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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636254/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#1
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634463/protective-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-amide-on-blast-induced-increase-in-intracranial-pressure-in-rats
#2
Usmah Kawoos, Richard M McCarron, Mikulas Chavko
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury is associated with acute and possibly chronic elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). The outcome after TBI is dependent on the progression of complex processes which are mediated by oxidative stress. So far, no effective pharmacological protection against TBI exists. In this study, rats were exposed to a single or repetitive blast overpressure (BOP) at moderate intensities of 72 or 110 kPa in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The degree and duration of the increase in ICP were proportional to the intensity and frequency of the blast exposure(s)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634002/acupressure-therapy-for-acute-ankle-sprains-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Mingxing Zhao, Wei Gao, Long Zhang, Wei Huang, Sihua Zheng, Guanliang Wang, Brian Y Hong, Baoyong Tang
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprains occur frequently among young and active people, accounting for almost two million injuries per year. Previous reports suggest that acupressure therapy for acute ankle sprains may shorten the recovery time. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether acupressure therapy can improve ankle sprain recovery when compared to standard RICE (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) treatment. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial was conducted...
June 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633545/late-recovery-of-awareness-in-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#4
Kudret Yelden, Sophie Duport, Leon M James, Agnieszka Kempny, Simon F Farmer, Alex P Leff, E Diane Playford
PURPOSE: To detect any improvement of awareness in prolonged disorders of consciousness in the long term. METHODS: A total of 34 patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (27 vegetative state and seven minimally conscious state; 16 males; aged 21-73) were included in the study. All patients were initially diagnosed with vegetative/minimally conscious state on admission to our specialist neurological rehabilitation unit. Re-assessment was performed 2-16 years later using Coma Recovery Scale-Revised...
June 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632575/clinical-profile-etiology-and-outcome-of-infantile-ocular-trauma-a-developing-country-perspective
#5
Vedang D Shah, Madhu Uddaraju, Amitabh Singh, Rashmi Ranjan Das
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to study the clinical profile, etiology, and outcome of infantile ocular trauma in a developing country setting. METHODS: A retrospective study on corneal trauma in infants (≤12 months old) was undertaken in a tertiary care hospital during a 2-year period. An analysis of clinical profile, etiology, microbiological profile, clinical course, and outcome was studied. RESULTS: Seventy-six infants were included...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632137/electrospun-silk-polyaniline-conduits-for-functional-nerve-regeneration-in-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#6
Suradip Das, Manav Sharma, Dhiren Saharia, Kushal Sarma, Elizabeth Muir, Utpal Bora
The present study describes the fabrication of polyaniline-silk fibroin nanocomposite based nerve conduits and its subsequent implantation in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for peripheral nerve regeneration. This is the first in vivo study of polyaniline based nerve conduit describing the safety and efficacy of the conduits in treating peripheral nerve injuries. The nanocomposite was synthesised by electrospinning a mixture of silk fibroin protein and polyaniline wherein the silk nanofibers were observed to be uniformly coated with polyaniline nanoparticles...
June 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631901/-female-genital-prolapse-surgery-using-ultra-lightweight-polypropylene-mesh
#7
V B Filimonov, R V Vasin, I V Vasina, A D Kaprin, A A Kostin
AIM: To compare the results of female genital prolapse (FGP) surgery via vaginal access using lightweight and ultra-lightweight polypropylene mesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2007 to 2011, 93 women aged from 46 to 71 years with II-IV stage FGP (POP-Q classification) were examined and underwent the vaginal extra-peritoneal colpopexy using polypropylene implants in the Department of Urology. Patients were divided into 2 groups. In patients of group 1 (n=50) the surgery was performed according to a newly developed technique using perforated ultra-lightweight (surface density 19 g/m2) domestically manufactured polypropylene implant...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631747/optimization-of-the-mean-arterial-pressure-and-timing-of-surgical-decompression-in-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-retrospective-study
#8
A Dakson, D Brandman, G Thibault-Halman, S D Christie
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective comparative study. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the extent to which early surgical decompression and maintenance of MAP ⩾85 mm Hg for 5 days postinjury affected neurological recovery utilizing internal controls for comparison of outcomes in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. SETTING: Acute trauma center, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. METHODS: We identified 94 cases of traumatic SCI...
June 20, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631619/modeling-trans-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-modulation-of-the-lumbar-spinal-motor-pathways
#9
Alexander Kuck, Dick Stegeman, Edwin van Asseldonk
OBJECTIVE: Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a potential new technique for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). TsDCS aims to facilitate plastic changes in the neural pathways of the spinal cord with a positive effect on SCI recovery. To establish tsDCS as a possible treatment option for SCI, it is essential to gain a better understanding of its cause and effects. We seek to understand the acute effect of tsDCS, including the generated electric field (EF) and its polarization effect on the spinal circuits, to determine a cellular target...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630239/an-unusual-case-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-infection-with-pseudomembranous-colitis-like-lesions-associated-with-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome-and-neurological-sequelae
#10
James Kennedy, Lauren Simmonds, Robert Orme, Warren Doherty
A 75-year-old man was admitted with abdominal pain and fresh rectal bleeding. Significantly, he had no risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection. An abdominal CT demonstrated colonic thickening, and flexible sigmoidoscopy identified pseudomembranous colitis-like lesions. After initial treatment as C. difficile colitis, a stool sample revealed Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. Antibiotic therapy was stopped due to the risk of lysis-mediated toxin release, but unfortunately, the patient continued to deteriorate...
June 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630058/psychological-morbidity-and-return-to-work-after-injury-multicentre-cohort-study
#11
Denise Kendrick, Paula Dhiman, Blerina Kellezi, Carol Coupland, Jessica Whitehead, Kate Beckett, Nicola Christie, Judith Sleney, Jo Barnes, Stephen Joseph, Richard Morriss
BACKGROUND: The benefits of work for physical, psychological, and financial wellbeing are well documented. Return to work (RTW) after unintentional injury is often delayed, and psychological morbidity may contribute to this delay. The impact of psychological morbidity on RTW after a wide range of unintentional injuries in the UK has not been adequately quantified. AIM: To quantify the role of psychological factors, including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic distress, on RTW following unintentional injuries...
June 19, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629991/physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour-subsequent-to-serious-orthopaedic-injury-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Christina L Ekegren, Ben Beck, Rachel E D Climie, Neville Owen, David W Dunstan, Belinda J Gabbe
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and synthesise the evidence on physical activity and sedentary behaviour following serious orthopaedic injury. DATA SOURCES: Eight electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched from inception to March 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Studies on physical activity and sedentary behaviour measured objectively or via self-report among patients with serious orthopaedic injury (acute bone or soft-tissue injury requiring emergency hospital admission and/or non-elective surgery) were included...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629763/delayed-referral-to-specialist-centre-increases-morbidity-in-patients-with-bile-duct-injury-bdi-after-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-lc
#13
S Martinez-Lopez, V Upasani, S Pandanaboyana, M Attia, G Toogood, P Lodge, E Hidalgo
BACKGROUND: There is still a debate regarding the optimal management of bile duct injury following cholecystectomy. Our aim was to ascertain if delayed referral influenced clinical outcomes for patients with BDI treated in our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We interrogated a prospectively maintained database, including all patients with BDI (Bismuth and Strasberg classifications) post LC managed in our unit from 2000-2014. Referrals were arbitrarily defined as early (<96 hours from the injury) and delayed (>96 hours)...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629589/physical-exercise-and-dna-injury-good-or-evil
#14
Elisa Danese, Giuseppe Lippi, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Giorgio Brocco, Manfredi Rizzo, Maciej Banach, Martina Montagnana
Regular, low-intensity physical activity is currently advocated for lowering the risk of developing many acute and especially chronic diseases. However, several lines of evidence attest that strenuous exercise may enhance inflammation and trigger the generation of free radical-mediated damage, thus overwhelming the undisputable benefits of regular, medium-intensity physical activity. Since reactive oxygen species are actively generated during high-intensity exercise, and these reactive compounds are known to impact DNA stability, we review here the current evidence about strenuous exercise and DNA injury...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629519/erythropoietin-endogenous-protection-of-ischemic-brain
#15
Robert T Mallet, Myoung-Gwi Ryou
The human brain requires uninterrupted delivery of blood-borne oxygen and nutrients to sustain its function. Focal ischemia, particularly, ischemic stroke, and global ischemia imposed by cardiac arrest disrupt the brain's fuel supply. The resultant ATP depletion initiates a complex injury cascade encompassing intracellular Ca(2+) overload, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxido-nitrosative stress, extracellular matrix degradation, and inflammation, culminating in neuronal and astroglial necrosis and apoptosis, neurocognitive deficits, and even death...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628600/alterations-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-protein-levels-after-penetrating-ballistic-like-brain-injury-in-rats
#16
Sindhu K Madathil, Ying Deng-Bryant, Bernard S Wilfred, Lai Yee Leung, Janice S Gilsdorf, Deborah A Shear
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are essential for neuroplasticity and neuronal survival. Despite the importance of these endogenous factors in mediating posttraumatic recovery, little is known about their response after penetrating type traumatic brain injury. The objective of this study was to quantify the expression levels BDNF and IGF-1, two well-known neuroplasticity mediators, after penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI)...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628595/activity-based-therapy-from-basic-science-to-clinical-application-for-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Andrea L Behrman, Elizabeth M Ardolino, Susan J Harkema
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Collaboration between scientists and clinicians effectively accelerated translation of scientific evidence for activity-based therapies (ABTs) into rehabilitation. This article addresses the basic scientific findings of activity-dependent plasticity that led to locomotor training, an ABT, and its principles to advance recovery in adult and pediatric populations with spinal cord injury (SCI). Expansion to new therapies based on these common principles is highlighted, for example, epidural stimulation...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628593/consideration-of-dose-and-timing-when-applying-interventions-after-stroke-and-spinal-cord-injury
#18
D Michele Basso, Catherine E Lang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nearly 4 decades of investigation into the plasticity of the nervous system suggest that both timing and dose could matter. This article provides a synopsis of our lectures at the IV STEP meeting, which presented a perspective of current data on the issues of timing and dose for adult stroke and spinal cord injury motor rehabilitation. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: For stroke, the prevailing evidence suggests that greater amounts of therapy do not result in better outcomes for upper extremity interventions, regardless of timing...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628551/a-clinical-framework-for-functional-recovery-in-a-person-with-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-study
#19
Karen McCain, Staci Shearin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This case study describes a task-specific training program for gait walking and functional recovery in a young man with severe chronic traumatic brain injury. CASE DESCRIPTION: The individual was a 26-year-old man 4 years post-traumatic brain injury with severe motor impairments who had not walked outside of therapy since his injury. He had received extensive gait training prior to initiation of services. His goal was to recover the ability to walk...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628111/interaction-of-reactive-astrocytes-with-type-i-collagen-induces-astrocytic-scar-formation-through-the-integrin-n-cadherin-pathway-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Masamitsu Hara, Kazu Kobayakawa, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hiromi Kumamaru, Kazuya Yokota, Takeyuki Saito, Ken Kijima, Shingo Yoshizaki, Katsumi Harimaya, Yasuharu Nakashima, Seiji Okada
Central nervous system (CNS) injury transforms naive astrocytes into reactive astrocytes, which eventually become scar-forming astrocytes that can impair axonal regeneration and functional recovery. This sequential phenotypic change, known as reactive astrogliosis, has long been considered unidirectional and irreversible. However, we report here that reactive astrocytes isolated from injured spinal cord reverted in retrograde to naive astrocytes when transplanted into a naive spinal cord, whereas they formed astrocytic scars when transplanted into injured spinal cord, indicating the environment-dependent plasticity of reactive astrogliosis...
June 19, 2017: Nature Medicine
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