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Pediatric Cardiac icu

Fabio de Araujo Motta, Libera Maria Dalla-Costa, Marisol Dominguez Muro, Andrea Lenzi, Gledson Luiz Picharski, Marion Burger
BACKGROUND: Candida species are the primary cause of invasive fungal infection in hospitalized children. There are few data on risk factors for postoperative candidemia in pediatric patients with congenital heart defects. This study aimed to identify risk factors for candidemia in patients with congenital heart defects who underwent cardiac surgery. METHODS: This was a case-control study conducted in patients admitted to a pediatric cardiology intensive care unit from January 2006 to December 2013...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Joseph A Carcillo, J Michael Dean, Richard Holubkov, John Berger, Kathleen L Meert, Kanwaljeet J S Anand, Jerry Zimmerman, Christopher J Newth, Rick Harrison, Jeri Burr, Douglas F Willson, Carol Nicholson, Michael J Bell, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Sabrina M Heidemann, Heidi Dalton, Tammara L Jenkins, Allan Doctor, Angie Webster
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infection remains an important health problem in long stay (>3 days) pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Admission risk factors related to the development of nosocomial infection in long stay immune competent patients in particular are not known. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the previously published Critical Illness Stress induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial database, to identify baseline risk factors for nosocomial infection...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Adriana Yock-Corrales, Flory Varela-Bulgarelli, Cary Barboza, Alfonso Gutierrez-Mata, Mark T Mackay, Franz Babl
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of stroke in a tertiary emergency department (ED) of a developing country. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective case series of patients aged 1 month to 18 years presenting to an ED with radiological confirmed acute stroke during a 7-year period were studied. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients were identified. Twenty-five patients were excluded because of incomplete records (8) or not presenting via ED (17)...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Michele G Mills, Priya M Mehta, Craig M Smith, Mark S Wainwright
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to characterize changes in cerebral blood flow measured using transcranial Doppler in children with central nervous system infections. We hypothesized that children with central nervous system infections have abnormal cerebral blood flow, associated with a greater frequency of complications and poor neurological outcome. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of children admitted to the neonatal or pediatric intensive care unit with central nervous system infection and undergoing transcranial Doppler as part of routine care between March 2011 and July 2015...
September 4, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Anu K Kaskinen, Laura Martelius, Turkka Kirjavainen, Paula Rautiainen, Sture Andersson, Olli M Pitkänen
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasounds show vertical artifacts known as B-lines in the presence of increased extravascular lung water (EVLW). We aimed to investigate whether lung ultrasound could estimate EVLW after congenital cardiac surgery. METHODS: This prospective observational study comprised 61 children (age range 3 days to 7.4 years) undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. We compared postoperative B-line scores from lung ultrasounds, early postoperative ultrasound as our primary interest, with corresponding postoperative chest radiography (CXR) lung edema scores, with static lung compliance, and with short-term clinical outcome interpreted as time on mechanical ventilation and length of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Roby Sebastian, Todd Ratliff, Peter D Winch, Dmitry Tumin, Daniel Gomez, Joseph Tobias, Mark Galantowicz, Aymen N Naguib
BACKGROUND: The majority of allogeneic transfusions occur in the perioperative setting, especially during cardiac surgery. In addition to the economic implications, there is emerging evidence that blood transfusion may increase both morbidity and mortality. Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) may limit the need for blood products. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to determine if the method of blood collection (syringe or bag) during the ANH process impacted the platelet count and function...
October 13, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Mineto Kamata, Corey Stiver, Aymen Naguib, Dmitry Tumin, Joseph D Tobias
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of ventricular morphology on perioperative outcomes during Fontan surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single standing, not-for-profit pediatric hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 72 patients who underwent Fontan surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass without aortic cross-clamp between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014. INTERVENTIONS: None...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Nagat S El-Shmaa, Doaa El Amrousy, Wael El Feky
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of pre-emptive dexmedetomidine versus amiodarone in preventing junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) in pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN: This is a prospective, controlled study. SETTING: This study was carried out at a single university hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety patients of both sexes, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status II and III, age range from 2 to 18 years, and scheduled for elective cardiac surgery for congenital and acquired heart diseases were selected as the study participants...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Mindl M Messinger, Kimberly L Dinh, Erin J McDade, Brady S Moffett, Angus A Wilfong, Antonio G Cabrera
BACKGROUND: Advances in cardiac operations over the last few decades, including corrective operations in early life, have dramatically increased the survival of children with congenital heart disease. However, postoperative care has been associated with neurologic complications, with seizures being the most common manifestation. The primary objective of this study is to describe the outcomes in pediatric patients who received an antiepileptic drug (AED) post-cardiac surgery. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was performed in all patients less than 18 years of age who received an AED in the cardiovascular intensive care unit at Texas Children's Hospital from June 2002 until June 2012...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Sophie Geoghegan, Kate Oulton, Catherine Bull, Joe Brierley, Mark Peters, Jo Wray
OBJECTIVE: Meeting the needs of parents of critically ill children is increasingly being recognized as an important factor in the child's clinical outcome as well as the implications it has for future parenting. Little is specifically known about the experience of parents who have a child in the ICU for a prolonged period. Our objective was to understand the experiences of this group to assist in the identification of mechanisms for providing support. DESIGN: Qualitative study based on semistructured interviews...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Sachin D Tadphale, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Jeffrey M Gossett, Brandon W Beam, Asif Padiyath, Michael L Schmitz, Punkaj Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes associated with the use of inhaled nitric oxide during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of data from an existing administrative national database, Pediatric Health Information system (2004-2014). Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to study the effect of inhaled nitric oxide during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on study outcomes. SETTING: Forty-two children's hospitals across the United States...
September 13, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Reena Khantwal Joshi, Neeraj Aggarwal, Mridul Agarwal, Veronique Dinand, Raja Joshi
OBJECTIVE: To delineate risk factors for failure of extubation in the operating room among pediatric cardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Single center, tertiary care, teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 448 congenital cardiac surgery patients who were enrolled for intended extubation in the pediatric cardiac operating room over 5 years. INTERVENTIONS: The airways of enrolled patients were extubated in the operating room if predetermined suitability criteria were met...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
G F Yan, C M Zhang, X Y Hong, Y Wang, C F Liu, P F Zhang, L Xiang, G F Wen, Z H Yang, X Xu, S Y Qian, G P Lu
OBJECTIVE: To review the use of non-open chest extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. METHOD: The survey was conducted in 28 tertiary hospitals in China mainland from March to October 2015. All children <18 years of age have been supported with non-open chest ECMO in PICU were reviewed.Patient demographics, diagnosis, indication for ECMO, details of ECMO support, complications, and patient survival were analyzed...
September 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Suhail Sarwar Siddiqui, S Janarthanan, M M Harish, Harish Chaudhari, R Natesh Prabu, Jigeeshu V Divatia, Atul Prabhakar Kulkarni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The oncologists are treating cancer more aggressively, leading to increase in number of pediatric admissions to the ICU. Due to anatomical and physiological differences, pediatric patients are at high risk of complications during intubation. We evaluated the incidence of complications during intubations in pediatric patients in our ICU. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of complications occurring during intubation in 42 pediatric patients...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Jean-Louis Vincent, Amanda Quintairos E Silva, Lúcio Couto, Fabio S Taccone
BACKGROUND: The time course of blood lactate levels could be helpful to assess a patient's response to therapy. Although the focus of published studies has been largely on septic patients, many other studies have reported serial blood lactate levels in different groups of acutely ill patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Science Direct, and Embase until the end of February 2016 plus reference lists of relevant publications. We selected all observational and interventional studies that evaluated the capacity of serial blood lactate concentrations to predict outcome...
August 13, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Jian Xiao, Liang Yin, Yiyun Lin, Yufeng Zhang, Lihui Wu, Zhinong Wang
BACKGROUND: Children with infective endocarditis (IE) have to undergo valve replacement instead of valve repair in China due to severe valve damage. The present study is to review our experience on surgical treatment of children with IE in reference to the incidence, pathologic status, diagnosis, surgical strategies and outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed 35 patients with a mean age of 13.7±2.2 years who were underwent valve replacement surgery for IE during the period from January 1993 to December 2013...
July 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Howard E Jeffries, Michael G Gaies
OBJECTIVES: In this review, the current state of outcomes analysis and quality improvement in children with acquired and congenital cardiovascular disease will be discussed, with an emphasis on defining and measuring outcomes and quality in pediatric cardiac critical care medicine and risk stratification systems. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE and PubMed CONCLUSION: : Measuring quality and outcomes in the pediatric cardiac critical care environment is challenging owing to many inherent obstacles, including a diverse patient mix, difficulty in determining how the care of the ICU team contributes to outcomes, and the lack of an adequate risk-adjustment method for pediatric cardiac critical care patients...
August 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Viviane G Nasr, James A DiNardo
OBJECTIVES: This review will focus on the pharmacokinetics (with an emphasis on the context-sensitive half-time), pharmacodynamics, and hemodynamic characteristics of the most commonly used sedative/hypnotic, analgesic, and IV anesthetics used in cardiac intensive care. In addition, the assessment of pain and agitation and withdrawal will be reviewed. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE, PubMed. CONCLUSIONS: Children in the cardiac ICU often require one or more components of general anesthesia: analgesia, amnesia (sedation and hypnosis), and muscle relaxation to facilitate mechanical ventilation, to manage postoperative pain, to perform necessary procedures, and to alleviate fear and anxiety...
August 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Nancy S Ghanayem, George M Hoffman
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to discuss the technology and clinical interpretation of near infrared spectroscopy oximetry and its clinical application in patients with congenital heart disease. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE and PubMed. CONCLUSION: Near infrared spectroscopy provides a continuous noninvasive assessment of tissue oxygenation. Over 20 years ago, near infrared spectroscopy was introduced into clinical practice for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults...
August 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Joseph W Rossano, Antonio G Cabrera, Robert E Shaddy
OBJECTIVES: Although there have been tremendous advancements in the care of severe pediatric cardiovascular disease, heart transplantation remains the standard therapy for end-stage heart disease in children. As such, these patients comprise an important and often complex subset of patients in the ICU. The purpose of this article is to review the causes and management of allograft dysfunction and the medications used in the transplant population. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane Database of systemic reviews...
August 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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