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lung calcification

Luciano Cardinale, Giorgia Dalpiaz, Ilaria Pulzato, Francesco Ardissone
Background: Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP) arising from the mediastinal pleura may be confused with primary mediastinal tumors. We studied the computerized tomographic (CT) findings of patients with SFTP that could suggest a diagnosis of SFTP. Materials and Methods: At our hospital from January 1995 to June 2012, 39 patients with histologically confirmed SFTP were surgically treated; seven of them abutting the mediastinal pleura. The study group included seven patients aged between 53 and 81 years...
March 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Kyoungjune Pak, Keunyoung Kim, Mi-Hyun Kim, Jung Seop Eom, Min Ki Lee, Jeong Su Cho, Yun Seong Kim, Bum Soo Kim, Seong Jang Kim, In Joo Kim
We aimed to develop a decision tree model to improve diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to detect metastatic lymph nodes (LN) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 115 patients with NSCLC were included in this study. The training dataset included 66 patients. A decision tree model was developed with 9 variables, and validated with 49 patients: short and long diameters of LNs, ratio of short and long diameters, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of LN, mean hounsfield unit, ratio of LN SUVmax and ascending aorta SUVmax (LN/AA), and ratio of LN SUVmax and superior vena cava SUVmax...
2018: PloS One
S A Lanham, F R Cagampang, R O C Oreffo
Studies suggest bone growth and development are influenced by maternal nutrition, during intrauterine and early postnatal life. This study assessed the role of MGP and a maternal high fat diet on vitamin K-dependent proteins' gene expression and their impact on bone formation. Knockout (KO) offspring were smaller than wild type (WT) littermates, yet possessed the same volume of intrascapular brown adipose tissue. The total proportion of body fat was reduced, but only in animals on a control diet. Lung air volume was observed to be comparable in both KO and WT animals on the same diet...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
John B West
One of the most interesting unanticipated findings by André Cournand and Dickinson Richards in their groundbreaking studies of cardiac catheterization was the very low pressure in the normal pulmonary circulation. At the time, in the 1940s, the significance of this was not appreciated. For example, in their speeches at the Nobel Prize ceremony, neither of these laureates referred to the low pressure, although they did discuss other features of the pulmonary circulation. It was up to the cardiologist, William Dock, to point out that these low pressures implied a very uneven distribution of blood flow in the lung, and in particular that in the normal upright lung, the blood flow to the apex would be extremely small...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
G K Kundu, S Ahmed, S Akhter, M T Islam, T Dwa, A M Sabbir
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a common neurocutaneous disorder characterized by hamartomatous changes in the lungs, brain, kidneys, skin, heart, and other organs. This retrospective study was done to see the clinical presentation and neuro imaging pattern of TSC in a tertiary care centre of Bangladesh and was conducted at Pediatric Neurology Unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2013 to December 2013. Among total 10 patients male-female ratio was 3:2...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Wookjin Choi, Jung Hun Oh, Sadegh Riyahi, Chia-Ju Liu, Feng Jiang, Wengen Chen, Charles White, Andreas Rimner, James G Mechalakos, Joseph O Deasy, Wei Lu
PURPOSE: To develop a radiomics prediction model to improve pulmonary nodule (PN) classification in low-dose CT. To compare the model with the American College of Radiology (ACR) Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) for early detection of lung cancer. METHODS: We examined a set of 72 PNs (31 benign and 41 malignant) from the Lung Image Database Consortium image collection (LIDC-IDRI). 103 CT radiomic features were extracted from each PN. Before the model building process, distinctive features were identified using a hierarchical clustering method...
February 19, 2018: Medical Physics
Kazuhide Shimamatsu, Yoshiki Naito, Yutaro Mihara, Masamichi Nakayama, Masahiko Tanigawa, Yushi Abe, Ken Nakamura, Toshihiro Araki, Kenji Sakata, Kazunori Noguchi, Jun Akiba, Hirohisa Yano, Osamu Nakashima
The present case study documents an autopsy case of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), with an associated invasive carcinoma of the pancreas. A 65-year-old woman presented to Omuta City Hospital (Omuta Japan) with a primary complaint of abdominal pain. Multiple liver nodules and a pancreatic cyst were detected upon abdominal computed tomography. Initially, liver abscess was suspected as the patient exhibited leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein level...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Felipe Aluja Jaramillo, Fernando R Gutierrez, Federico G Díaz Telli, Sebastian Yevenes Aravena, Cylen Javidan-Nejad, Sanjeev Bhalla
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a condition characterized by increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation. It may be idiopathic or arise in the setting of other clinical conditions. Patients with PH tend to present with nonspecific cardiovascular or respiratory symptoms. The clinical classification of PH was recently revised at the World Health Organization symposium in Nice, France, in 2013. That consensus statement provided an updated classification based on the shared hemodynamic characteristics and management of the different categories of PH...
February 12, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Nikolas Lessmann, Bram van Ginneken, Majd Zreik, Pim A de Jong, Bob D de Vos, Max A Viergever, Ivana Isgum
Heavy smokers undergoing screening with low-dose chest CT are affected by cardiovascular disease as much as by lung cancer. Low-dose chest CT scans acquired in screening enable quantification of atherosclerotic calcifications and thus enable identification of subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of coronary artery, thoracic aorta, and cardiac valve calcifications in low-dose chest CT using two consecutive convolutional neural networks. The first network identifies and labels potential calcifications according to their anatomical location and the second network identifies true calcifications among the detected candidates...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Daniel Bos, Maarten J G Leening
Non-contrast cardiac computed tomography in order to obtain the coronary artery calcium score has become an established diagnostic procedure in the clinical setting, and is commonly employed in clinical and population-based research. This state-of-the-art review paper highlights the potential gain in information that can be obtained from the non-contrast coronary calcium scans without any necessary modifications to the scan protocol. This includes markers of cardio-metabolic health, such as the amount of epicardial fat and liver fat, but also markers of general health including bone density and lung density...
January 30, 2018: European Radiology
Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk, Elżbieta Bernatowicz
Chest wall neoplasms mainly include malignancies, metastatic in particular. Differential diagnosis should include clinical data; tumor location, extent, delineation; the degree of homogeneity; the presence of calcifications; the nature of bone destruction and the degree of vascularization. The aim of the paper is to present both the benefits and limitations of ultrasound for the diagnosis of chest wall neoplasms. The neoplastic process may be limited to the chest wall; it may spread from the chest wall into the intrathoracic structures or spread from the inside of the chest towards the chest wall...
December 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
I Boldeanu, J Perreault Bishop, S Nepveu, L-M Stevens, G Soulez, T M Kieser, A Lamy, N Noiseux, C Chartrand-Lefebvre
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and clinical significance of incidental findings identified during computed tomography imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts. RESULTS: This prospective study includes 144 patients undergoing coronary graft patency assessment using computed tomography. Incidental findings were classified as significant if they were considered to need an immediate action or treatment, short-term work-up or follow-up, or minor. A total of 211 incidental findings were present in 109 (75...
January 25, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Farnaz Banezhad, Narjess Ayati, Farrokh Seilanian Toosi, Samine Boloursaz, S Rasoul Zakavi
Extraosseous accumulation of technetium-99m-methyl diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) on bone scan is not common. This phenomenon is often attributed to abnormality of calcium metabolism and has been reported in a variety of conditions including metabolic diseases and malignancies. A five years old boy is presented here, who was admitted to the pediatric emergency suffering from fatigue, respiratory symptoms, weight loss, intermittent fevers, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, edema of legs and abdominal distension for one month...
2018: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
Sotirios Tsimikas, Sergio Fazio, Keith C Ferdinand, Henry N Ginsberg, Marlys L Koschinsky, Santica M Marcovina, Patrick M Moriarty, Daniel J Rader, Alan T Remaley, Gissette Reyes-Soffer, Raul D Santos, George Thanassoulis, Joseph L Witztum, Simhan Danthi, Michelle Olive, Lijuan Liu
Pathophysiological, epidemiological, and genetic studies provide strong evidence that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a causal mediator of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). Specific therapies to address Lp(a)-mediated CVD and CAVD are in clinical development. Due to knowledge gaps, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute organized a working group that identified challenges in fully understanding the role of Lp(a) in CVD/CAVD. These included the lack of research funding, inadequate experimental models, lack of globally standardized Lp(a) assays, and inadequate understanding of the mechanisms underlying current drug therapies on Lp(a) levels...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Bart de Brouwer, Ianthe Piscaer, Jan H von der Thusen, Jan C Grutters, Roger Eg Schutgens, Emiel Fm Wouters, Rob Janssen
There is an ongoing need for additional interventions in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) as antifibrotic drugs currently available only inhibit and do not stall disease progression. Vitamin K is a co-factor for the activation of coagulation factors. However, it is also required to activate proteins with functions outside of the coagulation cascade, such as matrix Gla protein (MGP), a defender against soft tissue calcification. Vitamin K antagonists are anticoagulants that are, for unknown reasons, associated with increased mortality in IPF...
January 5, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Philip Dingli, Herbert Felice, Adrian Mizzi, Stephen Montefort
Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is a common condition of the mitral valve apparatus. A case involving caseous calcification, a rare variant of MAC is presented. This variant which has a benign course can present as an intracardiac mass and needs to be differentiated from more sinister causes of calcified cardiac masses such as tumor, abscess, and infective vegetation. Often, this requires multimodality imaging with echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Features of caseous calcification of the mitral valve on these imaging modalities are reviewed as the associations and clinical features...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Xiumei Li, Zhenshan Shi, Ruixiong You, Yueming Li, Dairong Cao, Renjie Lin, Xinming Huang
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the computed tomography (CT) and clinicopathological characteristics of inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT)-like follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) of the spleen in 5 patients. METHODS: Clinical, pathologic, and CT imaging findings of 5 patients with IPT-like FDCS of the spleen were reviewed and analyzed. Computed tomography imaging and pathologic features were compared. RESULTS: Abdominal unenhanced CT revealed a well-defined hypodense mass in the spleen with complex internal architecture with focal necrosis and/or speckle-strip calcification...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Hee Eun Lee, Eunhee S Yi, Jeffrey T Rabatin, J Kyle Bohman, Anja C Roden
BACKGROUND: The outcome of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) might be influenced by its complications. Only limited information is available regarding the pathologic consequences of ECMO especially in the era of modern ECMO technology. METHODS: We studied the histopathologic findings in autopsy lungs of patients treated with ECMO as compared to those without ECMO. Autopsy files were queried for cases with ECMO. An age and gender-matched control group, comprised of patients who died in the Intensive Care Unit without acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, or ECMO, was compared with patients with ECMO for cardiac reason...
December 20, 2017: Chest
Sanem Eren Akarcan, Ezgi Ulusoy Severcan, Neslihan Edeer Karaca, Esra Isik, Guzide Aksu, Mélanie Migaud, Ferda Evin Gurkan, Elif Azarsiz, Anne Puel, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Necil Kutukculer
Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis (CMC) is the chronic, recurrent, noninvasive Candida infections of the skin, mucous membranes, and nails. A 26-month-old girl was admitted with the complaints of recurrent oral Candidiasis, diarrhea, and respiratory infections. Candida albicans grew in oral mucosa swab. CMV and EBV DNA titers were elevated. She had hypergammaglobulinemia; IgE level, percentages of lymphocyte subgroups, and in vitro T-cell proliferation responses were normal. She had parenchymal nodules within the lungs and a calcific nodule in the liver...
2017: Case Reports in Immunology
Xiaofang You, Xiwen Sun, Chunyan Yang, Yong Fang
To investigate computed tomography (CT) characteristics of benign and malignant solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura (SFTPs).Preoperative CTs for 60 SFTP cases (49 benign and 11 malignant) with subsequently confirmed diagnoses were retrospectively analyzed.Tumor morphologies included mounded or mushroom umbrella-shape (19 cases, 31.7%), quasi-circular or oval-shape (30 cases, 50%), and growth resembling a casting mould (12 cases, 20%). Maximum tumor diameters were 1.1 to 18.9 cm (average: 6.4 ± 4.8 cm)...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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