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interaction anxiety

Sara De Andrés-García, Irene Cano-López, Luis Moya-Albiol, Esperanza González-Bono
BACKGROUND: Negative affect (NA) and chronic stress are separately associated with health imbalances, and the interaction between the two aspects remains unclear. Care of relatives with long-term pathologies could be a likely model in the study of this issue, as caregivers frequently report chronic stress and health complaints. The aim of this study is examine the role of NA on psychophysiological stress-induced response and health in schizophrenia caregivers. METHOD: Forty-one caregivers were distributed into two groups accordingly to their scores in NA...
November 2016: Psicothema
C Grillon, O J Robinson, K O'Connell, A Davis, G Alvarez, D S Pine, M Ernst
BACKGROUND: Laboratory tasks to delineate anxiety disorder features are used to refine classification and inform our understanding of etiological mechanisms. The present study examines laboratory measures of response inhibition, specifically the inhibition of a pre-potent motor response, in clinical anxiety. Data on associations between anxiety and response inhibition remain inconsistent, perhaps because of dissociable effects of clinical anxiety and experimentally manipulated state anxiety...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Rubin Khoddam, Nicholas J Jackson, Adam M Leventhal
AIM: The complex interplay of externalizing and internalizing problems in substance use risk is not well understood. This study tested whether the relationship of conduct problems and several internalizing disorders with future substance use is redundant, incremental, or interactive in adolescents. METHODS: Two semiannual waves of data from the Happiness and Health Study were used, which included 3383 adolescents (M age=14.1years old; 53% females) in Los Angeles who were beginning high school at baseline...
October 17, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
S C Agasi-Idenburg, M S Y Thong, C J A Punt, M M Stuiver, N K Aaronson
PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most frequently reported symptoms in cancer survivors. To be able to optimally treat CRF, knowledge of symptoms that interact with CRF is helpful. During aging, changes occur in body composition with progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes causing a decline of adaptive capacity. Therefore, symptoms caused by cancer and its treatment might coexist in different symptom clusters in older cancer survivors, compared to younger survivors...
October 21, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
C H M Cheung, R Bedford, M H Johnson, T Charman, T Gliga
An enhanced ability to detect visual targets amongst distractors, known as visual search (VS), has often been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Yet, it is unclear when this behaviour emerges in development and if it is specific to ASD. We followed up infants at high and low familial risk for ASD to investigate how early VS abilities links to later ASD diagnosis, the potential underlying mechanisms of this association and the specificity of superior VS to ASD. Clinical diagnosis of ASD as well as dimensional measures of ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms were ascertained at 3 years...
September 30, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Lisa J Meltzer
Research in the field of pediatric sleep has grown significantly in the past 25 years. However, because much remains to be learned about the complex and dynamic relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology, this special issue of the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology was created to provide an influx of cutting-edge research on this important topic. This introduction provides an overview of the special issue, with articles focusing on what different measurement approaches tells us about the intersection of sleep and developmental psychopathology; the overlap between interventions for sleep and anxiety; sleep as a potential mechanism for the development of social, emotional, and behavioral problems; and how population-based studies can be used to consider the interaction between sleep, well-being, and symptoms of psychopathology...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Matthew T Keough, Jeffrey D Wardell, Christian S Hendershot, R Michael Bagby, Lena C Quilty
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) predicts that the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) may relate to coping-motivated problem gambling, given its central role in anxiety. Studies examining the BIS-problem gambling association, however, are mixed. The revised RST posits that the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) may moderate the effect of the BIS on coping-motivated problem gambling. A concurrently strong BAS may highlight the negatively reinforcing effects of gambling, which may strengthen coping motives and increase gambling-related harms...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
Raquel González-Martínez, Ma Del Mar Jovani-Sancho, Isidoro Cortell-Ballester
PURPOSE: Our purpose were to determine the influence of psychological profile on hemodynamic changes in patients who undergo surgical removal of the third molars under intravenous sedation and to evaluate the effect on patients' anxiety and postoperative recovery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 100 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I and II; aged ≥18 years) seen in the CIMIVClinic (Department of Oral Surgery, Casa de Salud University Hospital, Valencia, Spain) who underwent extractions of all third molars under intravenous sedation...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Helen Louise Adams, Dharamveer Basude, Alison Kyle, Sarah Sandmann, Siba Prosad Paul
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common cause of non-organic recurrent abdominal pain in children. IBS is a clinical diagnosis, which is based on the Rome IV criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders in children, as well as the patient's history. The diagnosis of IBS is established following the exclusion of organic causes of recurrent abdominal pain. Staggered investigations should be avoided because they might increase the child's and family's anxiety in the absence of an organic diagnosis...
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Gabriella Juhasz, Eva Csepany, Mate Magyar, Andrea Edit Edes, Nora Eszlari, Gabor Hullam, Peter Antal, Gyongyi Kokonyei, Ian Muir Anderson, John Francis William Deakin, Gyorgy Bagdy
One of the main effects of the endocannabinoid system in the brain is stress adaptation with presynaptic endocannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 receptors) playing a major role. In the present study, we investigated whether the effect of the CB1 receptor coding CNR1 gene on migraine and its symptoms is conditional on life stress. In a cross-sectional European population (n = 2426), recruited from Manchester and Budapest, we used the ID-Migraine questionnaire for migraine screening, the Life Threatening Experiences questionnaire to measure recent negative life events (RLE), and covered the CNR1 gene with 11 SNPs...
October 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Mikko J Peltola, Tiina Mäkelä, E Juulia Paavonen, Elina Vierikko, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Tiina Paunio, Jari K Hietanen, Anneli Kylliäinen
Maternal prenatal anxiety is associated with infants' temperamental negative affectivity (NA), but it is unclear to what extent children vary in their susceptibility to prenatal influences. We tested a hypothesis that infants' respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic vagal tone and a potential marker of differential susceptibility to environmental influences, moderates the effects of maternal prenatal anxiety on the development of infant NA. Prenatal anxiety was assessed during the last trimester of pregnancy in a low-risk community sample...
October 20, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Kylee Trevillion, Jill Domoney, Andrew Pickles, Debra Bick, Sarah Byford, Margaret Heslin, Jeannette Milgrom, Rachel Mycroft, Carmine Pariante, Elizabeth Ryan, Myra Hunter, Louise Michele Howard
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common antenatal mental disorder and is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects on the fetus and significant morbidity for the mother; if untreated it can also continue into the post-natal period and affect mother-infant interactions. There has been little research evaluating the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of antenatal psychological interventions for antenatal depression, particularly for mild to moderate disorders. International guidelines recommend a stepped care approach starting with Guided Self Help, and the aim of this exploratory trial is to investigate Guided Self Help modified for pregnancy...
October 18, 2016: Trials
Jacinta L Johnson, Femke T A Buisman-Pijlman
The endogenous oxytocin system plays a vital role in facilitating parturition, lactation and social interaction in humans and other mammals. It also impacts on a number of important endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems. A well-regulated oxytocin system has been proposed to increase resilience, and therefore reduce the likelihood of an individual developing mental illness or substance dependence. This review discusses the adverse external influences that can modulate oxytocin receptor and protein levels and impact on substance use and mental health...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Sreekala S Nampoothiri, Tanvi Potluri, Harshith Subramanian, Rajanikant G Krishnamurthy
Despite years of research, most preclinical trials on ischemic stroke have remained unsuccessful owing to poor methodological and statistical standards leading to "translational roadblocks." Various behavioral tests have been established to evaluate traits such as sensorimotor function, cognitive and social interactions, and anxiety-like and depression-like behavior. A test's validity is of cardinal importance as it influences the chance of a successful translation of preclinical results to clinical settings...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Raphaela Mayerhofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Florian Reichmann, Aitak Farzi, Nora Kogelnik, Eleonore Fröhlich, Wolfgang Sattler, Peter Holzer
Microbial metabolites are known to affect immune system, brain, and behavior via activation of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Unlike the effect of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the role of other TLR agonists in immune-brain communication is insufficiently understood. We therefore hypothesized that the TLR2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (LTA) causes immune activation in the periphery and brain, stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has an adverse effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and emotional behavior...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jacob Taylor, William S Anderson, Jason Brandt, Zoltan Mari, Gregory M Pontone
Although Parkinson disease (PD) is defined clinically by its motor symptoms, it is increasingly recognized that much of the disability and worsened quality of life experienced by patients with PD is attributable to psychiatric symptoms. The authors describe a model of multidisciplinary care that enables these symptoms to be effectively managed. They describe neuropsychiatric complications of PD itself and pharmacologic and neurostimulation treatments for parkinsonian motor symptoms and discuss the management of these complications...
September 3, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Steve Kisely, Karolina Katarzyna Alichniewicz, Emma B Black, Dan Siskind, Geoffrey Spurling, Maree Toombs
Indigenous populations are considered at higher risk of psychiatric disorder but many studies do not include direct comparisons with similar non-Indigenous controls. We undertook a meta-analysis of studies that compared the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in Indigenous populations in the Americas with those of non-Indigenous groups with similar socio-demographic features (Registration number: CRD42015025854). A systematic search of PubMed, Medline, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and article bibliographies was performed...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Georgia Halkett, Moira O'Connor, Sanchia Aranda, Michael Jefford, Susan Merchant, Debra York, Lisa Miller, Penelope Schofield
INTRODUCTION: Patients sometimes present for radiation therapy with high levels of anxiety. Communication skills training may assist radiation therapists to conduct more effective consultations with patients prior to treatment planning and treatment commencement. The overall aim of our research is to examine the effectiveness of a preparatory programme 'RT Prepare' delivered by radiation therapists to reduce patient psychological distress. The purpose of this manuscript was to describe the communication skills workshops developed for radiation therapists and evaluate participants' feedback...
April 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Victoria C Johnson, Katie R Kryski, Haroon I Sheikh, Heather J Smith, Shiva M Singh, Elizabeth P Hayden
Persistently elevated behavioral inhibition (BI) in children is a marker of vulnerability to psychopathology. However, little research has considered the joint influences of caregiver and child factors that may moderate the continuity of BI in early childhood, particularly genetic variants that may serve as markers of biological plasticity, such as the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). We explored this issue in 371 preschoolers and their caregivers, examining whether parent characteristics (i...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
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