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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475024/chromatin-dynamics-at-the-core-of-kidney-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Björn Tampe, Michael Zeisberg
Progression of chronic kidney disease is a principal challenge in Nephrology, as effective therapies to halt or even reverse established lesion are not available yet. While numerous growth factors and environmental stimuli that drive progression of chronic kidney disease are present within the fibrotic microenvironment, the effector cells' genetic information needs to be accessible in order to enable the pro-fibrotic response. As more than 2 m of DNA encoding the genetic information is crammed as protein-DNA complex called chromatin within the nucleus of each cell, an accessible chromatin state is a prerequisite in the hierarchical order of events to enable production of fibrotic proteins and fibrotic cellular responses...
February 20, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474956/the-clock-gene-period-differentially-regulates-sleep-and-memory-in-drosophila
#2
Robin Fropf, Hong Zhou, Jerry C P Yin
Circadian regulation is a conserved phenomenon across the animal kingdom, and its disruption can have severe behavioral and physiological consequences. Core circadian clock proteins are likewise well conserved from Drosophila to humans. While the molecular clock interactions that regulate circadian rhythms have been extensively described, additional roles for clock genes during complex behaviors are less understood. Here, we show that mutations in the clock gene period result in differential time-of-day effects on acquisition and long-term memory of aversive olfactory conditioning...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474932/profiling-g-protein-coupled-receptors-of-fasciola-hepatica-identifies-orphan-rhodopsins-unique-to-phylum-platyhelminthes
#3
Paul McVeigh, Erin McCammick, Paul McCusker, Duncan Wells, Jane Hodgkinson, Steve Paterson, Angela Mousley, Nikki J Marks, Aaron G Maule
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are established drug targets. Despite their considerable appeal as targets for next-generation anthelmintics, poor understanding of their diversity and function in parasitic helminths has thwarted progress towards GPCR-targeted anti-parasite drugs. This study facilitates GPCR research in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, by generating the first profile of GPCRs from the F. hepatica genome. Our dataset describes 147 high confidence GPCRs, representing the largest cohort of GPCRs, and the largest set of in silico ligand-receptor predictions, yet reported in any parasitic helminth...
February 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473498/functions-and-evolution-of-lhcb-isoforms-composing-lhcii-the-major-light-harvesting-complex-of-photosystem-ii-of-green-eukaryotic-organisms
#4
Aurelie Crepin, Stefano Caffarri
Oxygenic photosynthesis provides energy and oxygen for almost all forms of life on earth. This process is based on the energy of photons, which is used to split water and use its electrons to reduce carbon atoms to create organic molecules and thus fix the light energy into a chemical form. Two photosystems working in series are involved in light harvesting and conversion. Both are multi-protein supercomplexes composed of a core complex, where the photochemical reaction takes place, and an antenna system involved in light harvesting...
February 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473237/dietary-outcomes-of-overweight-fathers-and-their-children-in-the-healthy-dads-healthy-kids-community-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
A Williams, N de Vlieger, M Young, M E Jensen, T L Burrows, P J Morgan, C E Collins
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined dietary intake changes following a weight loss intervention in fathers and the association between father-child dietary intakes. The present study aimed to: (i) evaluate the change in dietary intake in overweight fathers randomised to a family-based lifestyle intervention [Healthy Dads Healthy Kids (HDHK)] versus controls and (ii) investigate whether an association exists between father-child dietary intakes. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted of father-child baseline and 3-month post-intervention data (n = 93) collected in the HDHK community randomised controlled trial...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473034/total-chemical-synthesis-of-modified-histones
#6
REVIEW
Yun-Kun Qi, Hua-Song Ai, Yi-Ming Li, Baihui Yan
In the post-genome era, epigenetics has received increasing attentions in recent years. The post-translational modifications (PTMs) of four core histones play central roles in epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genome by either directly altering the biophysical properties of nucleosomes or by recruiting other effector proteins. In order to study the biological functions and structural mechanisms of these histone PTMs, an obligatory step is to prepare a sufficient amount of homogeneously modified histones. This task cannot be fully accomplished either by recombinant technology or enzymatic modification...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472760/genetic-diversity-and-functional-analysis-of-sigma-factors-in-enterobacter-cloacae-complex-resourced-from-various-niche
#7
Farah Nazir, Muhammad Ibrahim, Ghunva Zaman, Annam Hussain, Asma Muhammad Yar, Zhu Bo
Sigma factors are bacterial transcription factors that bind the core RNA polymerase and direct transcription initiation at a specific promoter site. These specialized sigma factors bind the promoters of genes appropriate to the environmental conditions and selectively increase the transcription of those genes. Here, we attempt to identify sigma factors in 5 genomes belonging to the Enterobacter cloacae complex (Ecc), a group of gram-negative bacteria that are important nosocomial pathogens. This process includes the identification of orthologous sequences, conserved motifs, domains, families, phylogenetic profiles, and protein-protein associations of these components...
2018: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472719/epigenetic-heterogeneity-affects-the-risk-of-relapse-in-children-with-t-8-21-runx1-runx1t1-rearranged-aml
#8
Matteo Zampini, Claudia Tregnago, Valeria Bisio, Luca Simula, Giulia Borella, Elena Manara, Carlo Zanon, Francesca Zonta, Valentina Serafin, Benedetta Accordi, Silvia Campello, Barbara Buldini, Andrea Pession, Franco Locatelli, Giuseppe Basso, Martina Pigazzi
The somatic translocation t(8;21)(q22;q22)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 is one of the most frequent rearrangements found in children with standard-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Despite the favorable prognostic role of this aberration, we recently observed a higher than expected frequency of relapse. Here, we employed an integrated high-throughput approach aimed at identifying new biological features predicting relapse among 34 t(8;21)-rearranged patients. We found that the DNA methylation status of patients who suffered from relapse was peculiarly different from that of children maintaining complete remission...
February 2, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472690/cisplatin-enhances-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-and-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#9
Xiaosong Li, E Pan, Junke Zhu, Lei Xu, Xuemei Chen, Jingjing Li, Li Liang, Yuan Hu, Jie Xia, Juan Chen, Wannan Chen, Jieli Hu, Kai Wang, Ni Tang, Ailong Huang
Chronic hepatitis B infection remains a serious public health issue worldwide. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is commonly reported in patients receiving anticancer therapy, immunosuppressive therapy, or organ and tissue transplantation. However, the precise mechanisms underlying chemotherapeutic agent-related HBV reactivation remain unclear. Here, we report that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) plays a central role in cisplatin-induced HBV transcription and replication...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472569/cysteine-residues-are-essential-for-dimerization-of-hippo-pathway-components-yap2l-and-taz
#10
Prem Khanal, Zongchao Jia, Xiaolong Yang
Hippo signalling pathway is an emerging signalling pathway that plays important roles in organ size control, tumorigenesis, metastasis, stress response, apoptosis, stem cell differentiation and renewal during development and tissue homeostasis. Recent studies reported that human serine/threonine protein kinase, Mst1, a core component of the Hippo pathway can be activated through formation of homodimer. However, it is still unclear whether or not other components of the Hippo pathway are also regulated through dimerization...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471365/integrator-subunit-4-is-a-symplekin-like-scaffold-that-associates-with-ints9-11-to-form-the-integrator-cleavage-module
#11
Todd R Albrecht, Sergey P Shevtsov, Yixuan Wu, Lauren G Mascibroda, Natoya J Peart, Kai-Lieh Huang, Iain A Sawyer, Liang Tong, Miroslav Dundr, Eric J Wagner
Integrator (INT) is a transcriptional regulatory complex associated with RNA polymerase II that is required for the 3'-end processing of both UsnRNAs and enhancer RNAs. Integrator subunits 9 (INTS9) and INTS11 constitute the catalytic core of INT and are paralogues of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factors CPSF100 and CPSF73. While CPSF73/100 are known to associate with a third protein called Symplekin, there is no paralog of Symplekin within INT raising the question of how INTS9/11 associate with the other INT subunits...
February 20, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471218/albumin-covered-lipid-nanocapsules-exhibit-enhanced-uptake-performance-by-breast-tumor-cells
#12
F Galisteo-González, J A Molina-Bolívar, S A Navarro, H Boulaiz, A Aguilera-Garrido, A Ramírez, J A Marchal
Liquid lipid nanocapsules (LLN) represent a promising new generation of drug-delivery systems. They can carry hydrophobic drugs in their oily core, but the composition and structure of the surrounding protective shell determine their capacity to survive in the circulatory system and to achieve their goal: penetrate tumor cells. Here, we present a study of LLN covered by the protein human serum albumin (HSA) and loaded with curcumin as a hydrophobic model drug. A cross-linking procedure was performed to further strengthen the protective protein layer...
February 13, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471025/releasing-iron-from-ferritin-protein-nanocage-by-reductive-method-the-role-of-electron-transfer-mediator
#13
Prashanth Kumar Koochana, Abhinav Mohanty, Suman Das, Biswamaitree Subhadarshanee, Suresh Satpati, Anshuman Dixit, Surendra Chandra Sabat, Rabindra K Behera
BACKGROUND: Ferritin detoxifies excess of free Fe(II) and concentrates it in the form of ferrihydrite (Fe2 O3 ·xH2 O) mineral. When in need, ferritin iron is released for cellular metabolic activities. However, the low solubility of Fe(III) at neutral pH, its encapsulation by stable protein nanocage and presence of dissolved O2 limits in vitro ferritin iron release. METHODS: Physiological reducing agent, NADH (E1/2  = -330 mV) was inefficient in releasing ferritin iron (E1/2  = +183 mV), when used alone...
February 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470847/cryo-electron-tomography-analyses-of-terminal-organelle-mutants-suggest-the-motility-mechanism-of-mycoplasma-genitalium
#14
Anja Seybert, Luis Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Margot P Scheffer, Maria Lluch-Senar, Ana M Mariscal, Enrique Querol, Franziska Matthaeus, Jaume Piñol, Achilleas S Frangakis
The terminal organelle of Mycoplasma genitalium is responsible for bacterial adhesion, motility and pathogenicity. Localized at the cell tip, it comprises an electron-dense core that is anchored to the cell membrane at its distal end and to the cytoplasm at its proximal end. The surface of the terminal organelle is also covered with adhesion proteins. We performed cellular cryo-electron tomography on deletion mutants of eleven proteins that are implicated in building the terminal organelle, in order to systematically analyse the ultrastructural effects...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470695/a-banana-nac-transcription-factor-musasnac1-impart-drought-tolerance-by-modulating-stomatal-closure-and-h-2-o-2-content
#15
Sanjana Negi, Himanshu Tak, T R Ganapathi
MusaSNAC1 function in H2 O2 mediated stomatal closure and promote drought tolerance by directly binding to CGT[A/G] motif in regulatory region of multiple stress-related genes. Drought is a abiotic stress-condition, causing reduced plant growth and diminished crop yield. Guard cells of the stomata control photosynthesis and transpiration by regulating CO2 exchange and water loss, thus affecting growth and crop yield. Roles of NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) protein in regulation of stress-conditions has been well documented however, their control over stomatal aperture is largely unknown...
February 22, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470639/arabinogalactan-proteins-and-their-sugar-chains-functions-in-plant-reproduction-research-methods-and-biosynthesis
#16
REVIEW
Shihao Su, Tetsuya Higashiyama
The arabinogalactan protein (AGP) family is one of the most complex protein families and is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to play various roles during plant reproduction. A typical AGP contains a hydroxyproline-rich core protein with high heterogeneity and varying numbers of polysaccharide side chains. However, the functions of the polysaccharide components (i.e. AG sugar chains) remain largely unknown due to the general difficulties associated with studying sugar chains in glycobiology...
February 22, 2018: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470443/structure-antiplatelet-activity-relationships-of-novel-ruthenium-ii-complexes-investigation-of-its-molecular-targets
#17
Chih-Hsuan Hsia, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Joen-Rong Sheu, Shin-Yi Tsao, Marappan Velusamy, Chih-Wei Hsia, Duen-Suey Chou, Chao-Chien Chang, Chi-Li Chung, Themmila Khamrang, Kao-Chang Lin
The regulation of platelet function by pharmacological agents that modulate platelet signaling has proven to be a positive approach to the prevention of thrombosis. Ruthenium complexes are fascinating for the development of new drugs, as they possess numerous chemical and biological properties. The present study aims to evaluate the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of newly synthesized ruthenium (II) complexes, TQ-1, TQ-2 and TQ-3 in agonists-induced washed human platelets. Silica gel column chromatography, aggregometry, immunoblotting, NMR, and X-ray analyses were performed in this study...
February 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470065/synthesis-and-characterization-of-a-bi-directional-photoswitchable-antagonist-toolbox-for-real-time-gpcr-photopharmacology
#18
Niels J Hauwert, Tamara A M Mocking, Daniel Da Costa Pereira, Albert J Kooistra, Lisa M Wijnen, Gerda Vreeker, Noortje W E Verweij, Bert H De Boer, Martine J Smit, Chris de Graaf, Henry F Vischer, Iwan J P De Esch, Maikel Wijtmans, Rob Leurs
Non-invasive methods to modulate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with temporal and spatial precision are in great demand. Photopharmacology uses photons to control in situ the biological properties of photoswitchable small-molecule ligands which bodes well for chemical biological precision approaches. Integrating the light-switchable configurational properties of an azobenzene into the ligand core, we developed a bi-directional antagonist toolbox for an archetypical family A GPCR, the histamine H3 receptor (H3R)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469033/altered-expression-of-the-cdk5-activator-like-protein-cdk5%C3%AE-causes-neurodegeneration-in-part-by-accelerating-the-rate-of-aging
#19
Joshua Spurrier, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Kristina McLinden, Kory Johnson, Edward Giniger
Aging is the greatest risk factor for neurodegeneration, but the connection between the two processes remains opaque. This is in part for want of a rigorous way to define physiological age, as opposed to chronological age. Here we develop a comprehensive metric for physiological age in Drosophila, based on genome-wide expression profiling. We applied this metric to a model of adult-onset neurodegeneration, increased or decreased expression of the activating subunit of the Cdk5 protein kinase, encoded by the gene Cdk5α , the ortholog of mammalian p35...
February 21, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468972/investigating-hiv-human-interaction-networks-to-unravel-pathogenic-mechanism-for-drug-discovery-a-systems-biology-approach
#20
Cheng-Wei Li, Bor-Sen Chen
BACKGROUND: Two big issues in the study of pathogens are determining how pathogens infect hosts and how the host defends itself against infection. Therefore, investigating host-pathogen interactions is important for understanding pathogenicity and host defensive mechanisms and treating infections. METHODS: In this study, we used omics data, including time-course data from high throughput sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and human microRNA (miRNA) and protein-protein interaction to construct an interspecies protein-protein and miRNA interaction (PPMI) network of human CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection through system modeling and identification...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
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