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Core protein

K A Morton, L Hargreaves, S Mortazavi, L P Weber, A M Blanco, S Unniappan
Nesfatin-1 is a naturally occurring 82-amino acid protein encoded in the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) and has been implicated in multiple physiological functions, including food intake and blood glucose regulation. This study aimed to characterize nesfatin-1 in domestic species, especially cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Our in silico analysis demonstrated that the NUCB2/nesfatin-1 amino acid sequence, especially the bioactive core region of the peptide, is very highly conserved (more than 90% identity) in domestic animals...
May 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Andrew G Diamos, Hugh S Mason
Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) are proven to be safe and effective vaccine candidates. We have previously described a plant-based recombinant protein expression system based on agroinfiltration of a replicating vector derived from the geminivirus bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV). The system has been systematically optimized to improve expression and reduce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Using these modifications, we show that VLPs derived from genotype GII.4 norovirus, the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, can be produced at >1 mg/g leaf fresh weight (LFW), over three times the highest level ever reported in plant-based systems...
June 14, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Mauro Ravera, Elsa Moreno-Viguri, Rocio Paucar, Silvia Pérez-Silanes, Elisabetta Gabano
The development of safe and affordable antiparasitic agents effective against neglected tropical diseases is a big challenge of the drug discovery. The drugs currently employed have limitations such as poor efficacy, drug resistance or side effects. Thus, the search for new promising drugs is more and more crucial. Metal complexes and, in particular, organometallic compounds may expand the list of the drug candidates due to the peculiar attributes that the presence of the metal core add to the organic fragment (e...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Christian Pflueger, Dennis Tan, Tessa Swain, Trung Viet Nguyen, Jahnvi Pflueger, Christian Nefzger, Jose M Polo, Ethan Ford, Ryan Lister
DNA methylation is a covalent modification of the genome that plays important roles in genome regulation and vertebrate development. Although detection of this modification in the genome has been possible for several decades, the ability to deliberately and specifically manipulate local DNA methylation states in the genome has been extremely limited. Consequently, this has impeded the direct determination of the consequence of DNA methylation on transcriptional regulation and transcription factor binding in the native chromatin context...
June 15, 2018: Genome Research
Madushi Wanaguru, David J Barry, Donald J Benton, Nicola J O'Reilly, Kate N Bishop
The murine leukaemia virus (MLV) Gag cleavage product, p12, is essential for both early and late steps in viral replication. The N-terminal domain of p12 binds directly to capsid (CA) and stabilises the mature viral core, whereas defects in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of p12 can be rescued by addition of heterologous chromatin binding sequences (CBSs). We and others hypothesised that p12 tethers the pre-integration complex (PIC) to host chromatin ready for integration. Using confocal microscopy, we have observed for the first time that CA localises to mitotic chromatin in infected cells in a p12-dependent manner...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Sheue-Fen Tzeng, Chin-Hsien Tsai, Tai-Kuang Chao, Yu-Ching Chou, Yu-Chih Yang, Mong-Hsun Tsai, Tai-Lung Cha, Pei-Wen Hsiao
Disseminated castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a common disease in men that is characterized by limited survival and resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy. The increase in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) signaling contributes to androgen receptor activity in a subset of patients with CRPC; however, enigmatically, HER2-targeted therapies have demonstrated a lack of efficacy in patients with CRPC. Aberrant glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer and involves key processes that support cancer progression...
June 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ana Espinosa, Alberto Curcio, Sonia Cabana, Guillaume Radtke, Matthieu Bugnet, Jelena Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Christine Péchoux, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Gianluigi A Botton, Amanda Silva, Ali Abou-Hassan, Claire Wilhelm
Despite their highly efficient plasmonic properties, gold nanoparticles are currently preferred to silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications such as photothermal therapy due to their high chemical stability in the biological environment. To confer protection while preserving their plasmonic properties, we allied the advantages of both materials and produced hybrid nanoparticles, made of an anisotropic silver nanoplate core coated with a frame of gold. The efficiency of such hybrid nanoparticles (Ag@AuNPs) in photothermia was compared to mono-metallic silver nanoplates (AgNPs) or gold nanostars (AuNPs)...
June 15, 2018: ACS Nano
Shruti Beriwal, Nikhil Padhiyar, Deven Bhatt, Prabhakar D Pandit, Afzal Ansari, Kumari Snehkant Lata, Zuber M Saiyed, Vibhisha Vaghasia, Priyanka Sharma, Shivarudrappa B Bhairappanavar, Subhash Soni, Jayashankar Das
Leptospirosis is a potentially fatal zoo-anthroponosis caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira belonging to the family of Leptospiraceae, with a worldwide distribution and effect, in terms of its burden and risk to human health. The 'LeptoDB' is a single window dedicated architecture (5 948 311 entries), modeled using heterogeneous data as a core resource for global Leptospira species. LeptoDB facilitates well-structured knowledge of genomics, proteomics and therapeutic aspects with more than 500 assemblies including 17 complete and 496 draft genomes encoding 1...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Yongqing Yang, Yan Guo
Salt stress is a major environmental factor limiting plant growth and productivity. A better understanding of the mechanisms mediating salt resistance will help researchers design ways to improve crop performance under adverse environmental conditions. Salt stress can lead to ionic stress, osmotic stress, and secondary stresses, particularly oxidative stress, in plants. Therefore, to adapt to salt stress, plants rely on signals and pathways that re-establish cellular ionic, osmotic, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Xiangyan Shi, Chinmayi Prasanna, Toshio Nagashima, Toshio Yamazaki, Konstantin Pervushin, Lars Nordenskiöld
Eukaryotic chromatin structure and dynamics play key roles in genomic regulation. In the current study, the secondary structure and intramolecular dynamics of human histone H4 (hH4) in the nucleosome core particle (NCP) and in a nucleosome array are determined by solid-state NMR (SSNMR). Secondary structure elements are successfully localized in the hH4 in the NCP precipitated with Mg2+. In particular, dynamics on nanosecond to microsecond and microsecond to millisecond timescales are elucidated, revealing diverse internal motions in the hH4 protein...
June 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Debra A Fleischman, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Sue Leurgans, Sheila M Keating, Melissa Lamar, David A Bennett, Oluwatoyin M Adeyemi, Lisa L Barnes
Objective: HIV infection sets off an immediate immune response and inflammatory cascade that can lead to neuronal injury and cognitive impairment, but the relationship between immune markers, regional brain volumes, and cognition remains understudied in HIV-infected adults. Methods: Cross-sectional associations were examined between serum immune markers of activation (neopterin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein) with regional brain volumes (cortical, subcortical, total gray matter, hippocampus, and subfields) and cognition in 66 HIV-infected, virally suppressed, adults who underwent 3...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Kashish Manchanda, Hana Kolarova, Christina Kerkenpaß, Martin Mollenhauer, Jan Vitecek, Volker Rudolph, Lukas Kubala, Stephan Baldus, Matti Adam, Anna Klinke
OBJECTIVE: The leukocyte heme-enzyme MPO (myeloperoxidase) exerts proinflammatory effects on the vascular system primarily linked to its catalytic properties. Recent studies have shown that MPO, depending on its cationic charge, mediates neutrophil recruitment and activation. Here, we further investigated MPO's extracatalytic properties and its effect on endothelial glycocalyx (EG) integrity. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In vivo staining of murine cremaster muscle vessels with Alcian Blue 8GX provided evidence of an MPO-dependent decrease in anionic charge of the EG...
June 14, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Clara T Schoeder, Maria Kaleta, Andhika B Mahardhika, Agnieszka Olejarz-Maciej, Dorota Łażewska, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Christa E Müller
GPR18 is a cannabinoid-activated orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is selectively expressed on immune cells. Despite its significant potential as a drug target for inflammatory diseases and cancer immunotherapy, only very few GPR18 ligands have been described to date. In the present study we investigated the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of (Z)-2-(3-(4-chlorobenzyloxy)benzylidene)-6,7-dihydro-2H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazin-3(5H)-one (PSB-CB5, 5), the most potent GPR18 antagonist described to date...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Heng Chi, Zhandong Li, Bettina E Hansen, Tao Yu, Xiaoyong Zhang, Jian Sun, Jinlin Hou, Harry L A Janssen, Jie Peng
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Levels of antibodies against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (anti-HBc) have been associated with response to nucleos(t)ide analogue and (peg)interferon therapy in patients with chronic HBV infection. We performed a prospective study to determine whether the total serum level of anti-HBc level (immunoglobulins M and G) is associated with clinical relapse after discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogue-based therapy. METHODS: We collected data from patients with chronic HBV infection who discontinued nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy according to pre-specified stopping criteria, recruited from November 2012 through July 2016 at an academic hospital in Guangzhou, China...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Yapeng Li, Dianhong Zhang, Lingyao Kong, Huiting Shi, Xinyu Tian, Lu Gao, Yuzhou Liu, Leiming Wu, Binbin Du, Zhen Huang, Cui Liang, Zheng Wang, Rui Yao, Yanzhou Zhang
Metabolic dysfunction is a hallmark of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. During cardiac failure, the metabolism of cardiomyocyte switches from fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis. However, the roles of key metabolic enzymes in cardiac hypertrophy are not understood fully. Here in the present work, we identified Aldolase A (AldoA) as a core regulator of cardiac hypertrophy. The mRNA and protein levels of AldoA were significantly up-regulated in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)- and isoproterenol (ISO)-induced hypertrophic mouse hearts...
June 11, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Fabrizio Cleri, Fabio Landuzzi, Ralf Blossey
Double strand breaks (DSB) in the DNA backbone are the most lethal type of defect induced in the cell nucleus by chemical and radiation treatments of cancer. However, little is known about the outcomes of damage in nucleosomal DNA, and on its effects on damage repair. We performed microsecond-long molecular dynamics computer simulations of nucleosomes including a DSB at various sites, to characterize the early stages of the evolution of this DNA lesion. The damaged structures are studied by the essential dynamics of DNA and histones, and compared to the intact nucleosome, thus exposing key features of the interactions...
June 14, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Michael Girardot, Elsa Bayet, Justine Maurin, Philippe Fort, Pierre Roux, Peggy Raynaud
SOX9 is known as a crucial transcription factor for various developmental processes and for tissue homeostasis. We examined here its potential role in alternative splicing by analyzing global splicing changes, using RNA-seq of colon tumor cells. We show that SOX9 knockdown alters the splicing of hundreds of genes without affecting their expression levels, revealing that SOX9 controls distinct splicing and transcriptional programs. SOX9 does not affect splicing patterns through the control of splicing factors expression...
June 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Zhongwei Jia, Yingang Zhang, Yunxing Su, Xiaojian Wang, Jianping Yu, Qiling Yuan, Liang Liu
Cartilage‑derived morphogenetic protein‑1 (CDMP1) is a polypeptide growth factor with specific cartilage inducibility, which is predominantly expressed in the developmental long bone cartilage core and in the pre‑cartilage matrix in the embryonic stage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles and the mechanisms of CDMP1 overexpression on the apoptosis of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons that were induced by inflammatory cytokines. Cell counting Kit‑8 assay, flow cytometry and TdT‑mediated dUTP nick‑end labeling assay were performed to examine cell viability and apoptosis...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Fredy Kurniawan, Ke Shi, Kayo Kurahashi, Anja-Katrin Bielinsky, Hideki Aihara
Cdc45 plays a critical role at the core of the eukaryotic DNA replisome, serving as an essential scaffolding component of the replicative helicase holoenzyme Cdc45-MCM-GINS (CMG) complex. A 1.66-Å-resolution crystal structure of the full-length Cdc45 protein from Entamoeba histolytica shows a protein fold similar to that observed previously for human Cdc45 in its active conformation, featuring the overall disk-like monomer shape and intimate contacts between the N- and C-terminal DHH domains. However, the E...
May 25, 2018: iScience
Zhixiang Xie, Zhuangbo Guo, Jianfeng Liu
BACKGROUND Whey acidic protein/four-disulfide core domain 21 (Wfdc21), also known as Lnc-DC, it has been reported to be correlated with immune response. However, the role of Wfdc21 in the pathogenesis of sepsis is still unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of Wfdc21 in the pathogenesis of sepsis. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis model was established in Balb/c mice. Animals were euthanized 4, 8, 16, or 24 h after CLP. The glycogen distribution in the kidney and liver was checked by Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining...
June 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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