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Jeong In Kim, Cheol Sang Kim
The cells respond to their microenvironment which is comparable size to the cells. The macroscale features of three dimensional (3D) printing struts (PS) typically result in whole cell contact guidance (CCG). In contrast, at the nanoscale, where features are similar size to receptors of the cells, the response of cells is more complex. In detail, integrin that is one of the cellular receptors involved with cell adhesion is recognized as communication channels through that the cells interact with adjacent surface features...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yin-Qiu Fan, Jing-Cheng Cui, Jun Yang, Pin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of "Huayu Tongluo"(Blood-stasis Dispersing and Meridian-collateral Dredging) moxibustion on the delayed memory and expression of Nestin and Doublecortin (DCX) proteins in the hippocampus in vascular dementia (VD) rats in the view of neurogenesis produced by intracerebral transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). METHODS: Healthy male Wistar rats were randomized into control group, VD model group,NSCs+EPCs group and NSCs+EPCs moxibustion group...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Andrea E Toth, Piotr Siupka, Thomas J P Augustine, Susanne T Venø, Louiza B Thomsen, Torben Moos, Hannes T Lohi, Peder Madsen, Karin Lykke-Hartmann, Morten S Nielsen
Receptor- and adsorptive-mediated transport through brain endothelial cells (BEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) involves a complex array of subcellular vesicular structures, the endo-lysosomal system. It consists of several types of vesicles, such as early, recycling, and late endosomes, retromer-positive structures, and lysosomes. Since this system is important for receptor-mediated transcytosis of drugs across brain capillaries, our aim was to characterise the endo-lysosomal system in BEC with emphasis on their interactions with astrocytes...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Érica Lofrano Reghine, Caio César Inaco Cirino, André Amate Neto, Fabiana Rossi Varallo, Paulo Roberto Barbosa Évora, Tales Rubens de Nadai
BACKGROUND Kirschner wires are often used to perform osteosynthesis. Migration through tissue of these wires is a rare but well-known occurrence. CASE REPORT A 65-year-old female presented with light intensity pain complaints in the upper left chest area; personal history included left clavicle fracture 20 years ago that was treated surgically with fixation using a K-wire. Chest radiography showed the presence of metallic foreign body in the left pulmonary apex. An exploratory axillary thoracotomy was performed, and the foreign body was extracted by a pneumotomy...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Austin J Roebke, Adam S Martin, Zubair Sarmast, Erica Fisk, Kanu S Goyal
PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy of a distal-first open reduction internal plate fixation technique in achieving correction of volar tilt in dorsally angulated distal radius fractures. METHODS: Twenty foam radius models were divided evenly into groups N (normal) and O (osteoporotic). Dorsally angulated extra-articular distal radius fractures were then created. Group O underwent further modification to simulate an osteoporotic model. After static pinning in various degrees of dorsal angulation, opaque fiducial markers were placed and fluoroscopy was used to measure prereduction volar tilt...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Maria Spies, Jakub Polaczynski, Akhil Ajay, Dipankar Kalita, Jonas Lähnemann, Bruno Gayral, Martien den Hertog, Eva Monroy
Nanowire photodetectors are investigated because of their compatibility with flexible electronics, or for the implementation of on-chip optical interconnects. Such devices are characterized by ultrahigh photocurrent gain, but their photoresponse scales sublinearly with the optical power. Here, we present a study of single-nanowire photodetectors displaying a linear response to ultraviolet illumination. Their structure consists of a GaN nanowire incorporating an AlN/GaN/AlN heterostructure, which generates an internal electric field...
March 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ciarán Condon, Jéremie Piton, Frédérique Braun
We recently identified a novel ribonuclease in Bacillus subtilis called Rae1 that cleaves mRNAs in a translation-dependent manner. Rae1 is a member of the NYN/PIN family of ribonucleases and is highly conserved in the Firmicutes, the Cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of photosynthetic algae and plants. We have proposed a model in which Rae1 enters the A-site of ribosomes that are paused following translation of certain sequences that are still ill-defined. In the only case identified thus far, Rae1 cleaves between a conserved glutamate and lysine codon during translation of a short peptide called S1025...
March 20, 2018: RNA Biology
Ying-Hua Zhao, Shi-Jian Zhang, Zi-Hui Yang, Xiao-Chang Liu, De-Lin Lei, Jing Li, Lei Wang
Distraction osteogenesis is an important technique for the treatment of maxillofacial abnormities and defects. However, distraction osteogenesis may cause the injury of the inferior alveolar nerve. The relationship between distraction rate and nerve degeneration-regeneration shift remains poorly understood. In this study, 24 rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. To establish the rabbit mandibular distraction osteogenesis model, the mandibles of rabbits in distraction osteogenesis groups were subjected to continuous osteogenesis distraction at a rate of 1...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Mayank Kaashyap, Rebecca Ford, Himabindu Kudapa, Mukesh Jain, Dave Edwards, Rajeev Varshney, Nitin Mantri
Salinity is a major constraint for intrinsically salt sensitive grain legume chickpea. Chickpea exhibits large genetic variation amongst cultivars, which show better yields in saline conditions but still need to be improved further for sustainable crop production. Based on previous multi-location physiological screening, JG 11 (salt tolerant) and ICCV 2 (salt sensitive) were subjected to salt stress to evaluate their physiological and transcriptional responses. A total of ~480 million RNA-Seq reads were sequenced from root tissues which resulted in identification of 3,053 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to salt stress...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jianming Lu, Oleksandr Zheliuk, Qihong Chen, Inge Leermakers, Nigel E Hussey, Uli Zeitler, Jianting Ye
Many recent studies show that superconductivity not only exists in atomically thin monolayers but can exhibit enhanced properties such as a higher transition temperature and a stronger critical field. Nevertheless, besides being unstable in air, the weak tunability in these intrinsically metallic monolayers has limited the exploration of monolayer superconductivity, hindering their potential in electronic applications (e.g., superconductor-semiconductor hybrid devices). Here we show that using field effect gating, we can induce superconductivity in monolayer WS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition, a typical ambient-stable semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD), and we are able to access a complete set of competing electronic phases over an unprecedented doping range from band insulator, superconductor, to a reentrant insulator at high doping...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Frans Jongejan, Bi-Ling Su, Hsiang-Ju Yang, Laura Berger, Judith Bevers, Pin-Chen Liu, Jou-Chien Fang, Ya-Wen Cheng, Charlotte Kraakman, Nadine Plaxton
BACKGROUND: Babesia gibsoni is the predominant tick-borne protozoan blood parasite affecting dogs throughout the Oriental region. Babesia gibsoni is transmitted by Haemaphysalis longicornis, whereas a similar role has been suggested for Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Haemaphysalis longicornis does not occur in Taiwan, but R. sanguineus is widely distributed on dogs. However, clinical cases of babesiosis are mainly restricted to the northern part of the island. The discrepancy between tick distribution and clinical cases stimulated us to investigate the tick species distribution on dogs in northern Taiwan, with the aim to identify the local vector for canine babesiosis...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Chih-Yu Wu, Hung-Pin Hsieh, Shih-Ting Chen, Ting-Yu Liu, Hsien-Yeh Chen
An electrically induced bottom-up process was introduced for the fabrication of multifunctional nanostructures of polymers. Without requiring complicated photolithography or printing techniques, the fabrication process first produced a conducting template by colloidal lithography to create an interconnected conduction pathway. By supplying an electrical charge to the conducting network, the conducting areas were enabled with a highly energized surface that generally deactivated the adsorbed reactive species and inhibited the vapor deposition of poly-p-xylylene polymers...
March 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Amjed Alabresm, Yung Pin Chen, Alan W Decho, Jamie Lead
Releases of crude oil and other types of oil from numerous sources can impose catastrophic physical, chemical, and biological effects on aquatic ecosystems. While currently-used oil removal techniques possess many advantages, they have inherent limitations, including low removal efficiencies and waste disposal challenges. The present study quantified the synergistic interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated magnetite nanoparticles (NP) and oil-degrading bacteria for enhanced oil removal at the laboratory scale...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shih-Han Wang, Chuen-Yu Cheng, Chao-Jung Chen, Hong-Lin Chan, Hsin-Hsin Chen, Pin-Chi Tang, Chih-Feng Chen, Yen-Pai Lee, San-Yuan Huang
Heat stress leads to decreased fertility in roosters. This study investigated the global protein expression in response to acute heat stress in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens (TCCs). Twelve 45-week-old roosters were randomly allocated to the control group maintained at 25°C, and three groups subjected to acute heat stress at 38°C for 4 h, with 0, 2, and 6 h of recovery, respectively. Testis samples were collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, apoptosis assay, and protein analysis...
March 19, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Zoran Marinović, Jelena Lujić, Eszter Kása, Zsolt Csenki, Béla Urbányi, Ákos Horváth
Current trends in science and biotechnology lead to creation of thousands of new lines in model organisms thereby leading to the necessity for new methods for safe storage of genetic resources beyond the common practices of keeping breeding colonies. The main purpose of this study was to adapt the needle immersed vitrification (NIV) procedure to cryopreserve whole zebrafish testes. Cryopreservation of early-stage germ cells by whole testes NIV offers possibilities for the storage of zebrafish genetic resources, especially since after transplantation they can mature into both male and female gametes...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chao Xiong, Zhiquan Zhang, Gurpreet S Baht, Niccolo Terrando
Surgery is commonly used to improve and maintain quality of life. Unfortunately, in vulnerable patients such as the elderly, complications may occur and significantly diminish the outcome. Indeed, after routine orthopedic surgery to repair a fracture, as many as 50% of elderly patients suffer from neurologic complications like delirium. Also, the capacity to heal and regenerate tissue after surgery decreases with age, and can impact the quality of fracture repair and even osseous integration of implants. Thus, a better understanding of mechanisms that drive these age-dependent changes could provide strategic targets to minimize risk for such complications and optimize outcomes...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Keke Fu, Rongbin Wang, Takayoshi Katase, Hiromichi Ohta, Norbert Koch, Steffen Duhm
Using photoemission spectroscopy, we show that the surface electronic structure of VO2 is determined by the temperature-dependent metal-insulator phase transition and the density of oxygen vacancies, which depends on the temperature and ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The atomically clean and stoichiometric VO2 surface is insulating at room temperature and features an ultrahigh work function of up to 6.7 eV. Heating in UHV just above the phase transition temperature induces the expected metallic phase, which goes in hand with the formation of oxygen defects (up to 6% in this study), but a high work function >6 eV is maintained...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yoshiaki Hattori, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Kosuke Nagashio
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an important insulating substrate for two-dimensional (2D) heterostructure devices and possesses high dielectric strength comparable to SiO2. Here, we report two clear differences in their physical properties. The first one is the occurrence of Fermi level pinning at the metal/h-BN interface, unlike that at the metal/SiO2 interface. The second difference is that the carrier polarity of Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling through h-BN is that of a hole, which is opposite to that of an electron in the case of SiO2...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jimmy Tat, Adam Hart, Adam Cota, Khalid Alsheikh, Dominique Behrends, Paul A Martineau
Distal biceps tendon ruptures are treated operatively in active healthy individuals. Treatment consists of either single- or double-incision techniques, each with its own set of advantages and complications. The double incision was traditionally preferred for a more anatomic reattachment of the distal biceps tendon, but there has been renewed interest in the single-incision anterior approach given its lower risk for heterotopic ossification. However, current single-incision techniques cannot achieve anatomic reconstruction of the distal biceps because of a restricted operational angle with standard rigid instruments...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Jungeun Won, Guillermo L Monroy, Pin-Chieh Huang, Roshan Dsouza, Malcolm C Hill, Michael A Novak, Ryan G Porter, Eric Chaney, Ronit Barkalifa, Stephen A Boppart
Pneumatic otoscopy to assess the mobility of the tympanic membrane (TM) is a highly recommended diagnostic method of otitis media (OM), a widespread middle ear infection characterized by the fluid accumulation in the middle ear. Nonetheless, limited depth perception and subjective interpretation of small TM displacements have challenged the appropriate and efficient examination of TM dynamics experienced during OM. In this paper, a pneumatic otoscope integrated with low coherence interferometry (LCI) was adapted with a controlled pressure-generating system to record the pneumatic response of the TM and to estimate middle ear pressure (MEP)...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
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