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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935175/targeting-vascular-inflammation-in-ischemic-stroke-recent-developments-on-novel-immunomodulatory-approaches
#1
Shashank Shekhar, Mark W Cunningham, Mallikarjuna R Pabbidi, Shaoxun Wang, George W Booz, Fan Fan
Ischemic stroke is a devastating and debilitating medical condition with limited therapeutic options. However, accumulating evidence indicates a central role of inflammation in all aspects of stroke including its initiation, the progression of injury, and recovery or wound healing. A central target of inflammation is disruption of the blood brain barrier or neurovascular unit. Here we discuss recent developments in identifying potential molecular targets and immunomodulatory approaches to preserve or protect barrier function and limit infarct damage and functional impairment...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935168/the-human-motor-neuron-axonal-transcriptome-is-enriched-for-transcripts-related-to-mitochondrial-function-and-microtubule-based-axonal-transport
#2
Renata Maciel, Dana Bis, Adriana P Rebelo, Cima Saghira, Stephan Züchner, Mario A Saporta
Local axonal translation of specific mRNA species plays an important role in axon maintenance, plasticity during development and recovery from injury. Recently, disrupted axonal mRNA transport and translation have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. To identify mRNA species that are actively transported to axons and play an important role in axonal physiology, we mapped the axonal transcriptome of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neurons using permeable inserts to obtain large amounts of enriched axonal material for RNA isolation and sequencing...
June 20, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935084/3d-melatonin-nerve-scaffold-reduces-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-increases-autophagy-in-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#3
Yun Qian, Qixin Han, Xiaotian Zhao, Jialin Song, Yuan Cheng, Zhiwei Fang, Yuanming Ouyang, Wei-En Yuan, Cunyi Fan
Peripheral nerve defect is a common and severe kind of injury in traumatic accidents. Melatonin can improve peripheral nerve recovery by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation after traumatic insults. In addition, it triggers autophagy pathways to increase regenerated nerve proliferation and to reduce apoptosis. In this study, we fabricated a melatonin-controlled-release scaffold to cure long-range nerve defects for the first time. 3D manufacture of melatonin/polycaprolactone nerve guide conduit increased Schwann cell proliferation and neural expression in vitro and promoted functional, electrophysiological and morphological nerve regeneration in vivo...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934721/chances-of-renal-recovery-or-liver-transplantation-after-hospitalization-for-alcoholic-liver-disease-requiring-dialysis
#4
Adrienne Lenhart, Salwa Hussain, Reena Salgia
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury in the setting of alcoholic liver disease portends a poor prognosis without liver transplant. AIMS: Using a tertiary care population, we aimed to evaluate the outcomes of renal replacement therapy in patients with alcoholic liver disease and acute kidney injury with < 6 months sobriety. METHODS: A retrospective review of hospitalized patients with alcoholic hepatitis/acute on chronic alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome or acute tubular necrosis was performed...
June 22, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934690/knockdown-of-microrna-21-promotes-neurological-recovery-after-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Wei Xie, Shang-You Yang, Qianqian Zhang, Yadong Zhou, Yi Wang, Ronghan Liu, Wenzhao Wang, Jixue Shi, Bin Ning, Tanghong Jia
To assess the therapeutic effects of microRNA-21 (miR-21) knockdown (KD) for acute thoracic spinal cord contusion using a mouse model. Forty C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: mice in the sham-operated (Sham) group received surgical procedure without spinal cord contusion; the spinal cord injury (SCI) group mice underwent spinal cord contusion without treatment; mice in the miR-21 KD group underwent spinal cord contusion followed by a single dose subdural injection of miR-21 KD vectors (1 × 107 TU); and the negative control (NC) group mice were given subdural injection of comparable amount of NC vectors (1 × 107 TU) after spinal cord contusion...
June 22, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934646/pharmacological-treatment-with-galectin-1-protects-against-renal-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Carla P Carlos, Analice A Silva, Cristiane D Gil, Sonia M Oliani
Galectin-1 protein (GAL-1) has important anti-inflammatory properties, but related pharmacologic approaches to effectively treat or prevent renal ischaemia and reperfusion injury are highly limited. Here, we investigated the effect of GAL-1 in a renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury rat model and an in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation model with a proximal renal tubular epithelial cell line. In vivo, pretreatment with GAL-1 attenuated the renal parameters changed by ischaemia-reperfusion/hypoxia-reoxygenation, with recovery of renal function, protecting against influx of leukocytes, cell death and oxidative stress...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934351/the-neuroregenerative-capacity-of-olfactory-stem-cells-is-not-limitless-implications-for-aging
#7
Kevin M Child, Daniel B Herrick, James E Schwob, Eric H Holbrook, Woochan Jang
The olfactory epithelium (OE) of vertebrates is a highly regenerative neuroepithelium, maintained under normal condition by a population of stem and progenitor cells - globose basal cells (GBCs) that also contribute to epithelial reconstitution after injury. However, aging of the OE often leads to neurogenic exhaustion - the disappearance of both GBCs and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Aneuronal tissue may remain as olfactory, with an uninterrupted sheet of apically arrayed microvillar-capped sustentacular cell, or may undergo respiratory metaplasia...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934283/axon-regeneration-antagonistic-signaling-pairs-in-neuronal-polarization
#8
REVIEW
Sophie M Hapak, Sourav Ghosh, Carla V Rothlin
Genome-wide screens, proteomics, and candidate-based approaches have identified numerous genes associated with neuronal regeneration following central nervous system (CNS) injury. Despite significant progress, functional recovery remains a challenge, even in model systems. Neuronal function depends on segregation of axonal versus dendritic domains. A key to functional recovery may lie in recapitulating the developmental signals that instruct axon specification and growth in adult neurons post-injury. Theoretically, binary activator-inhibitor elements operating as a Turing-like system within neurons can specify axonal versus dendritic domains and promote axon growth...
June 19, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933967/changes-in-event-related-potential-functional-networks-predict-traumatic-brain-injury-in-piglets
#9
Lorre S Atlan, Ingrid S Lan, Colin Smith, Susan S Margulies
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of cognitive and behavioral deficits in children in the US each year. None of the current diagnostic tools, such as quantitative cognitive and balance tests, have been validated to identify mild traumatic brain injury in infants, adults and animals. In this preliminary study, we report a novel, quantitative tool that has the potential to quickly and reliably diagnose traumatic brain injury and which can track the state of the brain during recovery across multiple ages and species...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933700/the-effectiveness-of-multi-dimensional-resilience-rehabilitation-programs-after-traumatic-physical-injuries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Katharine Heathcote, Martin Wullschleger, Jing Sun
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize evidence of the effectiveness of socio-ecological resilience rehabilitation programs on returning to work (RTW), self-efficacy, and stress mitigation following traumatic physical injuries. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Proquest, Cinahl, Web of Science, Clinical Trials Database, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro tool. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized interventions aimed at promoting resilience...
June 22, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933281/differences-in-postinjury-psychological-symptoms-between-collegiate-athletes-with-concussions-and-orthopedic-injuries
#11
Jinhong Guo, Jingzhen Yang, Honggang Yi, Bhavna Singichetti, Despina Stavrinos, Corinne Peek-Asa
OBJECTIVE: To describe the differences in postinjury psychological symptoms among Division I collegiate student athletes who sustained concussions versus orthopedic injures and to examine the effects of injury type on postinjury psychological symptoms during the course of recovery. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study with repeated measures. SETTING: Two Big 10 Conference universities. PARTICIPANTS: Student athletes who were at least 18 years old and participated in one of 9 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-sponsored sports during the 2007 to 2011 seasons...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933094/phenol-neurolysis-for-management-of-shoulder-spasticity-in-early-recovery-from-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#12
Manuel F Mas, Craig DiTommaso, Sheng Li
This case describes a 16-year-old boy who suffered a severe traumatic brain injury. The patient gradually recovered but developed debilitating spasticity mainly in left triceps muscle, abnormal positioning of shoulder girdle complex, and shoulder pain. Phenol (6%) was injected to axillary and radial nerves under guidance of electrical stimulation and ultrasound imaging at 10 weeks after initial injury. After injection, triceps spasticity and shoulder pain was immediately reduced and abnormal positions of shoulder girdle complex and elbow joint gradually returned to functional limits over 2 weeks...
June 19, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933009/roflumilast-promotes-memory-recovery-and-attenuates-white-matter-injury-in-aged-rats-subjected-to-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#13
Amanda Santiago, Lígia Mendes Soares, Melissa Schepers, Humberto Milani, Tim Vanmierlo, Jos Prickaerts, Rúbia M Weffort de Oliveira
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been associated with aging-related vascular dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. It can be induced by the four-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery (4VO/ICA) model in aged rats, resulting in persistent memory deficits, white matter injury, and significant neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor (PDE4-I) roflumilast has been reported to have pro-cognitive effects in several behavioral paradigms. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated roflumilast treatment in aged rats that were subjected to CCH...
June 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932875/perceptions-of-rehabilitation-and-return-to-sport-among-high-school-athletes-with-acl-reconstruction-a-qualitative-research-study
#14
Justin DiSanti, Caroline Lisee, Karl Erickson, David Bell, Michael Shingles, Christopher Kuenze
Study Design Phenomenographic, cross-sectional. Background Adolescent athletes struggle to return to sport (RTS) following ACL reconstruction (ACLR) for a number of physical and psychosocial reasons. The ability to incorporate contextual evidence obtained directly from patients with the growing body of quantitative rehabilitation research may aid clinicians in taking an evidence-based approach to rehabilitation and return to sports within the adolescent population.. Objectives To assess perceived barriers to RTS as well as positive and negative factors influencing recovery among high school athletes with recent history of ACLR...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932234/mir-26a-modulates-hgf-and-stat3-effects-on-the-kidney-repair-process-in-a-glycerol-induced-aki-model-in-rats
#15
Pedro Paulo Gattai, Edgar Maquigussa, Antonio da Silva Novaes, Rosemara da Silva Ribeiro, Vanessa Araújo Varela, Milene Subtil Ormanji, Mirian Aparecida Boim
Acute kidney injury is mostly reversible, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has a relevant role in the tissue repair. MicroRNA (miR)-26a is an endogenous modulator of HGF. The role of miR-26a in the kidney repair process was evaluated in Wistar rats submitted to an acute kidney injury model of rhabdomyolysis induced by glycerol (6 mL/kg). Animals were evaluated 3, 12, 48, 96, and 120 hours after glycerol injection. Serum creatinine (SCr) and gene expression of HGF, c-met, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and miR-26a were estimated...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931538/alk5-runx1-signaling-mediated-by-extracellular-vesicles-promotes-vascular-repair-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#16
Trushil Shah, Shanshan Qin, Mona Vashi, Dan N Predescu, Niranjan Jeganathan, Cristina Bardita, Balaji Ganesh, Salvatore diBartolo, Louis F Fogg, Robert A Balk, Sanda A Predescu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary endothelial cells' (ECs) injury and apoptotic death are necessary and sufficient for the pathogenesis of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), regardless of epithelial damage. Interaction of dysfunctional ECs with circulatory extracellular vesicles (EVs) holds therapeutic promise in ARDS. However, the presence in the blood of long-term ARDS survivors of EVs with a distinct phenotype compared to the EVs of non-surviving patients is not reported. With a multidisciplinary translational approach, we studied EVs from the blood of 33 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS...
June 22, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931506/there-is-a-close-association-between-the-recovery-of-liver-injury-and-glycemic-control-after-sglt2-inhibitor-treatment-in-japanese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-a-retrospective-clinical-study
#17
Tomoe Kinoshita, Masashi Shimoda, Junpei Sanada, Yoshiro Fushimi, Yurie Hirata, Shintaro Irie, Atsushi Obata, Tomohiko Kimura, Hidenori Hirukawa, Kenji Kohara, Fuminori Tatsumi, Shinji Kamei, Shuhei Nakanishi, Tomoatsu Mune, Kohei Kaku, Hideaki Kaneto
INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors function not only to reduce hyperglycemia but also to ameliorate liver injury and reduce body weight. The aim of this study was to examine in which subjects SGLT2 inhibitors are more effective for glycemic control, liver injury, and obesity in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 156 subjects with type 2 diabetes who initiated SGLT2 inhibitor treatment after September 1, 2014 in Kawasaki Medical School (Protocol No...
June 21, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931066/acute-acalculous-cholecystitis-in-burns-a-review
#18
Karl Walsh, Ioannis Goutos, Baljit Dheansa
Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is an acute inflammatory disorder of the gallbladder, which can complicate the recovery of burn patients. No formal literature review has been performed about this uncommon but potentially fatal complication in burn care. A Pubmed search from 1950 to 2015 was performed using MESH terms: "acalculous cholecystitis," "burns or thermal injuries or thermal damage," and "cholecystitis or gallbladder inflammation." The articles were analyzed and data collected individually on the incidence, presenting symptoms or signs, risk factors, investigations, and treatment modalities used...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929510/landscape-of-transcription-and-long-non-coding-rnas-reveals-new-insights-into-the-inflammatory-and-fibrotic-response-following-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#19
Lu Wang, Nannan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Jingen Xia, Qingyuan Zhan, Chen Wang
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and lung fibrosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. RNA sequencing is a powerful means for detecting vitally important protein-coding transcripts and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) on a genome-wide scale, which may be helpful for reducing this knowledge gap. METHODS: Ninety C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either high tidal volume ventilation or sham operation, and then mice with ventilation were randomly allocated to periods of recovery for 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days...
June 22, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929349/neuropathic-cancer-pain-prevalence-pathophysiology-and-management
#20
So Young Yoon, Jeeyoung Oh
Neuropathic cancer pain (NCP) is caused by nerve damage attributable to the cancer per se, and/or treatments including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; the prevalence is reported to be as high as 40%. The etiologies of NCP include direct nerve invasion or nerve compression by the cancer, neural toxicity, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. NCP is subdivided into plexopathy, radiculopathy, and peripheral neuropathies, among several other categories. The clinical characteristics of NCP differ from those of nociceptive pain in terms of both the hypersensitivity symptoms (burning, tingling, and an electrical sensation) and the hyposensitivity symptoms (numbness and muscle weakness)...
June 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
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