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Shumin Xiao, Pengna Yin, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Liping Sun, Hongying Yuan, Jingfang Lu, Sike Hu
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are critical parasites in the etiology of diarrhea worldwide, and often cause waterborne outbreaks. The presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational lakes was investigated with molecular characterization, and a comprehensive quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of protozoan infections was performed, considering multiple exposure pathways, differences in age, sex, and disease severity, and the genotypes of the protozoa. Forty-three (82.7%) and 51 (98.1%) water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, respectively, with average counts of 3...
May 10, 2018: Water Research
Gaoussou Coulibaly, Mamadou Ouattara, Kouassi Dongo, Eveline Hürlimann, Fidèle K Bassa, Naférima Koné, Clémence Essé, Richard B Yapi, Bassirou Bonfoh, Jürg Utzinger, Giovanna Raso, Eliézer K N'Goran
Hundreds of millions of people are infected with helminths and intestinal protozoa, particularly children in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive chemotherapy is the main strategy to control helminthiases. However, rapid re-infection occurs in settings where there is a lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. In August and September 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in 56 communities of three departments of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Study participants were invited to provide stool and urine samples...
May 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
Yannara Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Celeste da Silva Freitas de Souza, Jamille Maia E Magalhães, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo de Sousa, Luiz Ney d'Escoffier, Tânia Zaverucha do Valle, Teresa Cristina Monte Gonçalves, Hélcio Reinaldo Gil-Santana, Thais Aaparecida Kazimoto, Sthenia Santos Albano Amora
INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi. Its main reservoir is the domestic dog, especially in rural areas with favorable characteristics for vector establishment and proliferation. The aims of this study were to collect data, survey and map the fauna, and identify T. cruzi infection in triatomines, as well as to assess the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies in dogs in rural areas of the municipality of Mossoró, Brazil. METHODS: An active entomologic research was conducted to identify adult specimens through an external morphology dichotomous key...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Steven J Zottoli, Ernst-August Seyfarth
The ability to maintain human brain explants in tissue culture was a critical step in the use of these cells for the study of central nervous system disorders. Ross G. Harrison (1870-1959) was the first to successfully maintain frog medullary tissue in culture in 1907, but it took another 38 years before successful culture of human brain tissue was accomplished. One of the pioneers in this achievement was Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962). Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Elham Karimizadeh, Morteza Chaji, Tahereh Mohammadabadi
This study was conducted to compare effects of 3 physical forms of feed including mash (diet 1), pellet (diet 2) and complete feed block (CFB; diet 3) on digestion, fermentation and performance of lambs. Twenty-one lambs with an initial average body weight of 26 ± 2.5 kg and 6 ± 1.5 months of age were assigned through a completely randomized design to 3 treatments and 7 replicates. The experimental treatments had the same formulation. The results of present experiment showed that CFB significantly increased feed intake and nutrient digestibility ( P  < 0...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
Ayoub Azizi, Afrooz Sharifi, Arash Azarfar, Ali Kiani, Alireza Jolazadeh
This study investigated the effects of recycled poultry bedding (RPB) on performance and protozoa population, microbial enzyme activity and microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in rumen contents of fattening lambs. Thirty-six male Moghani lambs (31.4 ± 3.2 kg body weight) were fed iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets containing 0, 70, 140 or 210 g/kg dry matter (DM) RPB in a balanced randomized design (9 lambs per treatment). Results showed that final body weight, DM intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were unchanged ( P  > 0...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
Carlos Daniel Sánchez Cárdenas, Yolanda Judith Álvarez Luna, Yesenia Bello Hernández, Daniel Asz Sigall, Roberto Arenas Guzmán
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a worldwide infectious disease caused by flagellate protozoa of the genus Leishmania . In America, the species most commonly responsible for CL are L. mexicana and L. brasiliensis . Usually, in America, it is transmitted by sand flies mainly of the genus Lutzomyia and Psychodopygus . CL most commonly affects exposed areas and is characterized by an erythematous infiltrated and ulcerated papular or nodular lesion. We report a 28-year-old male, with a 6-month history and a previous trip to the forest in the south of Mexico...
April 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
Leonard Kachienga, Keshri Jitendra, Maggy Momba
Biodegradation of hydrocarbons by indigenous populations of microorganisms found in petroleum-contaminated water sources represents one of the primary mechanisms by which petroleum and other hydrocarbon pollutants are eliminated from the aquatic environment. The identification of these microorganisms, which have capabilities to convert the majority of toxic hydrocarbons into compounds that are less harmful for end-users, is therefore crucial for bioremediation purposes. The aim of this study was to profile the microbial diversity of two South African petroleum-contaminated water aquifer sites and to determine the microbial adaptation to hydrocarbon degradation using a metagenomics approach...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Batah Kunalan Prakash, Van Lun Low, Wei Yin Vinnie-Siow, Tiong Kai Tan, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Akhavan Rezaei Morvarid, Sazaly AbuBakar, Mohd Sofian-Azirun
Canine babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease with a worldwide distribution, including Malaysia. While the prevalence of Babesia has been documented from dogs in Malaysia, occurrence of Babesia has been relatively little studied in their tick vectors. Accordingly, a total of 240 dogs and 140 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from Malaysia were molecularly screened for the presence of Babesia protozoa in the present study. Babesia gibsoni was only detected in ticks (1.4%), whereas Babesia vogeli was detected in both ticks (1...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Minke H W Huibers, Peter Moons, Nelson Maseko, Monfort B Gushu, Oluwadamilola H Iwajomo, Robert S Heyderman, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Eric A Brienen, Lisette van Lieshout, Job C J Calis
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are common opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Longitudinal studies on either the clinical relevance, or the effect of immune reconstitution by anti-retroviral therapy on intestinal protozoan infections are children is lacking however. This study investigates prevalence and clinical relevance of intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected Malawian children prior to and during their first year of ART. METHODS: Stool samples collected at enrolment and during follow-up were tested for non-opportunistic (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica) and opportunistic protozoa (Entroctytoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Przemysław Drzewicz, Agata Drobniewska, Katarzyna Sikorska, Grzegorz Nałęcz-Jawecki
A large amount of pharmaceuticals are flushed to environment via sewage system. The compounds are persistent in environment and are very difficult to remove in drinking water treatment processes. Degradation of fluoxetine (FLU) and fluvoxamine (FLX) by ferrate(VI) were investigated. For the 10 mg/L of FLU and FLX, 35% and 50% of the compounds were degraded in the presence of 50 mg/L FeO4 2- within 10 minutes, respectively. After 10 minutes of the reaction, degradation of FLU and FLX is affected by formation of by-products which were likely more reactive with ferrate and competed in the reaction with FeO4 2- ...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Taeko Miyagi, Kohta Takahashi, Koji Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Shiozaki, Kazunori Yamaguchi
Sialidases are glycosidases responsible for the removal of α-glycosidically linked sialic acid residues from carbohydrate portions of glycoproteins and glycolipids, this process being the initial step in the degradation of such glycoconjugates. Sialic acids are considered to play important roles in various biological processes largely in two ways, one related to their hydrophilic and acidic properties exerting physicochemical effects on the glycoconjugates to which they are attached, and the other as recognition sites or in an opposing fashion as masking sites...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Young Yil Bahk, Pyo Yun Cho, Sung Kyu Ahn, Sangjung Park, Won Hwa Jheong, Yun-Kyu Park, Ho-Joon Shin, Sang-Seob Lee, Okjae Rhee, Tong-Soo Kim
Waterborne parasitic protozoa, particularly Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp., are common causes of diarrhea and gastroenteritis worldwide. The most frequently identified source of infestation is water, and exposure involves either drinking water or recreation in swimming pools or natural bodies of water. In practice, studies on Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in surface water are challenging owing to the low concentrations of these microorganisms because of dilution. In this study, a 3-year monitoring of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia , and Naegleria fowleri was conducted from August 2014 to June 2016 at 5 surface water sites including 2 lakes, 1 river, and 2 water intake plants...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Tong-Il Choi, Eui-Ju Hong, Si-Yun Ryu, Cheolho Sim, Joon-Seok Chae, Hyeon-Cheol Kim, Jinho Park, Kyoung-Seong Choi, Do-Hyeon Yu, Jae-Gyu Yoo, Bae-Keun Park
To survey the prevalence of Sarcocystis infections, 210 heart samples were collected from Korean native cattle ( Bos taurus coreanae ) at an abattoir in Daejeon Metropolitan City, Republic of Korea. Sarcocysts were detected form 31 specimens (14.8%) and identified as Sarcocystis cruzi via transmission electron microscopy. The wall of S. cruzi has flattened protrusions that did not contain fibrils or microfilaments. The protrusions arose irregularly from the base, contained a fine granular substance, lacked internal microfilaments, and measured approximately 0...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Michael Berninger, Christine Erk, Antje Fuß, Joseph Skaf, Ehab Al-Momani, Ina Israel, Martina Raschig, Paul Güntzel, Samuel Samnick, Ulrike Holzgrabe
Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as African sleeping sickness, is caused by the parasitic protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma. If there is no pharmacological intervention, the parasites can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), inevitably leading to death of the patients. Previous investigation identified the quinolone amide GHQ168 as a promising lead compound having a nanomolar activity against T. b. brucei. Here, the role of a fluorine substitution at different positions was investigated in regard to toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and antitrypanosomal activity...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
H Jafari, F Fatahnia, A Khatibjoo, G Taasoli, H Fazaeli, S Varmaghany
The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary oak (Quercus persica) acorn (OA) level on dry matter intake (DMI), apparent nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) utilization, ruminal fermentation, protozoa population and urinary purine derivatives (PD) during the last 60 days of goat pregnancy. Twenty-four multiparous pregnant goats (41.7 ± 2.3 kg BW) were assigned to one of three experimental diets consisted of control diet (C, without OA) and diets containing 20 (OA20 ) or 40 g/100 g of OA (OA40 ) on a DM basis in a completely randomized block design...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Sandie Escotte-Binet, Antoine Huguenin, Dominique Aubert, Anne-Pascaline Martin, Matthieu Kaltenbach, Isabelle Florent, Isabelle Villena
Metallopeptidases are a family of proteins with domains that remain highly conserved throughout evolution. These hydrolases require divalent metal cation(s) to activate the water molecule in order to carry out their catalytic action on peptide bonds by nucleophilic attack. Metallopeptidases from parasitic protozoa, including Toxoplasma, are investigated because of their crucial role in parasite biology. In the present study, we screened the T. gondii database using PFAM motifs specific for metallopeptidases in association with the MEROPS peptidase Database (release 10...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
R Nazari-Vanani, R Dehdari Vais, F Sharifi, N Sattarahmady, K Karimian, M H Motazedian, H Heli
Leishmaniasis is a group of parasitic disease caused by protozoa of Leishmania genus. Leishmania major accounts for the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The current treatments of this disease are expensive with high toxicity and are associated to difficulties of healing and parasite resistance. Miltefosine and ketoconazole have been found to be effective against CL. In this study, miltefosine- and ketoconazole-loaded nanoniosomes were prepared by the thin film-hydration method, and their anti-leishmanial effects against Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes were evaluated...
May 4, 2018: Acta Tropica
Laura Giovati, Claudia Santinoli, Carlo Mangia, Alice Vismarra, Silvana Belletti, Tiziana D'Adda, Claudia Fumarola, Tecla Ciociola, Cristina Bacci, Walter Magliani, Luciano Polonelli, Stefania Conti, Laura H Kramer
The killer peptide KP is a synthetic decapeptide derived from the sequence of the variable region of a recombinant yeast killer toxin-like microbicidal single-chain antibody. KP proved to exert significant activities against diverse microbial and viral pathogens through different mechanisms of action, but little is known of its effect on apicomplexan protozoa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of KP against Toxoplasma gondii , a globally widespread protozoan parasite of great medical interest...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tania Martín-Pérez, Angel Criado-Fornelio, Manuel Ávila-Blanco, Jorge Pérez-Serrano
The isolation and growth in axenic liquid media of Acanthamoeba strains is necessary in order to carry out primary in vitro drug screening. Amoebic isolates which are hard to grow in the current liquid media have been reported. Such circumstances hampers the ability of conducting drug sensitivity tests. Therefore, finding suitable universal growth media for Acanthamoeba species is required. The present study was aimed at the development of liquid medium suitable for growing a fastidious (F) genotype T3 Acanthamoeba isolate, and eventually for other genotypes of this genus as well...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
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