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Micropropagation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238274/hormetic-response-by-silver-nanoparticles-on-in-vitro-multiplication-of-sugarcane-saccharum-spp-cv-mex-69-290-using-a-temporary-immersion-system
#1
Jericó J Bello-Bello, Rocío A Chavez-Santoscoy, Carlos A Lecona-Guzmán, Nina Bogdanchikova, Josafhat Salinas-Ruíz, Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino, Alexey Pestryakov
Background: Hormesis is considered a dose-response phenomenon characterized by growth stimulation at low doses and inhibition at high doses. The hormetic response by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on in vitro multiplication of sugarcane was evaluated using a temporary immersion system. Methods: Sugarcane shoots were used as explants cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium with AgNPs at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L. Shoot multiplication rate and length were used to determine hormetic response...
October 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237190/determination-of-acid-and-neutral-cannabinoids-in-extracts-of-different-strains-of-cannabis-sativa-using-gc-fid
#2
Elsayed A Ibrahim, Waseem Gul, Shahbaz W Gul, Brandon J Stamper, Ghada M Hadad, Randa A Abdel Salam, Amany K Ibrahim, Safwat A Ahmed, Suman Chandra, Hemant Lata, Mohamed M Radwan, Mahmoud A ElSohly
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the family Cannabaceae. Trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the two major phytocannabinoids accounting for over 40% of the cannabis plant extracts, depending on the variety. At the University of Mississippi, different strains of C. sativa, with different concentration ratios of CBD and Δ9-THC, have been tissue cultured via micropropagation and cultivated. A GC-FID method has been developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of acid and neutral cannabinoids in C...
December 13, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172148/genetic-characterization-micropropagation-and-potential-use-for-arsenic-phytoremediation-of-dittrichia-viscosa-l-greuter
#3
Francesco Guarino, Barbara Conte, Giovanni Improta, Rosaria Sciarrillo, Stefano Castiglione, Angela Cicatelli, Carmine Guarino
In the last decade, many scientists have focused their attention on the search for new plant species that can offer improved capacities to reclaim polluted soils and waters via phytoremediation. In this study, seed batches from three natural populations of Dittrichia viscosa, harvested in rural, urban, and industrial areas of central and southern Italy, were used to: (i) evaluate the genetic and morphological diversity of the populations; (ii) develop an efficient protocol for in-vitro propagation from seedling microcuttings; (iii) achieve optimal acclimatization of micropropagated plants to greenhouse conditions; (iv) test the response to arsenic (As) soil contamination of micropropagated plants...
November 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163591/transcriptomic-and-hormonal-analyses-reveal-that-yuc-mediated-auxin-biogenesis-is-involved-in-shoot-regeneration-from-rhizome-in-cymbidium
#4
Yang Liu, Hai-Liang Zhang, He-Rong Guo, Li Xie, Rui-Zhen Zeng, Xiang-Qian Zhang, Zhi-Sheng Zhang
Cymbidium, one of the most important orchid genera in horticulture, can be classified into epiphytic and terrestrial species. Generally, epiphytic Cymbidium seedlings can be easily propagated by tissue culture, but terrestrial seedlings are difficult to propagate. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in the ease with which terrestrial and epiphytic cymbidiums can be propagated are largely unknown. Using RNA-sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Cymbidium 'Xiaofeng' (CXF), which can be efficiently micropropagated, and terrestrial Cymbidium sinense 'Qijianbaimo' (CSQ), which has a low regeneration ability, were used to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the micropropagation ability of Cymbidium species...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158643/in-vitro-propagation-ex-vitro-rooting-and-leaf-micromorphology-of-bauhinia-racemosa-lam-a-leguminous-tree-with-medicinal-values
#5
Udit Sharma, Vinod Kataria, N S Shekhawat
A micropropagation system for Bauhinia racemosa Lam. was developed involving axillary shoot proliferation and ex vitro rooting using nodal explants obtained from mature tree. MS medium with 3.0 mg l(-1) BA (6-benzyladenine) was optimum for shoot bud induction. For shoot multiplication, mother explants were transferred repeatedly on medium containing low concentration of BA (0.75 mg l(-1)). Number of shoots was increased up to two passages and decreased thereafter. Shoot multiplication was further enhanced on MS medium containing 0...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145415/plant-organ-cultures-as-masked-mycotoxin-biofactories-deciphering-the-fate-of-zearalenone-in-micropropagated-durum-wheat-roots-and-leaves
#6
Laura Righetti, Enrico Rolli, Gianni Galaverna, Michele Suman, Renato Bruni, Chiara Dall'Asta
"Masked mycotoxins" senso strictu are conjugates of mycotoxins resulting from metabolic pathways activated by the interplay between pathogenic fungi and infected plants. Zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp, was the first masked mycotoxin ever described in the literature, but its biotransformation has been studied to a lesser extent if compared to other compounds such as deoxynivalenol. We presented herein the first application of organ and tissue culture techniques to study the metabolic fate of zearalenone in durum wheat, using an untargeted HR-LCMS approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062834/micropropagation-and-subsequent-enrichment-of-carotenoids-fatty-acids-and-tocopherol-contents-in-sedum-dasyphyllum-l
#7
Han Yong Park, Ramesh Kumar Saini, Judy Gopal, Young-Soo Keum, Doo Hwan Kim, Onew Lee, Iyyakkannu Sivanesan
A promising micropropagation protocol has been systematically established and demonstrated for the enhanced production of carotenoids, tocopherol and fatty acids in shoot tissues of Sedum dasyphyllum. Shoot tip explants were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Different concentrations of N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were tested in order to stimulate multiple shoot production. Ideal shoot induction (100%) and maximized shoot numbers (36...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968406/novel-potato-plants-with-enhanced-cadmium-resistance-and-antioxidative-defence-generated-after-in-vitro-cell-line-selection
#8
Seyedardalan Ashrafzadeh, David W M Leung
It is of interest to apply plant tissue culture to generate plants resistant to toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on plant growth. Callus cultures were initiated from leaf explants of micropropagated potato plantlets (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Iwa) for in vitro selection comprising 18 different Cd treatments varying in Cd exposure timing and duration. Plantlets regenerated from two different lines of Cd-selected calli, L9 and L11, were found to exhibit enhanced resistance to 218 μM Cd compared to control (source plantlets for leaf explants used to initiate callus cultures for Cd resistance)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924509/in-vitro-asymbiotic-germination-for-micropropagation-of-the-recalcitrant-terrestrial-orchid-chloraea-crispa-orchidaceae
#9
Karla Quiroz, Jessica Saavedra, Hermine Vogel, Gabriela Verdugo, Peter D S Caligari, Rolando García-Gonzáles
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Chloraea crispa is a terrestrial Orchidaceae species native to Chile, characterized by a beautiful and showy inflorescence. The species has a great potential for commercial exploitation in the cut flower industry, but it is essential to improve propagation methods to avoid endangering its natural populations. Because this species is hard to propagate using traditional greenhouse techniques, in vitro techniques offer an effective tool for its large-scale production in terms of germination, growth, and propagation...
August 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878509/an-improved-micropropagation-system-ex-vitro-rooting-and-validation-of-genetic-homogeneity-in-wild-female-momordica-dioica-an-underutilized-nutraceutical-vegetable-crop
#10
Sumitra Kumari Choudhary, Ashok Kumar Patel, Harish, Smita Shekhawat, Narpat S Shekhawat
Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd., is a perennial and dioecious (2n = 28) plant of family Cucurbitaceae. Conventional methods of propagation through seeds, stem cuttings and rhizomatous/tuberous roots are inadequate for its mass cultivation as a vegetable crop. This paper reports an improved and efficient micropropagation method for wild female M. dioica using nodal explants. Shoot amplification was achieved using subculturing of in vitro raised shoots on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871271/somatic-embryogenesis-in-coffee-the-evolution-of-biotechnology-and-the-integration-of-omics-technologies-offer-great-opportunities
#11
REVIEW
Nádia A Campos, Bart Panis, Sebastien C Carpentier
One of the most important crops cultivated around the world is coffee. There are two main cultivated species, Coffea arabica and C. canephora. Both species are difficult to improve through conventional breeding, taking at least 20 years to produce a new cultivar. Biotechnological tools such as genetic transformation, micropropagation and somatic embryogenesis (SE) have been extensively studied in order to provide practical results for coffee improvement. While genetic transformation got many attention in the past and is booming with the CRISPR technology, micropropagation and SE are still the major bottle neck and urgently need more attention...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867986/ecdysteroids-production-in-plant-in-vitro-cultures
#12
REVIEW
Barbara Thiem, Małgorzata Kikowska, Michał P Maliński, Dariusz Kruszka, Marta Napierała, Ewa Florek
Ecdysteroids are secondary metabolites, widely distributed in the animal and plant kingdoms. They have a wide range of pharmacological effects in vertebrates, including mammals, most of which are beneficial for humans. Therefore, they have become compounds of interest for the pharmaceutical industry due to their adaptogenic, anabolic, hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and antimicrobial activities, which are still being researched. Nowadays, ecdysteroids are present as active ingredients in bodybuilding supplements...
2017: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828289/enhanced-micropropagation-and-tiller-formation-in-sugarcane-through-pretreatment-of-explants-with-thidiazuron-tdz
#13
Kavita Kumari, Madan Lal, Sangeeta Saxena
An efficient, simple and commercially applicable protocol for rapid micropropagation of sugarcane has been designed using variety Co 05011. Pretreatment of shoot tip explants with thidiazuron (TDZ) induced high frequency regeneration of shoot cultures with improved multiplication ratio. The highest frequency (80%) of shoot initiation in explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ was obtained during the study. Maximum 65% shoot cultures could be established from the explants pretreated with TDZ as compared to minimum 40% establishment in explants without pretreatment...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782394/essential-oil-obtained-from-micropropagated-lavender-its-effect-on-hsf-cells-and-application-in-cosmetic-emulsion-as-a-natural-protective-substance
#14
D Andrys, M Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, D Kulpa
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the essential oils isolated from the field - grown and micropropagated in vitro narrow - leaved lavender of the 'Munstead' cultivar, on human skin cells, and their capability to synthesise procollagen. The amount of procollagen type I produced by fibroblast cells was determined using ELISA kit. Essential oil isolated from micropropagated lavender was further used as a protective ingredient against the development of microorganisms in O/W cosmetic emulsion...
August 7, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755351/plantform-bioreactor-for-mass-micropropagation-of-date-palm
#15
Abdulminam H A Almusawi, Abdullah J Sayegh, Ansam M S Alshanaw, John L Griffis
A novel protocol for the commercial production of date palm through micropropagation is presented. This protocol includes the use of a semisolid medium alternation or in combination with a temporary immersion system (TIS, Plantform bioreactor) in date palm micropropagation. The use of the Plantform bioreactor for date palm results in an improved multiplication rate, reduced micropropagation time, and improved weaning success. It also reduces the cost of saleable units and thus improves economic return for commercial micropropagation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755350/temporary-immersion-system-for-date-palm-micropropagation
#16
Ahmed Othmani, Chokri Bayoudh, Amel Sellemi, Noureddine Drira
The temporary immersion system (TIS) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. TIS usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. The latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. These systems are providing the most satisfactory conditions for date palm regeneration via shoot organogenesis and allow a significant increase of multiplication rate (5...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755346/improvement-of-in-vitro-date-palm-plantlet-acclimatization-rate-with-kinetin-and-hoagland-solution
#17
Mona M Hassan
In vitro propagation of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. is an ideal method to produce large numbers of healthy plants with specific characteristics and has the ability to transfer plantlets to ex vitro conditions at low cost and with a high survival rate. This chapter describes optimized acclimatization procedures for in vitro date palm plantlets. Primarily, the protocol presents the use of kinetin and Hoagland solution to enhance the growth of Barhee cv. plantlets in the greenhouse at two stages of acclimatization and the appropriate planting medium under shade and sunlight in the nursery...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755345/controlling-hyperhydricity-in-date-palm-in-vitro-culture-by-reduced-concentration-of-nitrate-nutrients
#18
Maiada M El-Dawayati, Zeinab E Zayed
Hyperhydricity (or vitrification) is a fundamental physiological disorder in date palm micropropagation. Several factors have been ascribed as being responsible for hyperhydricity, which are related to the explant, medium, culture vessel, and environment. The optimization of inorganic nutrients in the culture medium improves in vitro growth and morphogenesis, in addition to controlling hyperhydricity. This chapter describes a protocol for controlling hyperhydricity during the embryogenic callus stage by optimizing the ratio of nitrogen salts of the Murashige and Skoog (MS) nutrient culture medium...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755343/histological-analysis-of-the-developmental-stages-of-direct-somatic-embryogenesis-induced-from-in-vitro-leaf-explants-of-date-palm
#19
Ola H Abdelbar
Somatic embryogenesis is an ideal technique for the micropropagation of date palm using different explant tissue; however, histological studies describing the ontogenesis of plant regeneration are limited. This chapter provides a simple protocol for the histological analysis of the successive developmental stages of direct somatic embryogenesis induced from in vitro leaf explants. Direct somatic embryos are obtained from Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine. In order to observe the different developmental stages, histological analysis is carried out on samples at 15-day intervals for 60 days...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755341/desiccation-and-cold-hardening-of-date-palm-somatic-embryos-improve-germination
#20
Hussein J Shareef
Embryogenic suspension cultures of date palm are ideal for mass propagation of somatic embryos; however, the low percentage of germination of somatic embryos (SE) remains an impediment. This chapter focuses on two important physical factors to improve germination of date palm somatic embryos: the use of partial desiccation (3 h) of somatic embryos and the exposure to low temperature (4 °C for 24 h). High germination percentage (41%) is achieved by desiccation for 3 h. Moreover, adding 0.3 g/L activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium further improves somatic embryo number and weight as well as the percentage of germination...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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