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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634143/pcr-based-verification-of-positive-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-intestinal-protozoa-infections-with-variable-test-band-intensity
#1
Sören L Becker, Ivan Müller, Pascal Mertens, Mathias Herrmann, Leyli Zondie, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Rosa du Randt, Uwe Pühse, Cheryl Walter, Jürg Utzinger
Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections...
June 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631116/environmental-factors-and-zoonotic-pathogen-ecology-in-urban-exploiter-species
#2
REVIEW
Jamie L Rothenburger, Chelsea H Himsworth, Nicole M Nemeth, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R...
June 19, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627357/the-heat-shock-protein-90-of-toxoplasma-gondii-is-essential-for-invasion-of-host-cells-and-tachyzoite-growth
#3
Hongchao Sun, Xunhui Zhuo, Xianfeng Zhao, Yi Yang, Xueqiu Chen, Chaoqun Yao, Aifang Du
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded vertebrates. Heat shock proteins (HSP) regulate key signal transduction events in many organisms, and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays an important role in growth, development, and virulence in several parasitic protozoa. Here, we discovered increased transcription of the Hsp90 gene under conditions for bradyzoite differentiation, i.e. alkaline and heat shock conditions in vitro, suggesting that Hsp90 may be connected with bradyzoite development in T...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626451/dependency-of-b-1-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-splenic-interleukin-10-producing-cells-and-impairment-of-macrophage-resistance-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#4
Angélica Fernandes Arcanjo, Dirlei Nico, Gabriellen Menezes Migliani de Castro, Yasmin da Silva Fontes, Paula Saltarelli, Debora Decote-Ricardo, Marise P Nunes, Antônio Ferreira-Pereira, Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa, Célio G Freire-de-Lima, Alexandre Morrot
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoa parasites transmitted by infected sand fly vectors. This disease represents the second in mortality among tropical infections and is associated to a profound immunosuppression state of the host. The hallmark of this infection-induced host immunodeviation is the characteristic high levels of the regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine. In the present study, we investigated the role of B-1 cells in the maintenance of splenic IL-10 levels that could interfere with resistance to parasite infection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623574/the-bactericidal-effect-of-simultaneous-titanium-oxide-on-common-hospital-bacteria
#5
Ziaeddin Bonyadi, Maisam Mirzaee, Mohammad Mehdi Ejtehadi, Mehdi Mokhtari
Bacteria prevalence has increased in health centers and hospitals. Infection control can decrease the number of bacteria. Bacteria cause 90% of nosocomial infections and fungi, viruses, or protozoa are less involved. Bacteria control can decrease the number of diseases. The Simultaneous titanium oxide (SMTiO) is a new method of disinfection. This process degrades bacteria by producing hydroxyl radical. The present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the bactericidal effect of simultaneous titanium oxide on common hospital bacteria...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617666/parasitic-diseases-of-camels-in-iran-1931-2017-a-literature-review
#6
Alireza Sazmand, Anja Joachim
Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) and 100-300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus) live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616494/community-based-surveillance-of-zoonotic-parasites-in-a-one-health-world-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
J M Schurer, E Mosites, C Li, S Meschke, P Rabinowitz
The One Health (OH) concept provides an integrated framework for observing and improving health issues involving human, animal, and environmental factors, and has been applied in particular to zoonotic disease problems. We conducted a systematic review of English and Chinese language peer-reviewed and grey literature databases to identify zoonotic endoparasite research utilizing an OH approach in community-based settings. Our review identified 32 articles where specimens collected simultaneously from all three OH domains (people, animals, and the environment) were assessed for endoparasite infection or exposure...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615837/trypanocidal-action-of-lippia-alba-and-lippia-origanoides-essential-oils-against-trypanosoma-evansi-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-used-mice-as-experimental-model
#8
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine de Freitas Souza, Rosa Helena Veras Mourão, Lenise Vargas Flores da Silva, Silvia G Monteiro
Parasitic diseases have an enormous health and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Disease caused by protozoa, such as trypanosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the trypanocidal effectiveness of Lippia alba and Lippia origanoides against Trypanosoma evansi in vitro and in vivo. L. alba and L. origanoides were used in vitro on trypomastigotes at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611746/adaptations-to-high-salt-in-a-halophilic-protist-differential-expression-and-gene-acquisitions-through-duplications-and-gene-transfers
#9
Tommy Harding, Andrew J Roger, Alastair G B Simpson
The capacity of halophiles to thrive in extreme hypersaline habitats derives partly from the tight regulation of ion homeostasis, the salt-dependent adjustment of plasma membrane fluidity, and the increased capability to manage oxidative stress. Halophilic bacteria, and archaea have been intensively studied, and substantial research has been conducted on halophilic fungi, and the green alga Dunaliella. By contrast, there have been very few investigations of halophiles that are phagotrophic protists, i.e., protozoa...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608306/replacement-of-alfalfa-hay-medicago-sativa-l-with-subabul-leucaena-leucocephala-leaf-meal-in-diets-of-najdi-goats-effect-on-digestion-activity-of-rumen-microorganisms
#10
Tahereh Mohammadabadi, Alireza Jolazadeh
This study investigated the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by subabul leaf meal (SLM) on digestion, fermentation parameters and rumen bacteria and fungi activity of Najdi goats. Six Najdi goats (150 ± 15 days of age and initial body weight of 35 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (three goats per treatment) for 56 days. Experimental treatments included alfalfa hay as control group and diet containing SLM (SLM replacing alfalfa hay at 50% level)...
June 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605138/pharmacoinformatic-study-on-the-selective-inhibition-of-the-protozoan-dihydrofolate-reductase-enzymes
#11
Vishnu K Sharma, Sheenu Abbat, P V Bharatam
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an essential enzyme of the folate metabolic pathway in protozoa and it is a validated, potential drug target in many infectious diseases. Information about unique conserved residues of the DHFR enzyme is required to understand residual selectivity of the protozoan DHFR enzyme. The three dimensional crystal structures are not available for all the protozoan DHFR enzymes. Enzyme-substrate/inhibitor interaction information is required for the binding mode characterization in protozoan DHFR for selective inhibitor design...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603688/novel-piroplasmid-and-hepatozoon-organisms-infecting-the-wildlife-of-two-regions-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#12
Herbert S Soares, Arlei Marcili, Amália R M Barbieri, Antonio H H Minervino, Thiago Rocha Moreira, Solange M Gennari, Marcelo B Labruna
During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon) or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer (Mazama americana), Theileria spp...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602271/animal-microbial-and-fungal-borne-skin-pathology-in-the-mountain-wilderness-a-review
#13
REVIEW
William E Brandenburg, William Levandowski, Tom Califf, Cory Manly, Cecilia Blair Levandowski
Mountains are home to numerous organisms known to cause skin disease. Bites, stings, poisons, chemicals, toxins, trauma, and infections all contribute to this end. Numerous plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa are responsible. This paper aims to review skin illness and injury sustained from organisms in the mountains of North America. Other factors such as increased ultraviolet radiation, temperature extremes, and decreasing atmospheric pressure along with human physiologic parameters, which contribute to disease severity, will also be discussed...
June 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597089/vosalophen-a-vanadium-complex-with-a-stilbene-derivative-induction-of-apoptosis-autophagy-and-efficiency-in-experimental-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#14
Patrícia de A Machado, Jessica O F Morais, Gustavo S G Carvalho, Wallace P Lima, Gilson C Macedo, Elizandra A Britta, Celso V Nakamura, Adilson D da Silva, Alexandre Cuin, Elaine S Coimbra
In our previous work, we demonstrated the promising in vitro effect of VOSalophen, a vanadium complex with a stilbene derivative, against Leishmania amazonensis. Its antileishmanial activity has been associated with oxidative stress in L. amazonensis promastigotes and L. amazonensis-infected macrophages. In the present study, the mechanism involved in the death of parasites after treatment with VOSalophen, as well as in vivo effect in the murine model cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been investigated. Promastigotes of L...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593695/protozoa-inhibition-by-different-salts-osmotic-stress-or-ionic-stress
#15
Changhao Li, Jingya Li, Christopher Q Lan, Dankui Liao
Cell density and morphology changes were tested to examine the effects of salts including NaHCO3 , NaCl, KHCO3 and KCl at 160 mM on protozoa. It was demonstrated that ionic stress rather than osmotic stress led to protozoa cell death and NaHCO3 was shown to be the most effective inhibitor. Deformation of cells and cell shrinkage were observed when protozoan cells were exposed to PEG or any of the salts. However, while PEG treated cells could fully recover in both number and size, only a small portion of the salt-treated cells survive and cell size was 36% -58% smaller than regular...
June 8, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592266/urgent-needs-in-fostering-neglected-tropical-diseases-ntds-laboratory-capacity-in-who-western-pacific-region-results-from-the-external-quality-assessment-on-ntds-diagnosis-in-2012-2015
#16
Yan Lu, Glenda Gonzales, Shao-Hong Chen, Hao Li, Yu-Chun Cai, Yan-Hong Chu, Lin Ai, Mu-Xin Chen, Hai-Ning Chen, Jia-Xu Chen
BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a heterogeneous group of mainly chronic, debilitating and often stigmatizing diseases that largely affects low-income and politically marginalized populations, causing a large burden of public health, social and economies in the NTDs endemic countries. NTDs are caused by infections with a range of pathogen, including bacteria, parasites, protozoa and viruses. The accurate diagnosis of NTDs is important for reducing morbidity, preventing mortality and for monitoring of control programs...
June 8, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591758/are-the-polyomaviruses-bk-and-jc-associated-with-opportunistic-infections-graft-versus-host-disease-or-worse-outcomes-in-adult-patients-receiving-their-first-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-low-dose-alemtuzumab
#17
Laila Schneidewind, Thomas Neumann, Florian Knoll, Kathrin Zimmermann, Sigrun Smola, Christian Andreas Schmidt, William Krüger
BACKGROUND: The association of polyomaviruses BK and JC with other opportunistic infections and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation is controversially discussed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 64 adult patients who received their first allogeneic stem cell transplantation between March 2010 and December 2014; the follow-up time was 2 years. RESULTS: Acute leukemia was the most frequent underlying disease (45...
June 8, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591183/acanthamoeba-castellanii-is-not-be-an-adequate-model-to-study-human-adenovirus-interactions-with-macrophagic-cells
#18
Elodie Maisonneuve, Estelle Cateau, Nicolas Leveque, Sihem Kaaki, Agnès Beby-Defaux, Marie-Hélène Rodier
Free living amoebae (FLA) including Acanthamoeba castellanii, are protozoa that feed on different microorganisms including viruses. These microorganisms show remarkable similarities with macrophages in cellular structures, physiology or ability to phagocyte preys, and some authors have therefore wondered whether Acanthamoeba and macrophages are evolutionary related. It has been considered that this amoeba may be an in vitro model to investigate relationships between pathogens and macrophagic cells. So, we intended in this study to compare the interactions between a human adenovirus strain and A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584161/parasitic-protozoa-and-interactions-with-the-host-intestinal-microbiota
#19
Stacey L Burgess, Carol A Gilchrist, Tucker C Lynn, William A Petri
Parasitic protozoan infections represent a major health burden in the developing world and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. These infections are often associated with considerable variability in clinical presentation. An emerging body of work suggests that the intestinal microbiota may help to explain some of these differences in disease expression. The objective of this minireview is to synthesize recent progress in this rapidly advancing field. Studies in humans, animal models and in vitro concerning the contribution of the intestinal microbiota to infectious disease will be discussed...
June 5, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582618/estimating-infection-risks-and-the-global-burden-of-diarrheal-disease-attributable-to-intermittent-water-supply-using-qmra
#20
Aaron Bivins, Trent Sumner, Emily Kumpel, Guy Howard, Oliver Cumming, Ian Ross, Kara L Nelson, Joe Brown
Intermittent water supply (IWS) is prevalent throughout low and middle-income countries. IWS is associated with increased microbial contamination and potentially elevated risk of waterborne illness. We used existing datasets to estimate the population exposed to IWS, assess the probability of infection using quantitative microbial risk assessment, and calculate the subsequent burden of diarrheal disease attributable to consuming fecally contaminated tap water from an IWS. We used reference pathogens Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, and rotavirus as conservative risk proxies for infections via bacteria, protozoa, and viruses, respectively...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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