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Seyedardalan Ashrafzadeh, David W M Leung
It is of interest to apply plant tissue culture to generate plants resistant to toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on plant growth. Callus cultures were initiated from leaf explants of micropropagated potato plantlets (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Iwa) for in vitro selection comprising 18 different Cd treatments varying in Cd exposure timing and duration. Plantlets regenerated from two different lines of Cd-selected calli, L9 and L11, were found to exhibit enhanced resistance to 218 μM Cd compared to control (source plantlets for leaf explants used to initiate callus cultures for Cd resistance)...
2017: PloS One
Karla Quiroz, Jessica Saavedra, Hermine Vogel, Gabriela Verdugo, Peter D S Caligari, Rolando García-Gonzáles
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Chloraea crispa is a terrestrial Orchidaceae species native to Chile, characterized by a beautiful and showy inflorescence. The species has a great potential for commercial exploitation in the cut flower industry, but it is essential to improve propagation methods to avoid endangering its natural populations. Because this species is hard to propagate using traditional greenhouse techniques, in vitro techniques offer an effective tool for its large-scale production in terms of germination, growth, and propagation...
August 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Sumitra Kumari Choudhary, Ashok Kumar Patel, Harish, Smita Shekhawat, Narpat S Shekhawat
Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd., is a perennial and dioecious (2n = 28) plant of family Cucurbitaceae. Conventional methods of propagation through seeds, stem cuttings and rhizomatous/tuberous roots are inadequate for its mass cultivation as a vegetable crop. This paper reports an improved and efficient micropropagation method for wild female M. dioica using nodal explants. Shoot amplification was achieved using subculturing of in vitro raised shoots on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Nádia A Campos, Bart Panis, Sebastien C Carpentier
One of the most important crops cultivated around the world is coffee. There are two main cultivated species, Coffea arabica and C. canephora. Both species are difficult to improve through conventional breeding, taking at least 20 years to produce a new cultivar. Biotechnological tools such as genetic transformation, micropropagation and somatic embryogenesis (SE) have been extensively studied in order to provide practical results for coffee improvement. While genetic transformation got many attention in the past and is booming with the CRISPR technology, micropropagation and SE are still the major bottle neck and urgently need more attention...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Barbara Thiem, Małgorzata Kikowska, Michał P Maliński, Dariusz Kruszka, Marta Napierała, Ewa Florek
Ecdysteroids are secondary metabolites, widely distributed in the animal and plant kingdoms. They have a wide range of pharmacological effects in vertebrates, including mammals, most of which are beneficial for humans. Therefore, they have become compounds of interest for the pharmaceutical industry due to their adaptogenic, anabolic, hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and antimicrobial activities, which are still being researched. Nowadays, ecdysteroids are present as active ingredients in bodybuilding supplements...
2017: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
Kavita Kumari, Madan Lal, Sangeeta Saxena
An efficient, simple and commercially applicable protocol for rapid micropropagation of sugarcane has been designed using variety Co 05011. Pretreatment of shoot tip explants with thidiazuron (TDZ) induced high frequency regeneration of shoot cultures with improved multiplication ratio. The highest frequency (80%) of shoot initiation in explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ was obtained during the study. Maximum 65% shoot cultures could be established from the explants pretreated with TDZ as compared to minimum 40% establishment in explants without pretreatment...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
D Andrys, M Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, D Kulpa
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the essential oils isolated from the field - grown and micropropagated in vitro narrow - leaved lavender of the 'Munstead' cultivar, on human skin cells, and their capability to synthesise procollagen. The amount of procollagen type I produced by fibroblast cells was determined using ELISA kit. Essential oil isolated from micropropagated lavender was further used as a protective ingredient against the development of microorganisms in O/W cosmetic emulsion...
August 7, 2017: Natural Product Research
Abdulminam H A Almusawi, Abdullah J Sayegh, Ansam M S Alshanaw, John L Griffis
A novel protocol for the commercial production of date palm through micropropagation is presented. This protocol includes the use of a semisolid medium alternation or in combination with a temporary immersion system (TIS, Plantform bioreactor) in date palm micropropagation. The use of the Plantform bioreactor for date palm results in an improved multiplication rate, reduced micropropagation time, and improved weaning success. It also reduces the cost of saleable units and thus improves economic return for commercial micropropagation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ahmed Othmani, Chokri Bayoudh, Amel Sellemi, Noureddine Drira
The temporary immersion system (TIS) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. TIS usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. The latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. These systems are providing the most satisfactory conditions for date palm regeneration via shoot organogenesis and allow a significant increase of multiplication rate (5...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mona M Hassan
In vitro propagation of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. is an ideal method to produce large numbers of healthy plants with specific characteristics and has the ability to transfer plantlets to ex vitro conditions at low cost and with a high survival rate. This chapter describes optimized acclimatization procedures for in vitro date palm plantlets. Primarily, the protocol presents the use of kinetin and Hoagland solution to enhance the growth of Barhee cv. plantlets in the greenhouse at two stages of acclimatization and the appropriate planting medium under shade and sunlight in the nursery...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Maiada M El-Dawayati, Zeinab E Zayed
Hyperhydricity (or vitrification) is a fundamental physiological disorder in date palm micropropagation. Several factors have been ascribed as being responsible for hyperhydricity, which are related to the explant, medium, culture vessel, and environment. The optimization of inorganic nutrients in the culture medium improves in vitro growth and morphogenesis, in addition to controlling hyperhydricity. This chapter describes a protocol for controlling hyperhydricity during the embryogenic callus stage by optimizing the ratio of nitrogen salts of the Murashige and Skoog (MS) nutrient culture medium...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ola H Abdelbar
Somatic embryogenesis is an ideal technique for the micropropagation of date palm using different explant tissue; however, histological studies describing the ontogenesis of plant regeneration are limited. This chapter provides a simple protocol for the histological analysis of the successive developmental stages of direct somatic embryogenesis induced from in vitro leaf explants. Direct somatic embryos are obtained from Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine. In order to observe the different developmental stages, histological analysis is carried out on samples at 15-day intervals for 60 days...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hussein J Shareef
Embryogenic suspension cultures of date palm are ideal for mass propagation of somatic embryos; however, the low percentage of germination of somatic embryos (SE) remains an impediment. This chapter focuses on two important physical factors to improve germination of date palm somatic embryos: the use of partial desiccation (3 h) of somatic embryos and the exposure to low temperature (4 °C for 24 h). High germination percentage (41%) is achieved by desiccation for 3 h. Moreover, adding 0.3 g/L activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium further improves somatic embryo number and weight as well as the percentage of germination...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lotfi Fki, Walid Kriaa, Ameni Nasri, Emna Baklouti, Olfa Chkir, Raja B Masmoudi, Alain Rival, Noureddine Drira
This chapter describes an efficient protocol for large-scale micropropagation of date palm. Somatic embryo-derived plants are regenerated from highly proliferating suspension cultures. Friable embryogenic callus is initiated from juvenile leaves using slightly modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Suspension cultures consisting of proembryonic masses are established from highly competent callus for somatic embryogenesis using half-strength MS medium enriched with 0...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ali M Al-Ali, Chien-Ying Ko, Sultan A Al-Sulaiman, Sami O Al-Otaibi, Abd Ulmoneem H Al-Khamees, Megahed H Ammar
Due to the limitations associated with shoot tip explants in the micropropagation of date palm, inflorescence explants are an ideal alternative. This chapter focuses on the protocol for the induction of callus from inflorescence tissue, establishment for proliferation of somatic embryos, germination, elongation, rooting, and acclimatization. Female inflorescences, 30-40 cm in length, cv. Shaishee, were used for culture initiation. After disinfection, the outer inflorescence cover (spathe) is cut open, and the spikelet explants, 1 cm long, are cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 100 mg/L 2,4-D, 3 mg/L kinetin, and 3 mg/L 2ip and incubated at 25 ± 2 °C in the dark...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zeinab E Zayed
Shoot-tip explants obtained from offshoots of adult date palms are an excellent source for callus induction and subsequent somatic embryogenesis. In this protocol, the shoot-tip explants are transferred sequentially to a series of media containing gradually reduced concentrations of plant growth hormones: (a) 10 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 3 mg/L 2-isopentenyl adenine (2iP), (b) 7 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L 2iP, (c) 5 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L 2iP, and (d) 3 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L 2iP. Embryogenic callus differentiates into somatic embryos upon transfer to MS medium containing 0...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rania A Taha
Date palm tolerates salinity, drought, and high temperatures. Arid and semiarid zones, especially the Middle East region, need a huge number of date palms for cultivation. To meet this demand, tissue culture techniques have great potential for mass production of plantlets, especially using the indirect embryogenesis technique; any improvement of these techniques is a worthy objective. Low levels of salinity can enhance growth and development of tolerant plants. A low level of seawater, a natural source of salinity, reduces the time required for micropropagation processes of date palm cv...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hussam S M Khierallah, Saleh M Bader, Makki A Al-Khafaji
Micropropagation has great potential for the multiplication of female and male date palms of commercially grown cultivars by using inflorescences. This approach is simple, convenient, and much faster than the conventional method of using shoot-tip explants. We describe here a stepwise micropropagation procedure using inflorescence explants of Iraqi date palm cultivar Maktoom. Cultured explants were derived from 0.5-cm-long spike segments excised from 8 to 10-cm-long spathes. About 70% formed adventitious buds on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 4 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 40 g/L sucrose and maintained in the dark for 16 weeks before transferring to normal light conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Larbi Abahmane
A number of public and private laboratories are working on date palm micropropagation to meet the increasing worldwide demand for date palm planting material. A standardized direct organogenesis protocol exists for the production of date palm plantlets to maintain the genetic fidelity of regenerated plants. Organogenesis has the advantage of using low concentrations of plant growth regulators and avoiding the callus phase. In addition, direct regeneration of vegetative buds minimizes the risk of somaclonal variation among plant regenerants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Arpan Modi, Bhavesh Gajera, Naraynan Subhash, Nitish Kumar
Date palm is a fruit-bearing tree commonly found in arid and semiarid regions. It is a dioecious plant, producing fruit on female plants and a limited number of basal offshoots for propagation. To produce large numbers of uniform plantlets, tissue culture techniques are required. It is highly advisable to detect genetic variation that may occur through micropropagation techniques as it may lead to phenotypic alterations. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is a simple and PCR-based molecular marker technique which can be employed to check the somaclonal variation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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