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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735167/first-observation-of-metal-ion-induced-structural-fluctuations-of-%C3%AE-helical-peptides-by-using-diffracted-x-ray-tracking
#1
Daiki Usui, Satomi Inaba, Hiroshi Sekiguchi, Yuji C Sasaki, Toshiki Tanaka, Masayuki Oda
In order to analyze protein structural dynamics, we designed simple model peptides whose structures changed from random-coil to helix-bundle structures by forming stable hydrophobic core in the presence of metal ions. The strategy involved destabilizing a de novo designed three helix-bundle protein by substituting the residues present in its hydrophobic core with histidine and small amino acids. The conformational changes of peptides induced upon binding of Zn(2+) to histidine were analyzed using circular dichroism spectroscopy, which revealed peptides, HA and HG, to be good candidates for further analyses...
July 14, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734771/new-advances-in-autophagy-in-plants-regulation-selectivity-and-function
#2
REVIEW
Ping Wang, Yosia Mugume, Diane C Bassham
Autophagy is a major and conserved pathway for delivering unwanted proteins or damaged organelles to the vacuole for degradation and recycling. In plants, it functions as a housekeeping process to maintain cellular homeostasis under normal conditions and is induced by stress and senescence; it thus plays important roles in development, stress tolerance and metabolism. Autophagy can both execute bulk degradation and be highly selective in targeting cargos under specific environmental conditions or during certain developmental processes...
July 19, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733960/a-review-of-fluid-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-moving-from-csf-to-blood
#3
REVIEW
Kaj Blennow
A set of core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) includes total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau) and β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42). These biomarkers reflect some of the key aspects of AD pathophysiology, including neuronal degeneration, tau phosphorylation with tangle formation, and Aβ aggregation with deposition of the peptide into plaques. The core AD CSF biomarkers have been validated clinically in numerous studies, and found to have a very high diagnostic performance to identify AD, both in the dementia and in the mild cognitive impairment stages of the disease...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733863/population-level-coordination-of-pigment-response-in-individual-cyanobacterial-cells-under-altered-nitrogen-levels
#4
Jaclyn Murton, Aparna Nagarajan, Amelia Y Nguyen, Michelle Liberton, Harmony A Hancock, Himadri B Pakrasi, Jerilyn A Timlin
Cyanobacterial phycobilisome (PBS) pigment-protein complexes harvest light and transfer the energy to reaction centers. Previous ensemble studies have shown that cyanobacteria respond to changes in nutrient availability by modifying the structure of PBS complexes, but this process has not been visualized for individual pigments at the single-cell level due to spectral overlap. We characterized the response of four key photosynthetic pigments to nitrogen depletion and repletion at the subcellular level in individual, live Synechocystis sp...
July 21, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733557/down-regulation-of-lincrna-p21-contributes-to-gastric-cancer-development-through-hippo-independent-activation-of-yap
#5
Ying Chen, Guoqing Wei, Hongwei Xia, Huangfei Yu, Qiuling Tang, Feng Bi
Long intergenic non-coding RNA p21 (lincRNA-p21), known as the direct transcriptional target of p53, was found down-regulated in several human solid tumors. However, little is known about the role of lincRNA-p21 in gastric cancer. The expression levels of lincRNA-p21 in tissue samples and cell lines were detected by qRT-PCR. MGC-803 and MKN-45 cells were transfected with siRNAs targeting lincRNA-p21 or control siRNAs to determine the effect of reduced lincRNA-p21 expression on tumorigenesis. We also overexpressed lincRNA-p21 in MGC-803 cells...
July 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733463/tlr4-and-c5ar-crosstalk-in-dendritic-cells-induces-a-core-regulatory-network-of-rsk2-pi3k%C3%AE-sgk1-and-foxo-transcription-factors
#6
Anouk Zaal, Benjamin Nota, Kat S Moore, Miranda Dieker, S Marieke van Ham, Anja Ten Brinke
Crosstalk between complement component 5a receptors (C5aRs) and TLRs in dendritic cells (DCs) occurs upon pathogen invasion; however, studies on C5aR and TLR crosstalk mainly focused on the modulating effect of C5a on TLR-induced cytokine production. To elucidate the breadth of C5aR and TLR4 crosstalk, the effect of simultaneous treatment with C5a and LPS was investigated in human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) 2 h after stimulation using whole transcriptome sequencing analysis. Although the effect of C5a on hallmark genes defining TLR4-induced DC maturation was limited at this time point, RNA sequencing analysis revealed a great variety of novel C5a targets, of which many interfere with TLR4-mediated immune activation...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733281/structural-and-mechanistic-insights-into-the-improvement-of-halotolerant-ability-of-a-marine-microbial-esterase-by-increasing-intra-and-inter-domain-hydrophobic-interactions
#7
Ping-Yi Li, Yi Zhang, Bin-Bin Xie, Yan-Qi Zhang, Jie Hao, Yue Wang, Peng Wang, Chun-Yang Li, Qi-Long Qin, Xi-Ying Zhang, Hai-Nan Su, Mei Shi, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Xiu-Lan Chen
Halotolerant enzymes are beneficial for industrial processes requiring high salts and low water activity. Most halophilic proteins are evolved to have reduced hydrophobic interactions on the surface and in the hydrophobic cores for their haloadaptation. However, in this study, we improved the halotolerance of a thermolablie esterase, E40, by increasing intra-protein hydrophobic interactions. E40 was quite unstable in buffers containing more than 0.3 M NaCl and its kcat and substrate affinity were both significantly reduced in 0...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733164/the-role-of-oxysterol-binding-protein-and-its-related-proteins-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Ximing Du, Nigel Turner, Hongyuan Yang
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and its related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large, evolutionarily conserved family of lipid-binding proteins that are associated with a wide range of cellular activities. The core function of OSBP/ORPs appears to be moving lipids between cellular membranes in a non-vesicular manner. Recent studies have unveiled a novel, counter-transport mechanism of cellular lipid transfer mediated by OSBP/ORPs at the membrane contact sites that involves phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Importantly, the OSBP/ORPs family has also been implicated in cell signalling pathways and cancer development...
July 18, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733144/the-spliceosome-a-protein-directed-metalloribozyme
#9
REVIEW
Yigong Shi
Pre-mRNA splicing is executed by the ribonucleoprotein machinery spliceosome. Nearly forty years after the discovery of pre-mRNA splicing, the atomic structure of the spliceosome has finally come to light. Four distinct conformational states of the yeast spliceosome have been captured at atomic or near-atomic resolutions. Two catalytic metal ions at the active site are specifically coordinated by the U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and catalyze both the branching reaction and the exon ligation. Of the three snRNAs in the fully-assembled spliceosome, U5 and U6, along with 30 contiguous nucleotides of U2 at its 5'-end, remain structurally rigid throughout the splicing reaction...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731642/utility-of-a-brief-index-to-measure-diet-quality-of-australian-preschoolers-in-the-feeding-healthy-food-to-kids-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Kerith Duncanson, Yu Qi Lee, Tracy Burrows, Clare Collins
AIM: The aim was to evaluate the utility of a brief dietary intake assessment tool in measuring nutritional adequacy of preschoolers and differences in food and nutrient intake between quartiles stratified by overall diet quality. METHODS: Dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 146) from the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids trial were reported by parents/caregivers using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Diet quality was assessed using the Australian Recommended Food Score for Preschoolers...
April 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731449/cerebrospinal-fluid-neurogranin-as-a-biomarker-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Simone Lista, Nicola Toschi, Filippo Baldacci, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Ingo Kilimann, Stefan J Teipel, Enrica Cavedo, Antonio Melo Dos Santos, Stéphane Epelbaum, Foudil Lamari, Bruno Dubois, Robert Nisticò, Roberto Floris, Francesco Garaci, Harald Hampel
We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the postsynaptic biomarker neurogranin at baseline in cognitively healthy controls (HC) compared to individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, and patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). CSF neurogranin was quantified using an in-house immunoassay in a cross-sectional multicenter study of 108 participants [AD dementia (n = 35), FTD (n = 9), MCI (n = 41), cognitively HC (n = 23)]...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731303/lead-ii-binding-in-natural-and-artificial-proteins
#12
Virginia Cangelosi, Leela Ruckthong, Vincent L Pecoraro
This article describes recent attempts to understand the biological chemistry of lead using a synthetic biology approach. Lead binds to a variety of different biomolecules ranging from enzymes to regulatory and signaling proteins to bone matrix. We have focused on the interactions of this element in thiolate-rich sites that are found in metalloregulatory proteins such as Pbr, Znt, and CadC and in enzymes such as δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). In these proteins, Pb(II) is often found as a homoleptic and hemidirectic Pb(II)(SR)3- complex...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730788/topoisomerase-i-deregulation-in-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinomas-based-on-tissue-microarray-analysis
#13
Theodoros A Papadas, Evangelos Tsiambas, Nicholas S Mastronikolis, Andreas Karameris, Stylianos N Mastronikolis, Athanasios T Papadas, Panagiotis P Fotiades, Vasileios Ragos
PURPOSE: Topoisomerases (types: I/IIa-b/IIIa-b) represent a super-family of nucleic enzymes involved in the DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and also chromosome topological formation. Topoisomerase's I (Topo I- gene location: 20q12) aberrant expression is a frequent genetic event in a variety of solid malignancies. Topo I inhibition promotes cell death due to DNA damage and for this reason it is a target for specific targeted chemotherapy (camptothecin, topotecan, irinotecan)...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729899/evolutionary-loss-of-melanogenesis-in-the-tunicate-molgula-occulta
#14
Claudia Racioppi, Maria Carmen Valoroso, Ugo Coppola, Elijah K Lowe, C Titus Brown, Billie J Swalla, Lionel Christiaen, Alberto Stolfi, Filomena Ristoratore
BACKGROUND: Analyzing close species with diverse developmental modes is instrumental for investigating the evolutionary significance of physiological, anatomical and behavioral features at a molecular level. Many examples of trait loss are known in metazoan populations living in dark environments. Tunicates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates and typically present a lifecycle with distinct motile larval and sessile adult stages. The nervous system of the motile larva contains melanized cells associated with geotactic and light-sensing organs...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729420/revisiting-the-substrate-specificity-of-mammalian-%C3%AE-1-6-fucosyltransferase-fut8-reveals-that-it-catalyzes-core-fucosylation-of-n-glycans-lacking-%C3%AE-1-3-arm-glcnac
#15
Qiang Yang, Roushu Zhang, Hui Cai, Lai-Xi Wang
The mammalian α1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) catalyzes the core fucosylation of N-glycans in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins. Previously, intensive in vitro studies with crude extract or purified enzyme concluded that the attachment of a GlcNAc on the α1,3 mannose arm of N-glycan is essential for FUT8 catalyzed core fucosylation. In contrast, we have recently shown that expression of erythropoietin (EPO) in a GnTI-knockout, FUT8 overexpressing cell line results in the production of fully core-fucosylated glycoforms of the oligomannose substrate Man5GlcNAc2, suggesting that FUT8 can catalyze core fucosylation of N-glycans lacking an α1,3arm GlcNAc in cells...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728980/the-role-of-hexon-protein-as-a-molecular-mold-in-patterning-the-protein-ix-organization-in-human-adenoviruses
#16
Vijay S Reddy
Adenoviruses are respiratory, ocular and enteric pathogens that form complex capsids, which are assembled from seven different structural proteins and composed of several core proteins that closely interact with the packaged dsDNA genome. The recent near-atomic resolution structures revealed that the interlacing continuous hexagonal network formed by the protein IX (IX) molecules is conserved among different human adenoviruses (HAdVs), but not in non-human adenoviruses (non-HAdVs). In this report we propose a distinct role for the hexon protein as a "molecular mold" in enabling the formation of such hexagonal IX-network that has been shown to preserve the stability, infectivity of HAdVs...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727725/redgem-systematic-reduction-and-analysis-of-genome-scale-metabolic-reconstructions-for-development-of-consistent-core-metabolic-models
#17
Meric Ataman, Daniel F Hernandez Gardiol, Georgios Fengos, Vassily Hatzimanikatis
Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions have proven to be valuable resources in enhancing our understanding of metabolic networks as they encapsulate all known metabolic capabilities of the organisms from genes to proteins to their functions. However the complexity of these large metabolic networks often hinders their utility in various practical applications. Although reduced models are commonly used for modeling and in integrating experimental data, they are often inconsistent across different studies and laboratories due to different criteria and detail, which can compromise transferability of the findings and also integration of experimental data from different groups...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727490/comparison-of-the-release-of-micrornas-and-extracellular-vesicles-from-platelets-in-response-to-different-agonists
#18
Ashley R Ambrose, Mohammed A Alsahli, Sameer A Kurmani, Alison H Goodall
On activation platelets release microRNAs and extracellular vesicles (EV) into circulation. The release of EV from platelets has been shown to be dependent on the agonist; in this study, we investigated whether the microRNA profile or EV released from platelets was also agonist specific. Washed platelets from healthy subjects were maximally stimulated with agonists specific for the receptors for collagen (Glycoprotein VI (GPVI)), thrombin (PAR1/PAR4), or ADP (P2Y1/P2Y12) with/without inhibiting secondary mediators, using aspirin to block cyclooxygenase-1 and apyrase to remove ADP...
July 20, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725673/efficiency-data-of-intracellular-recombinant-protein-delivery-using-cationic-lipid-coated-silk-fibroin-particle
#19
Woo-Jin Kim, Bong-Soo Kim, Young-Dan Cho, Won-Joon Yoon, Jeong-Hwa Baek, Kyung-Mi Woo, Hyun-Mo Ryoo
This article presents data related to the research article "Fibroin particle-supported cationic lipid layers for highly efficient intracellular protein delivery" and focuses on the delivery efficiency aspects of the fibroin particle-cationic lipid complex (Fibroplex), including its fabrication and the intracellular delivery to the mouse skin tissue. We introduced a stable lipid-particle complex called "Fibroplex", formed by loading cargo protein onto a silk fibroin spherical particle core complexed with cationic liposomes to address the intracellular recombinant protein delivery...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725490/muc1-o-glycosylation-contributes-to-anoikis-resistance-in-epithelial-cancer-cells
#20
Tushar Piyush, Jonathan M Rhodes, Lu-Gang Yu
Anoikis is a fundamental cellular process for maintaining tissue homeostasis. Resistance to anoikis is a hallmark of oncogenic epithelial-mesenchymal transition and is a pre-requisite for metastasis. Previous studies have revealed that the heavily glycosylated mucin protein MUC1, which is overexpressed in all types of epithelial cancer cells, prevents anoikis initiation in response to loss of adhesion. This effect of MUC1 is largely attributed to its extracellular domain that provides cell surface anoikis-initiating molecules with a 'homing' microenvironment...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
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