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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315225/the-use-of-a-semi-automated-system-to-measure-mouse-natural-killer-t-nkt-cell-activation-by-lipid-loaded-dendritic-cells
#1
Ashfaq Ghumra, Marcos Alcocer
Cell-based assays are widely used in all aspects of research ranging from understanding basic biological function to identifying compounds for disease intervention. Immortalized cell lines have been ideal components of these assays due to the low cost of growth, easy maintenance, and the ability to obtain homogenous cell populations. Like other molecular assays, cell-based systems have been automated to reduce experimental error. Complex lipids are now recognized as important components of the allergic response, the study of the interaction between NKTs and lipid-activated DCs opens a new perspective into the intrinsic allergenicity of proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296255/breg-dependent-islet-transplant-tolerance-is-also-nk-cell-dependent
#2
Christian Schuetz, Kang Mi Lee, Ryan Scott, Lisa Kojima, Laura Washburn, Liye Liu, Wei-Hui Liu, Haley Tector, Ji Lei, Heidi Yeh, James Kim, James F Markmann
Immunologic tolerance to solid organ and islet cell grafts has been achieved in various rodent models using antibodies directed at CD45RB and Tim-1. We have shown that this form of tolerance depends on regulatory B-cells. To elucidate further the mechanism by which Bregs induce tolerance we investigated the requirement of NK and NKT cells in this model. To do so, hyperglycemic B6, μMT, Beige or CD1d(-/-) mice received Balb/c islet grafts and treatment with the tolerance inducing regimen consisting of anti-CD45RB and anti -TIM1...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282868/a-pronounced-inflammatory-activity-characterizes-the-early-fracture-healing-phase-in-immunologically-restricted-patients
#3
Paula Hoff, Timo Gaber, Cindy Strehl, Manuela Jakstadt, Holger Hoff, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek, Annemarie Lang, Eric Röhner, Dörte Huscher, Georg Matziolis, Gerd-Rüdiger Burmester, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Carsten Perka, Georg N Duda, Frank Buttgereit
Immunologically restricted patients such as those with autoimmune diseases or malignancies often suffer from delayed or insufficient fracture healing. In human fracture hematomas and the surrounding bone marrow obtained from immunologically restricted patients, we analyzed the initial inflammatory phase on cellular and humoral level via flow cytometry and multiplex suspension array. Compared with controls, we demonstrated higher numbers of immune cells like monocytes/macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and activated T helper cells within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281185/sex-and-age-as-determinants-of-rat-t-cell-phenotypic-characteristics-influence-of-peripubertal-gonadectomy
#4
Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Duško Kosec, Ivan Pilipović, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Biljana Bufan, Zorica Stojić-Vukanić, Gordana Leposavić
The study examined the influence of age, sex and peripubertal gonadectomy on a set of T-cell phenotypic parameters. Rats of both sexes were gonadectomised at the age of 1 month and peripheral blood and spleen T lymphocytes from non-gonadectomised and gonadectomised 3- and 11-month-old rats were examined for the expression of differentiation/activation (CD90/CD45RC) and immunoregulatory markers. Peripheral blood T lymphocytes from non-gonadectomised rats showed age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in (1) total count (lower in female than male 11-month-old rats); (2) CD4+:CD8 + cell ratio (higher in female than male rats of both ages); (3) the proportion of recent thymic emigrants in CD8 + T cells (lower in female than male 3-month-old rats) and (4) the proportions of mature naïve and memory/activated cells (irrespective of age, the proportion of naïve cells was higher, whereas that of memory/activated cells was lower in females)...
March 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280497/activation-of-blood-cd3-cd56-cd8-t-cells-during-pregnancy-and-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Clara de Andrés, Lidia Fernández-Paredes, Marta Tejera-Alhambra, Bárbara Alonso, Rocío Ramos-Medina, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón
A striking common feature of most autoimmune diseases is their female predominance, with at least twice as common among women than men in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), the prevailing MS clinical form with onset at childbearing age. This fact, together with the protective effect on disease activity during pregnancy, when there are many biological changes including high levels of estrogens and progesterone, puts sex hormones under the spotlight. The role of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in MS disease beginning and course is still to be elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273362/tlr5-signaling-restrains-t-nkt-cell-activation-and-protects-against-concanavalin-a-induced-hepatic-injury
#6
Lei Wang, Wen Zhang, Chang-Hui Ge, Rong-Hua Yin, Xiao Yang, Yi-Qun Zhan, Miao Yu, Chang-Yan Li, Zhi-Qiang Ge, Xiao-Ming Yang
TLR5 signaling regulates the immune privileged status of the liver and is involved in hepatic immune disorders. However, the role of TLR5 has not yet been investigated in experimental models of Con A-mediated liver injury. Here, we show that TLR5 is highly upregulated in the hepatic mononuclear cells (MNCs) of mice during Con A-induced hepatitis. Increased mortality and liver histopathology of TLR5-deficient mice correlated with excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that TLR5 knockout mice were more susceptible to Con A-induced hepatitis...
March 8, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270111/an-optimized-ifn-%C3%AE-elispot-assay-for-the-sensitive-and-standardized-monitoring-of-cmv-protein-reactive-effector-cells-of-cell-mediated-immunity
#7
Sascha Barabas, Theresa Spindler, Richard Kiener, Charlotte Tonar, Tamara Lugner, Julia Batzilla, Hanna Bendfeldt, Anne Rascle, Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner, Ludwig Deml
BACKGROUND: In healthy individuals, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is efficiently controlled by CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Functional impairment of CMI in immunocompromized individuals however can lead to uncontrolled CMV replication and severe clinical complications. Close monitoring of CMV-specific CMI is therefore clinically relevant and might allow a reliable prognosis of CMV disease as well as assist personalized therapeutic decisions. METHODS: Objective of this work was the optimization and technical validation of an IFN-γ ELISpot assay for a standardized, sensitive and reliable quantification of CMV-reactive effector cells...
March 7, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258199/id2-collaborates-with-id3-to-suppress-invariant-nkt-and-innate-like-tumors
#8
Jia Li, Sumedha Roy, Young-Mi Kim, Shibo Li, Baojun Zhang, Cassandra Love, Anupama Reddy, Deepthi Rajagopalan, Sandeep Dave, Anna Mae Diehl, Yuan Zhuang
Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) proteins, including Id1-4, are transcriptional regulators involved in promoting cell proliferation and survival in various cell types. Although upregulation of Id proteins is associated with a broad spectrum of tumors, recent studies have identified that Id3 plays a tumor-suppressor role in the development of Burkitt's lymphoma in humans and hepatosplenic T cell lymphomas in mice. In this article, we report rapid lymphoma development in Id2/Id3 double-knockout mice that is caused by unchecked expansion of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells or a unique subset of innate-like CD1d-independent T cells...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253324/interferon-alpha-treatment-stimulates-interferon-gamma-expression-in-type-i-nkt-cells-and-enhances-their-antiviral-effect-against-hepatitis-c-virus
#9
Eisuke Miyaki, Nobuhiko Hiraga, Michio Imamura, Takuro Uchida, Hiromi Kan, Masataka Tsuge, Hiromi Abe-Chayama, C Nelson Hayes, Grace Naswa Makokha, Masahiro Serikawa, Hiroshi Aikata, Hidenori Ochi, Yuji Ishida, Chise Tateno, Hideki Ohdan, Kazuaki Chayama
Interferon (IFN) inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication through up-regulation of intrahepatic IFN-stimulated gene expression but also through activation of host immune cells. In the present study, we analyzed the immune cell-mediated antiviral effects of IFN-α using HCV-infected mice. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with transplanted human hepatocytes were infected with genotype 1b HCV and injected with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252221/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mediated-protection-against-organ-dysfunction-in-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-is-associated-with-peripheral-immune-responses
#10
Biao Wang, Shuming Wu, Tao Wang, Zengshan Ma, Kai Liu
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a fatal thrombohemorrhagic disorder. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have tremendous therapeutic effect. Our aim was to explore whether the immune mechanisms were associated with BMSCs-afforded protection against DIC. We generated a rat model of DIC by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 3 mg/kg) injection via the tail vein. In the treatment group, rats were pre-treated with 1 × l0(3) , 1 × l0(4) , 1 × l0(5) and 1 × l0(6) allogeneic BMSCs before LPS injection...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249902/hypercholesterolemia-increases-colorectal-cancer-incidence-by-reducing-production-of-nkt-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-from-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#11
Guodong Tie, Jinglian Yan, Lyne Khair, Julia Messina, April Deng, Joonsoo Kang, Thomas Fazzio, Louis M Messina
Obesity will soon surpass smoking as the most preventable cause of cancer. Hypercholesterolemia, a common comorbidity of obesity, has been shown to increase cancer risk, especially colorectal cancer. However, the mechanism by which hypercholesterolemia or any metabolic disorder increases cancer risk remains unknown. In this study, we show that hypercholesterolemia increases the incidence and pathological severity of colorectal neoplasia in two independent mouse models. Hypochlosterolemia induced an oxidant-stress dependent increase in miR101c which downregulated Tet1 in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), resulting in reduced expression of genes critical to natural killer T cell (NKT) and γδ T cell differentiation...
March 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245613/from-lysosomal-storage-diseases-to-nkt-cell-activation-and-back
#12
REVIEW
Cátia S Pereira, Helena Ribeiro, M Fatima Macedo
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of different types of substrates in the lysosome. With a multisystemic involvement, LSDs often present a very broad clinical spectrum. In many LSDs, alterations of the immune system were described. Special emphasis was given to Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, a population of lipid-specific T cells that is activated by lipid antigens bound to CD1d (cluster of differentiation 1 d) molecules at the surface of antigen-presenting cells...
February 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243237/critical-role-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-tumor-induced-liver-immune-suppression-through-inhibition-of-nkt-cell-function
#13
Hongru Zhang, Zheng Li, Li Wang, Gaofei Tian, Jun Tian, Zishan Yang, Guangchao Cao, Hong Zhou, Liqing Zhao, Zhenzhou Wu, Zhinan Yin
Metastasis followed by the tumor development is the primary cause of death for cancer patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how the growth of tumor resulted in the immune suppression, especially at the blood-enriched organ such as liver, were largely unknown. In this report, we studied the liver immune response of tumor-bearing (TB) mice using concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis model. We demonstrated that TB mice displayed an immune suppression phenotype, with attenuated alanine aminotransferase levels and liver damage upon Con A treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234897/immunization-with-tc52-or-its-amino-terminal-domain-adjuvanted-with-c-di-amp-induces-th17-th1-specific-immune-responses-and-confers-protection-against-trypanosoma-cruzi
#14
Marina N Matos, Silvia I Cazorla, Kai Schulze, Thomas Ebensen, Carlos A Guzmán, Emilio L Malchiodi
The development of new adjuvants enables fine modulation of the elicited immune responses. Ideally, the use of one or more adjuvants should result in the induction of a protective immune response against the specific pathogen. We have evaluated the immune response and protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice vaccinated with recombinant Tc52 or its N- and C-terminal domains (NTc52 and CTc52) adjuvanted either with the STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) agonist cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), a pegylated derivative of α-galactosylceramide (αGC-PEG), or oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (ODN-CpG)...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223321/a-non-canonical-function-of-ezh2-preserves-immune-homeostasis
#15
Ajithkumar Vasanthakumar, Dakang Xu, Aaron Tl Lun, Andrew J Kueh, Klaas Pjm van Gisbergen, Nadia Iannarella, Xiaofang Li, Liang Yu, Die Wang, Bryan Rg Williams, Stanley Cw Lee, Ian J Majewski, Dale I Godfrey, Gordon K Smyth, Warren S Alexander, Marco J Herold, Axel Kallies, Stephen L Nutt, Rhys S Allan
Enhancer of zeste 2 (Ezh2) mainly methylates lysine 27 of histone-H3 (H3K27me3) as part of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) together with Suz12 and Eed. However, Ezh2 can also modify non-histone substrates, although it is unclear whether this mechanism has a role during development. Here, we present evidence for a chromatin-independent role of Ezh2 during T-cell development and immune homeostasis. T-cell-specific depletion of Ezh2 induces a pronounced expansion of natural killer T (NKT) cells, although Ezh2-deficient T cells maintain normal levels of H3K27me3...
February 21, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219981/the-role-of-natural-killer-t-cells-in-a-mouse-model-with-spontaneous-bile-duct-inflammation
#16
Elisabeth Schrumpf, Xiaojun Jiang, Sebastian Zeissig, Marion J Pollheimer, Jarl Andreas Anmarkrud, Corey Tan, Mark A Exley, Tom H Karlsen, Richard S Blumberg, Espen Melum
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are activated by lipid antigens presented by CD1d molecules and represent a major lymphocyte subset of the liver. NODc3c4 mice spontaneously develop biliary inflammation in extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts. We demonstrated by flow cytometry that invariant NKT (iNKT) cells were more abundant in the thymus, spleen, and liver of NODc3c4 mice compared to NOD mice. iNKT cells in NODc3c4 mice displayed an activated phenotype. Further, NOD and NODCd1d(-/-) mice were irradiated and injected with NODc3c4 bone marrow, and injection of NODc3c4 bone marrow resulted in biliary infiltrates independently of CD1d expression in recipient mice...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212574/the-combined-action-of-mast-cell-chymase-tryptase-and-carboxypeptidase-a3-protects-against-melanoma-colonization-of-the-lung
#17
Mirjana Grujic, Aida Paivandy, Ann-Marie Gustafson, Allan R Thomsen, Helena Öhrvik, Gunnar Pejler
Mast cell secretory granules are densely packed with various bioactive mediators including proteases of chymase, tryptase and CPA3 type. Previous studies have indicated that mast cells can affect the outcome of melanoma but the contribution of the mast cell granule proteases to such effects has not been clear. Here we addressed this issue by assessing mice lacking either the chymase Mcpt4, the tryptase Mcpt6 or carboxypeptidase A3 (Cpa3), as well as mice simultaneously lacking all three proteases, in a model of melanoma dissemination from blood to the lung...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208073/temporal-regulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-is-important-for-invariant-nkt-cell-development-and-terminal-maturation
#18
Kalyani Pyaram, Jyoti Misra Sen, Cheong-Hee Chang
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays important roles during various cellular functions including survival and proliferation of immune cells. The critical role of this pathway in conventional T cell development is established but little is known about its contributions to innate T cell development. In this study, we found that β-catenin level, an indication of the strength of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, is regulated during invariant NKT (iNKT) cell development. β-catenin levels were greatly increased during iNKT cell selection from double positive thymocytes to Stage 0 of iNKT cell development and during subsequent development to Stage 1...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198713/cd1d-restricted-natural-killer-t-cells-are-preserved-in-indian-long-term-non-progressors-ltnps
#19
Dharmendra Singh, Manisha Ghate, Sheela Godbole, Smita Kulkarni, Madhuri Thakar
BACKGROUND: Natural killer T (NKT) cells act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. Limited information is available regarding the role of NKT cells in the HIV disease progression especially HIV-1 C infection. METHODOLOGY: NKT cells were characterized for their frequency and the activation, aging, exhaustion status and their proliferation ability in 32 long term non progressors (LTNPs), 40 progressors, 18 patients before and after suppressive cART along with 35 HIV-1 negative subjects using multicolor flowcytometry...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195343/galectin-9-diverse-roles-in-hepatic-immune-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Lucy Golden-Mason, Hugo R Rosen
Glycan-binding proteins which include galectins are involved at all stages of immunity and inflammation, ranging from initiation through resolution. Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is highly expressed in the liver and has a wide variety of biological functions in innate and adaptive immunity that are instrumental in the maintenance of hepatic homeostasis. In the setting of viral hepatitis, increased expression of Gal-9 drives the expansion of regulatory T cells and contraction of effector T cells, thereby favoring viral persistence...
February 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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