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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667789/updates-and-controversies-in-the-management-of-acute-optic-neuritis
#1
Ethan Meltzer, Sashank Prasad
Optic neuritis remains a common diagnosis with controversial management. Although typical optic neuritis is often associated with "good" recovery of visual acuity, patients are often left with persistent impairments of contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visual field. These permanent visual deficits correlate with structural injury to the anterior visual pathway and are closely linked to visual quality of life. High dose corticosteroids are commonly used for patients with acute optic neuritis...
April 18, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666508/intrinsic-mechanisms-of-neuronal-axon-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Marcus Mahar, Valeria Cavalli
Permanent disabilities following CNS injuries result from the failure of injured axons to regenerate and rebuild functional connections with their original targets. By contrast, injury to peripheral nerves is followed by robust regeneration, which can lead to recovery of sensory and motor functions. This regenerative response requires the induction of widespread transcriptional and epigenetic changes in injured neurons. Considerable progress has been made in recent years in understanding how peripheral axon injury elicits these widespread changes through the coordinated actions of transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers and, to a lesser extent, microRNAs...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665733/natural-history-predictors-of-outcome-and-effects-of-treatment-in-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-a-multicenter-cohort-study-from-the-north-american-clinical-trials-network
#3
Jefferson R Wilson, Blessing Jaja, Brian K Kwon, James Guest, James Shields Harrop, Bizhan Aarabi, Christopher Shaffrey, Jetan Badhiwala, Elizabeth Toups, Robert Grossman, Michael G Fehlings
The course, treatment response and recovery potential following acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to differ depending on the neurological level of injury. However, there are limited data focused on thoracic-level injuries. A cohort of 86 patients from the prospectively maintained North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) SCI registry were identified and studied to characterize the patterns of neurological recovery as well as to determine rates of acute hospital mortality and pulmonary complications...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665699/characterizing-signals-within-lesions-and-mapping-brain-network-connectivity-after-traumatic-axonal-injury-a-7-tesla-resting-state-fmri-study
#4
Seul Lee, Jonathan R Polimeni, Collin M Price, Brian L Edlow, Jennifer A McNab
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-FMRI) has been widely used to map brain functional connectivity, but it is unclear how to probe connectivity within and around lesions. Here we characterize RS-FMRI signal time-course properties and evaluate different seed placements within and around hemorrhagic traumatic axonal injury lesions. RS-FMRI was performed on a 7 Tesla scanner in a patient who recovered consciousness after traumatic coma and in three healthy controls. Eleven lesions in the patient were characterized in terms of: 1) temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR); 2) physiological noise, through comparison of noise regressors derived from the white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and gray matter (GM); and 3) seed-based functional connectivity...
April 18, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665503/zebrafish-extracellular-matrix-improves-neuronal-viability-and-network-formation-in-a-3-dimensional-culture
#5
Sung-Min Kim, Daniel Ward Long, Michael Wai Kok Tsang, Yadong Wang
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has limited capacity for regeneration. CNS injuries cause life-long debilitation and lead to $50 billion in healthcare costs in U.S. alone each year. Despite numerous efforts in the last few decades, CNS-related injuries remain as detrimental as they were 50 years ago. Some functional recovery can occur, but most regeneration are limited by an extracellular matrix (ECM) that actively inhibits axonal repair and promotes glial scarring. In most tissues, the ECM is an architectural foundation that plays an active role in supporting cellular development and regenerative response after injury...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665445/acute-kidney-injury-during-treatment-with-high-dose-cloxacillin-a-report-of-23-cases-and-literature-review
#6
Aurélie Lavergne, Cécile Vigneau, Elisabeth Polard, Louise Triquet, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Pierre Tattevin, Léonard Golbin
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend high-dose cloxacillin for endocarditis or osteoarticular infections due to meticillin-susceptible staphylococci. However, data on the tolerability of these regimens are scarce. METHODS: We used the computerized registry of suspected drug-related adverse events in our institution. Cases of acute kidney injury (AKI), as defined by KDIGO, in patients receiving high-dose cloxacillin, were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected from medical charts on a standardized questionnaire...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665155/defining-mechanisms-of-neural-plasticity-after-brainstem-ischemia-in-rats
#7
Jens Minnerup, Jan-Kolja Strecker, Lydia Wachsmuth, Maike Hoppen, Antje Schmidt, Dirk M Hermann, Heinz Wiendl, Sven Meuth, Cornelius Faber, Kai Diederich, Wolf Rüdiger Schäbitz
OBJECTIVE: Neurological recovery after stroke mainly depends on the location of the lesion. A substantial portion of strokes affects the brainstem. However, patterns of neural plasticity following brainstem ischemia are almost unknown. METHODS: Here, we established a rat brainstem ischemia model that resembles key features of the human disease and investigated mechanisms of neural plasticity including neurogenesis and axonal sprouting as well as secondary neurodegeneration...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664414/enhanced-total-neurite-outgrowth-and-secondary-branching-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-elicited-by-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound
#8
Daniel Michael Ventre, Marissa Puzan, Emily Ashbolt, Abigail Koppes
OBJECTIVE: Despite the prevalence of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), challenges remain in restoring full functionality to those afflicted. For recovery to occur, axons must extend across the injury site to connect with distal targets, where injury gap size is a critical factor in the probability of restoration of function. Current clinical therapies often achieve limited neural regeneration, motivating the development of new therapeutic interventions such as biophysical stimulation. APPROACH: To investigate the potential for low intensity, pulsed ultrasonic simulation (LIPUS) to impact peripheral nerve regeneration, primary neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurons were examined in vitro in response to ultrasound (US)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664296/ppar%C3%AE-mediates-the-hepatoprotective-effects-of-nutmeg
#9
Xiao Nan Yang, Xue-Mei Liu, JIan-He Fang, Xu Zhu, Xiu-Wei Yang, Xue-Rong Xiao, Jian-Feng Huang, Frank J Gonzalez, Fei Li
Nutmeg is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Some reports indicated that nutmeg has hepatoprotective activity. In this study, a thioacetamide (TAA)-induced acute liver injury model in mice was used to explore the mechanism of the protective effects of nutmeg extract (NME), including its major bioactive component myrislignan. The results indicated that NME could effectively protect TAA-induced liver damage as assessed by recovery of increased serum liver transaminases, decrease hepatic oxidative stress and lower hepatic inflammation...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664186/notch-signaling-regulates-lgr5-olfactory-epithelium-progenitor-stem-cell-turnover-and-mediates-recovery-of-lesioned-olfactory-epithelium-in-mouse-model
#10
Qi Dai, Chen Duan, Wenwen Ren, Fangqi Li, Qian Zheng, Li Wang, Wenyan Li, Xiaoling Lu, Wenli Ni, Yanping Zhang, Yan Chen, Tieqiao Wen, Yiqun Yu, Hongmeng Yu
The Notch signaling pathway regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation in multiple tissues and organs, and is required for tissue maintenance. However, the role of Notch in regulation of olfactory epithelium (OE) progenitor/stem cells to maintain tissue function is still not clear. A recent study reported that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is expressed in globose basal cells (GBCs) localized in OE. Through lineage tracing in vivo, we found that Lgr5+ cells act as progenitor/stem cells in OE...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664109/forced-fluid-removal-in-intensive-care-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-the-randomised-ffaki-feasibility-trial
#11
R E Berthelsen, A Perner, A K Jensen, B S Rasmussen, J U Jensen, J Wiis, M T Behzadi, M H Bestle
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of fluids is frequent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute kidney injury and may be associated with increased mortality and decreased renal recovery. We present the results of a pilot trial assessing the feasibility of forced fluid removal in ICU patients with acute kidney injury and fluid accumulation of more than 10% ideal bodyweight. METHODS: The FFAKI-trial was a pilot trial of forced fluid removal vs standard care in adult ICU patients with moderate to high risk acute kidney injury and 10% fluid accumulation...
April 17, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664034/incidence-prognosis-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-individuals-of-snakebite-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#12
Ramulu Pulimaddi, Amruth Rao Parveda, Balkishan Brahmanpally, Paul Marx Kalakanda, K Ramakrishna, Venkata Ramana Devi Chinnapaka
Background & objectives: The snakebites are considered to be an occupational hazard in agriculture workers and the snake handlers, resulting in a considerable morbidity, mortality and economical implications. This study was conducted to determine the incidence, clinical presentation, renal injury and clinical outcome in snakebite victims who developed acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: This hospital-based prospective, observational study was done on 100 cases who were admitted for the management of snakebite and found to develop AKI in a tertiary care hospital at Hyderabad, India...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663930/diffusion-tensor-imaging-evaluation-of-axonal-white-matter-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabetic-stroke-treated-with-novel-p38-mapk-inhibitor-vcp979
#13
Yu Cai, Chunqiang Lu, Tingting Xu, Yuanyuan Ma, Shudan Min, Peter Scammells, Binghui Wang, Shenghong Ju
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with severe axonal/white matter (WM) injury and poor functional outcomes following ischemic stroke. T2DM induces activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which may be linked to the axonal/WM damage. In the present study, adult male C57BL/6J mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T2DM mice were subjected to photothrombotic ischemic stroke and treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitors. The novel p38 MAPK inhibitor, VCP979, significantly promoted axonal/WM remodeling, neural progenitor cell migration, and improved functional recovery in T2DM mice...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663842/mir-7-inhibited-peripheral-nerve-injury-repair-by-affecting-neural-stem-cells-migration-and-proliferation-through-cdc42
#14
Nan Zhou, Shuang Hao, Zongqiang Huang, Weiwei Wang, Penghui Yan, Wei Zhou, Qihang Zhu, Xiaokang Liu
Objective Neural stem cells play an important role in the recovery and regeneration of peripheral nerve injury, and the microRNA-7 (miR-7) regulates differentiation of neural stem cells. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-7 in neural stem cells homing and proliferation and its influence on peripheral nerve injury repair. Methods The mice model of peripheral nerve injury was created by segmental sciatic nerve defect (sciatic nerve injury), and neural stem cells treatment was performed with a gelatin hydrogel conduit containing neural stem cells inserted into the sciatic nerve injury mice...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663146/thoraco-lumbar-fractures-with-blunt-traumatic-aortic-injury-in-adult-patients-correlations-and-management
#15
Giorgio Santoro, Alessandro Ramieri, Vito Chiarella, Massimo Vigliotta, Maurizio Domenicucci
PURPOSE: Traumatic thoraco-lumbar spine fracture spine with a concomitant blunt aortic injury is uncommon but potentially a fatal association. Our aim was to clarify: morphology of spinal fractures related to vascular damages and vice versa, diagnostic procedures and decision-making process for the best treatment options for spine and vessels. METHODS: We enrolled 42 cases culled from the literature and five personal ones, reviewing in detail by AO Spine Classification, Society of Vascular Surgery classification and Abbreviated Injury Scale for neurological evaluation...
April 16, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663144/is-anterior-release-and-cervical-traction-necessary-for-the-treatment-of-irreducible-atlantoaxial-dislocation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Jian Guan, Zan Chen, Hao Wu, Qingyu Yao, Can Zhang, Tengfei Qi, Kai Wang, Wanru Duan, Jun Gao, Yongning Li, Fengzeng Jian
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD) treated with posterior fusion after anterior release and direct posterior reduction of the dislocation. METHODS: Online databases were searched for articles describing IAAD published from 1999 to 2015. Five studies (105 patients) described treatment with posterior fusion after periodontoid tissue release, and five studies (113 patients) described treatment with direct posterior reduction of the dislocation...
April 16, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663142/do-we-need-a-cool-down-after-exercise-a-narrative-review-of-the-psychophysiological-effects-and-the-effects-on-performance-injuries-and-the-long-term-adaptive-response
#17
REVIEW
Bas Van Hooren, Jonathan M Peake
It is widely believed that an active cool-down is more effective for promoting post-exercise recovery than a passive cool-down involving no activity. However, research on this topic has never been synthesized and it therefore remains largely unknown whether this belief is correct. This review compares the effects of various types of active cool-downs with passive cool-downs on sports performance, injuries, long-term adaptive responses, and psychophysiological markers of post-exercise recovery. An active cool-down is largely ineffective with respect to enhancing same-day and next-day(s) sports performance, but some beneficial effects on next-day(s) performance have been reported...
April 16, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663136/memory-retrieval-induced-activation-of-adult-born-neurons-generated-in-response-to-damage-to-the-dentate-gyrus
#18
Andrea Aguilar-Arredondo, Angélica Zepeda
The dentate gyrus (DG) is a neurogenic structure that exhibits functional and structural reorganization after injury. Neurogenesis and functional recovery occur after brain damage, and the possible relation between both processes is a matter of study. We explored whether neurogenesis and the activation of new neurons correlated with DG recovery over time. We induced a DG lesion in young adult rats through the intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid and analyzed functional recovery and the activation of new neurons after animals performed a contextual fear memory task (CFM) or a control spatial exploratory task...
April 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662169/distinct-myeloid-cell-subsets-promote-meningeal-remodeling-and-vascular-repair-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Matthew V Russo, Lawrence L Latour, Dorian B McGavern
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause meningeal vascular injury and cell death that spreads into the brain parenchyma and triggers local inflammation and recruitment of peripheral immune cells. The factors that dictate meningeal recovery after mTBI are unknown at present. Here we demonstrated that most patients who had experienced mTBI resolved meningeal vascular damage within 2-3 weeks, although injury persisted for months in a subset of patients. To understand the recovery process, we studied a mouse model of mTBI and found extensive meningeal remodeling that was temporally reliant on infiltrating myeloid cells with divergent functions...
April 16, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661422/graft-protection-against-cold-ischemia-preservation-an-institute-george-lopez-1-and-histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate-solution-appraisal
#20
A Panisello-Rosello, C Castro-Benítez, A Lopez, S Balloji, E Folch-Puy, R Adam, J Roselló-Catafau
Cold storage of organs in preservation solutions, such as Institute George Lopez 1 (IGL-1) or histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), is a mandatory step for organ transplantation. This preservation leads to an ischemic injury that affects the outcome of the organ. This article studies the liver graft eluate after organ recovery using IGL-1 or HTK solutions. We explore the influence of the volume used for washing out the liver and the consequences in the graft preservation when both solutions are used. Livers were washed out with different volumes of HTK and IGL-1 according to manufacturers' instructions and then preserved in both solutions for 24 hours at 4°C...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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