional T1-weighted MRIs were obtained to assess the alterations of grey matter volume. The percentage of deep slow wave sleep decreased in 93% NMOSD patients...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050973/behavioral-state-classification-in-epileptic-brain-using-intracranial-electrophysiology
#5
Vaclav Kremen, Juliano Duque, Benjamin Brinkmann, Brent Berry, Michal Kucewicz, Fatemeh Khadjevand, Jamie Van Gompel, Squire Stead, Erik St Louis, Gregory A Worrell
OBJECTIVE: Automated behavioral state classification can benefit next generation implantable epilepsy devices. In this study we explored the feasibility of automated awake (AW) and slow wave sleep (SWS) classification using wide bandwidth intracranial EEG (iEEG) in patients undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery. APPROACH: Data from seven patients (age 34+/-12, 4 women, 5 right handed) who underwent intracranial depth electrode implantation for iEEG monitoring were included...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045858/diagnosis-of-electrical-status-epilepticus-during-slow-wave-sleep-with-100-seconds-of-sleep
#6
Amanda B Weber, Dara V Albert, Han Yin, Timothy P Held, Anup D Patel
PURPOSE: Strategies for diagnosing electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES) vary among interpreting neurologists. Our aim was to evaluate if the spike-wave index (SWI) for the first 100 seconds of sleep is reflective of the SWI when compared with a conventional method. METHODS: We reviewed EEGs from 2005 to 2011 that were considered diagnostic of ESES based on unspecified methods. The SWI for the first nonrapid eye movement sleep cycle (long method) was calculated by two neurophysiologists...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045040/the-fall-of-sleep-k-complex-in-alzheimer-disease
#7
Luigi De Gennaro, Maurizio Gorgoni, Flaminia Reda, Giulia Lauri, Ilaria Truglia, Susanna Cordone, Serena Scarpelli, Anastasia Mangiaruga, Aurora D'atri, Giordano Lacidogna, Michele Ferrara, Camillo Marra, Paolo Maria Rossini
Although a slowing of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during wakefulness and -to some extent- sleep of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients (i.e., increased slow-frequency activity) was documented, recent findings in healthy elderly show a decreased 0.6-1 Hz slow wave activity (SWA) during NREM, which was associated to β-amyloid deposition and impaired hippocampal memory consolidation. We hypothesize that the apparent contradiction may be explained by the partial overlap between 0.6-1 Hz EEG activity and K-Complex (KC)...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045036/speed-hysteresis-and-noise-shaping-of-traveling-fronts-in-neural-fields-role-of-local-circuitry-and-nonlocal-connectivity
#8
Cristiano Capone, Maurizio Mattia
Neural field models are powerful tools to investigate the richness of spatiotemporal activity patterns like waves and bumps, emerging from the cerebral cortex. Understanding how spontaneous and evoked activity is related to the structure of underlying networks is of central interest to unfold how information is processed by these systems. Here we focus on the interplay between local properties like input-output gain function and recurrent synaptic self-excitation of cortical modules, and nonlocal intermodular synaptic couplings yielding to define a multiscale neural field...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041911/disinhibition-of-the-intergeniculate-leaflet-network-in-the-wag-rij-rat-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#9
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus, Jagoda Stanislawa Jeczmien-Lazur, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus is a retinorecipient structure implicated in orchestrating circadian rhythmicity. The IGL network is highly GABAergic and consists mainly of neuropeptide Y-synthesising and enkephalinergic neurons. A high density of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes has been observed in the IGL, with a probable function in guarding neuronal inhibition. Interestingly, putatively enkephalinergic IGL neurons generate action potentials with an infra-slow oscillatory (ISO) pattern in vivo in urethane anesthetised Wistar rats, under light-on conditions only...
December 30, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041797/sharp-wave-ripples-in-primates-are-enhanced-near-remembered-visual-objects
#10
Timothy K Leonard, Kari L Hoffman
The hippocampus plays an important role in memory for events that are distinct in space and time. One of the strongest, most synchronous neural signals produced by the hippocampus is the sharp-wave ripple (SWR), observed in a variety of mammalian species during offline behaviors, such as slow-wave sleep [1-3] and quiescent waking and pauses in exploration [4-8], leading to long-standing and widespread theories of its contribution to plasticity and memory during these inactive or immobile states [9-14]. Indeed, during sleep and waking inactivity, hippocampal SWRs in rodents appear to support spatial long-term and working memory [4, 15-23], but so far, they have not been linked to memory in primates...
December 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038823/a-kcnq2-e515d-mutation-associated-with-benign-familial-neonatal-seizures-and-continuous-spike-and-waves-during-slow-wave-sleep-syndrome-in-taiwan
#11
Inn-Chi Lee, Jiann-Jou Yang, Shuan-Yow Li
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pediatric epilepsy caused by a KCNQ2 gene mutation usually manifests as benign familial neonatal seizures (BFNS) during the 1(st) week of life. However, the exact mechanism, phenotype, and genotype of the KCNQ2 mutation are unclear. METHODS: We studied the KCNQ2 genotype from 75 nonconsanguineous patients with childhood epilepsy without an identified cause (age range: from 2 days to 18 years) and from 55 healthy adult controls without epilepsy...
December 27, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019041/interindividual-differences-in-the-dynamics-of-the-homeostatic-process-are-trait-like-and-distinct-for-sleep-versus-wakefulness
#12
Thomas Rusterholz, Leila Tarokh, Hans P A Van Dongen, Peter Achermann
The sleep homeostatic Process S reflects the build-up of sleep pressure during waking and its dissipation during sleep. Process S is modelled as a saturating exponential function during waking and a decreasing exponential function during sleep. Slow wave activity is a physiological marker for non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep intensity and serves as an index of Process S. There is considerable interindividual variability in the sleep homeostatic responses to sleep and sleep deprivation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether interindividual differences in Process S are trait-like...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018987/eeg-slow-waves-in-traumatic-brain-injury-convergent-findings-in-mouse-and-man
#13
Mo Modarres, Nicholas N Kuzma, Tracy Kretzmer, Allan I Pack, Miranda M Lim
OBJECTIVE: Evidence from previous studies suggests that greater sleep pressure, in the form of EEG-based slow waves, accumulates in specific brain regions that are more active during prior waking experience. We sought to quantify the number and coherence of EEG slow waves in subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: We developed a method to automatically detect individual slow waves in each EEG channel, and validated this method using simulated EEG data...
July 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013579/a-rodent-model-of-night-shift-work-induces-short-term-and-enduring-sleep-and-electroencephalographic-disturbances
#14
Janne Grønli, Peter Meerlo, Torhild T Pedersen, Ståle Pallesen, Silje Skrede, Andrea R Marti, Jonathan P Wisor, Robert Murison, Tone E G Henriksen, Michael J Rempe, Jelena Mrdalj
Millions of people worldwide are working at times that overlap with the normal time for sleep. Sleep problems related to the work schedule may mediate the well-established relationship between shift work and increased risk for disease, occupational errors and accidents. Yet, our understanding of causality and the underlying mechanisms that explain this relationship is limited. We aimed to assess the consequences of night-shift work for sleep and to examine whether night-shift work-induced sleep disturbances may yield electrophysiological markers of impaired maintenance of the waking brain state...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012425/circadian-disruption-of-icu-patients-a-review-of-pathways-expression-and-interventions
#15
REVIEW
Anna Korompeli, Olav Muurlink, Nadia Kavrochorianou, Theodoros Katsoulas, George Fildissis, George Baltopoulos
Intensive care unit patients typically exhibit pathologic wakefulness, poor quality of daytime sleep, nocturnal sleep fragmentation, and sleep patterns that feature the absence of slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement. This article offers a review of the existing literature examining circadian desynchronization in critically ill patients, highlighting contributing factors identified by scholars, and circadian abnormalities observed in these patients. It discusses potential implications for clinical practice and suggests avenues of future research...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988314/the-sleep-phenotype-of-borderline-personality-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Catherine Winsper, Nicole K Y Tang, Steven Marwaha, Suzet Tanya Lereya, Melanie Gibbs, Andrew Thompson, Swaran P Singh
AIM: To delineate the sleep profile of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). METHOD: A meta-analysis to synthesise findings on the objective and subjective sleep characteristics of BPD. RESULTS: We identified 32 studies published between 1980 and December 2015. Meta-analysis indicated significant differences between BPD and healthy control groups across objective sleep continuity (sleep onset latency, total sleep time, sleep efficiency) and architecture (rapid eye movement latency/density, slow wave sleep) measures, and self-reported sleep problems (nightmares, sleep quality)...
December 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973741/clicking-the-brain-into-deep-sleep-commentary-on-weigenand-et%C3%A2-al-2016
#17
Maurice Göldi, Thomas Schreiner
Slow-wave sleep (SWS) has been ascribed to play a key role in memory consolidation processes (Rasch & Born, 2013). One of the most salient features of SWS is the elevated occurrence of slow oscillations (< 1 Hz). Slow oscillations (SOs) are generated in thalamic and neocortical circuits and comprise alterations between periods of increased excitability (up-states) and hyperpolarized neural silence (down-states) (Contreras & Steriade, 1995). This alternating neural activity spreads throughout the neocortex and also affects other brain regions amongst others the hippocampus (Contreras et al...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965558/visualization-of-whole-night-sleep-eeg-from-2-channel-mobile-recording-device-reveals-distinct-deep-sleep-stages-with-differential-electrodermal-activity
#18
Julie A Onton, Dae Y Kang, Todd P Coleman
Brain activity during sleep is a powerful marker of overall health, but sleep lab testing is prohibitively expensive and only indicated for major sleep disorders. This report demonstrates that mobile 2-channel in-home electroencephalogram (EEG) recording devices provided sufficient information to detect and visualize sleep EEG. Displaying whole-night sleep EEG in a spectral display allowed for quick assessment of general sleep stability, cycle lengths, stage lengths, dominant frequencies and other indices of sleep quality...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927960/why-does-sleep-slow-wave-activity-increase-after-extended-wake-assessing-the-effects-of-increased-cortical-firing-during-wake-and-sleep
#19
Alexander V Rodriguez, Chadd M Funk, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, Yuval Nir, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
: During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, cortical neurons alternate between ON periods of firing and OFF periods of silence. This bi-stability, which is largely synchronous across neurons, is reflected in the EEG as slow waves. Slow-wave activity (SWA) increases with wake duration and declines homeostatically during sleep, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One possibility is neuronal "fatigue": high, sustained firing in wake would force neurons to recover with more frequent and longer OFF periods during sleep...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923431/using-oscillating-sounds-to-manipulate-sleep-spindles
#20
James W Antony, Ken A Paller
STUDY OBJECTIVES: EEG oscillations known as sleep spindles have been linked with various aspects of cognition, but the specific functions they signal remain controversial. Two types of EEG sleep spindle have been distinguished: slow spindles at 11-13.5 Hz and fast spindles at 13.5-16 Hz. Slow spindles exhibit a frontal scalp topography, whereas fast spindles exhibit a posterior scalp topography and have been preferentially linked with memory consolidation during sleep. To advance understanding beyond that provided from correlative studies of spindles, we aimed to develop a new method to systematically manipulate spindles...
November 28, 2016: Sleep
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