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D Andrys, M Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, D Kulpa
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the essential oils isolated from the field - grown and micropropagated in vitro narrow - leaved lavender of the 'Munstead' cultivar, on human skin cells, and their capability to synthesise procollagen. The amount of procollagen type I produced by fibroblast cells was determined using ELISA kit. Essential oil isolated from micropropagated lavender was further used as a protective ingredient against the development of microorganisms in O/W cosmetic emulsion...
August 7, 2017: Natural Product Research
Abdulminam H A Almusawi, Abdullah J Sayegh, Ansam M S Alshanaw, John L Griffis
A novel protocol for the commercial production of date palm through micropropagation is presented. This protocol includes the use of a semisolid medium alternation or in combination with a temporary immersion system (TIS, Plantform bioreactor) in date palm micropropagation. The use of the Plantform bioreactor for date palm results in an improved multiplication rate, reduced micropropagation time, and improved weaning success. It also reduces the cost of saleable units and thus improves economic return for commercial micropropagation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ahmed Othmani, Chokri Bayoudh, Amel Sellemi, Noureddine Drira
The temporary immersion system (TIS) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. TIS usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. The latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. These systems are providing the most satisfactory conditions for date palm regeneration via shoot organogenesis and allow a significant increase of multiplication rate (5...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mona M Hassan
In vitro propagation of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. is an ideal method to produce large numbers of healthy plants with specific characteristics and has the ability to transfer plantlets to ex vitro conditions at low cost and with a high survival rate. This chapter describes optimized acclimatization procedures for in vitro date palm plantlets. Primarily, the protocol presents the use of kinetin and Hoagland solution to enhance the growth of Barhee cv. plantlets in the greenhouse at two stages of acclimatization and the appropriate planting medium under shade and sunlight in the nursery...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Maiada M El-Dawayati, Zeinab E Zayed
Hyperhydricity (or vitrification) is a fundamental physiological disorder in date palm micropropagation. Several factors have been ascribed as being responsible for hyperhydricity, which are related to the explant, medium, culture vessel, and environment. The optimization of inorganic nutrients in the culture medium improves in vitro growth and morphogenesis, in addition to controlling hyperhydricity. This chapter describes a protocol for controlling hyperhydricity during the embryogenic callus stage by optimizing the ratio of nitrogen salts of the Murashige and Skoog (MS) nutrient culture medium...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ola H Abdelbar
Somatic embryogenesis is an ideal technique for the micropropagation of date palm using different explant tissue; however, histological studies describing the ontogenesis of plant regeneration are limited. This chapter provides a simple protocol for the histological analysis of the successive developmental stages of direct somatic embryogenesis induced from in vitro leaf explants. Direct somatic embryos are obtained from Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine. In order to observe the different developmental stages, histological analysis is carried out on samples at 15-day intervals for 60 days...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hussein J Shareef
Embryogenic suspension cultures of date palm are ideal for mass propagation of somatic embryos; however, the low percentage of germination of somatic embryos (SE) remains an impediment. This chapter focuses on two important physical factors to improve germination of date palm somatic embryos: the use of partial desiccation (3 h) of somatic embryos and the exposure to low temperature (4 °C for 24 h). High germination percentage (41%) is achieved by desiccation for 3 h. Moreover, adding 0.3 g/L activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium further improves somatic embryo number and weight as well as the percentage of germination...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lotfi Fki, Walid Kriaa, Ameni Nasri, Emna Baklouti, Olfa Chkir, Raja B Masmoudi, Alain Rival, Noureddine Drira
This chapter describes an efficient protocol for large-scale micropropagation of date palm. Somatic embryo-derived plants are regenerated from highly proliferating suspension cultures. Friable embryogenic callus is initiated from juvenile leaves using slightly modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Suspension cultures consisting of proembryonic masses are established from highly competent callus for somatic embryogenesis using half-strength MS medium enriched with 0...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ali M Al-Ali, Chien-Ying Ko, Sultan A Al-Sulaiman, Sami O Al-Otaibi, Abd Ulmoneem H Al-Khamees, Megahed H Ammar
Due to the limitations associated with shoot tip explants in the micropropagation of date palm, inflorescence explants are an ideal alternative. This chapter focuses on the protocol for the induction of callus from inflorescence tissue, establishment for proliferation of somatic embryos, germination, elongation, rooting, and acclimatization. Female inflorescences, 30-40 cm in length, cv. Shaishee, were used for culture initiation. After disinfection, the outer inflorescence cover (spathe) is cut open, and the spikelet explants, 1 cm long, are cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 100 mg/L 2,4-D, 3 mg/L kinetin, and 3 mg/L 2ip and incubated at 25 ± 2 °C in the dark...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zeinab E Zayed
Shoot-tip explants obtained from offshoots of adult date palms are an excellent source for callus induction and subsequent somatic embryogenesis. In this protocol, the shoot-tip explants are transferred sequentially to a series of media containing gradually reduced concentrations of plant growth hormones: (a) 10 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 3 mg/L 2-isopentenyl adenine (2iP), (b) 7 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L 2iP, (c) 5 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L 2iP, and (d) 3 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L 2iP. Embryogenic callus differentiates into somatic embryos upon transfer to MS medium containing 0...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rania A Taha
Date palm tolerates salinity, drought, and high temperatures. Arid and semiarid zones, especially the Middle East region, need a huge number of date palms for cultivation. To meet this demand, tissue culture techniques have great potential for mass production of plantlets, especially using the indirect embryogenesis technique; any improvement of these techniques is a worthy objective. Low levels of salinity can enhance growth and development of tolerant plants. A low level of seawater, a natural source of salinity, reduces the time required for micropropagation processes of date palm cv...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hussam S M Khierallah, Saleh M Bader, Makki A Al-Khafaji
Micropropagation has great potential for the multiplication of female and male date palms of commercially grown cultivars by using inflorescences. This approach is simple, convenient, and much faster than the conventional method of using shoot-tip explants. We describe here a stepwise micropropagation procedure using inflorescence explants of Iraqi date palm cultivar Maktoom. Cultured explants were derived from 0.5-cm-long spike segments excised from 8 to 10-cm-long spathes. About 70% formed adventitious buds on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 4 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 40 g/L sucrose and maintained in the dark for 16 weeks before transferring to normal light conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Larbi Abahmane
A number of public and private laboratories are working on date palm micropropagation to meet the increasing worldwide demand for date palm planting material. A standardized direct organogenesis protocol exists for the production of date palm plantlets to maintain the genetic fidelity of regenerated plants. Organogenesis has the advantage of using low concentrations of plant growth regulators and avoiding the callus phase. In addition, direct regeneration of vegetative buds minimizes the risk of somaclonal variation among plant regenerants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Arpan Modi, Bhavesh Gajera, Naraynan Subhash, Nitish Kumar
Date palm is a fruit-bearing tree commonly found in arid and semiarid regions. It is a dioecious plant, producing fruit on female plants and a limited number of basal offshoots for propagation. To produce large numbers of uniform plantlets, tissue culture techniques are required. It is highly advisable to detect genetic variation that may occur through micropropagation techniques as it may lead to phenotypic alterations. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is a simple and PCR-based molecular marker technique which can be employed to check the somaclonal variation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mona M Hassan
In vitro conservation is carried out to maintain disease-free genetic materials, in a small area, protected against pests, insects, soil problems (alkaline, acidic, excess salinity, lack of organic matter, too dry, or too wet), climatic changes, and high-multiplication potential. A requirement of successful in vitro conservation is that the plants can be regenerated into complete plants rapidly when desired. The current work describes in vitro propagation and conservation techniques employing slow-growth conditions of date palm somatic embryo cultures...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lotfi Fki, Olfa Chkir, Walid Kriaa, Ameni Nasri, Emna Baklouti, Raja B Masmoudi, Alain Rival, Noureddine Drira, Bart Panis
Cryopreservation is the technology of choice not only for plant genetic resource preservation but also for virus eradication and for the efficient management of large-scale micropropagation. In this chapter, we describe three cryopreservation protocols (standard vitrification, droplet vitrification, and encapsulation vitrification) for date palm highly proliferating meristems that are initiated from vitro-cultures using plant growth regulator-free MS medium. The positive impact of sucrose preculture and cold hardening treatments on survival rates is significant...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jaroslav Ďurkovič, Hana Husárová, Lucia Javoříková, Ingrid Čaňová, Miriama Šuleková, Monika Kardošová, Ivan Lukáčik, Miroslava Mamoňová, Rastislav Lagaňa
Micropropagated plants experience significant stress from rapid water loss when they are transferred from an in vitro culture to either greenhouse or field conditions. This is caused both by inefficient stomatal control of transpiration and the change to a higher light intensity and lower humidity. Understanding the physiological, vascular and biomechanical processes that allow micropropagated plants to modify their phenotype in response to environmental conditions can help to improve both field performance and plant survival...
July 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Marco A Ramírez-Mosqueda, Lourdes G Iglesias-Andreu
The establishment and characterization of cell suspension cultures are an in vitro culture technique very useful for various plant biotechnological applications (production of secondary metabolites, mass micropropagation, protoplast isolation and fusion, gene transfer and the investigation of cell pathways). The objective of this study was to establish and characterization of cell suspension cultures of V. planifolia by inducing friable calluses. For that, friable calluses were obtained from immature seeds cultivated in MS medium supplemented with 0...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
Adriano Sofo, Rocco Bochicchio, Mariana Amato, Nunzia Rendina, Antonella Vitti, Maria Nuzzaci, Maria Maddalena Altamura, Giuseppina Falasca, Federica Della Rovere, Antonio Scopa
A screening strategy using micropropagation glass tubes with a gradient of distances between germinating seeds and a metal-contaminated medium was used for studying alterations in root architecture and morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana treated with cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) at the concentration of 10-20μM and 100-200μM, respectively. Metal concentrations in plant shoots and roots were measured by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. After 21days from germination, all plants in the tubes were scanned at high resolution and the root systems analyzed...
September 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Saikat Gantait, Suprabuddha Kundu
Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill, an ethno-pharmacologically important perennial climber of Asclepiadaceae, is commonly known as Antamul or Indian ipecac. It is essentially accredited for its medicinal properties owing to its wide range of alkaloids in the form of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as tylophorine, tylophorinine, and tylophorinidine. Accelerated mass propagation of Tylophora is challenging because of its reduced seed germination frequency that consequently headed the pursuit for efficient protocols on in vitro propagation for the large-scale regeneration, conservation as well as sustainable supply of quality propagules...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
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