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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346485/identification-and-discrimination-of-toxoplasma-gondii-sarcocystis-spp-neospora-spp-and-cryptosporidium-spp-by-righ-resolution-melting-analysis
#1
Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg, Bianca Mendes Maciel, George Rêgo Albuquerque
The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan), on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction), and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342825/association-between-parasitic-infections-and-tuberculin-skin-test-results-in-refugees
#2
Nathaniel S Watts, Mucho M Mizinduko, Elizabeth D Barnett, Laura F White, Natasha S Hochberg
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are known to modulate the immune response necessary for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We sought to investigate species-specific effects of parasite infection on M. tuberculosis infection. METHODS: As part of the Refugee Health Assessment Program, stool examinations and tuberculin skin testing were performed on refugees seen at Boston Medical Center between 1995 and 2012. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and stool examination data were collected for 6669 refugees; 3349 (50...
March 22, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341835/investigation-and-manipulation-of-metabolically-active-methanogen-community-composition-during-rumen-development-in-black-goats
#3
Zuo Wang, Chijioke O Elekwachi, Jinzhen Jiao, Min Wang, Shaoxun Tang, Chuanshe Zhou, Zhiliang Tan, Robert J Forster
This study was performed to investigate the initial colonization of metabolically active methanogens and subsequent changes in four fractions: the rumen solid-phase (RS), liquid-phase (RL), protozoa-associated (RP), and epithelium-associated (RE) from 1 to 60 d after birth, and manipulate methanogen community by early weaning on 40 d and supplementing rhubarb from 40 to 60 d in black goats. The RNA-based real-time quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were employed to indicate the metabolically active methanogens...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338744/understanding-the-molecular-mechanism-of-substrate-channeling-and-domain-communication-in-protozoal-bifunctional-ts-dhfr
#4
Karen S Anderson
Most species, such as humans, have monofunctional forms of thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) that are key folate metabolism enzymes making critical folate components required for DNA synthesis. In contrast, several parasitic protozoa, including Leishmania majorg(Lm), Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) and Cryptosporidium hominis(Ch), contain a unique bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) having the two sequential catalytic activities contained on a single polypeptide chain...
February 4, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337571/effects-of-feeding-ground-pods-of-enterolobium-cyclocarpum-jacq-griseb-on-dry-matter-intake-rumen-fermentation-and-enteric-methane-production-by-pelibuey-sheep-fed-tropical-grass
#5
S Albores-Moreno, J A Alayón-Gamboa, A J Ayala-Burgos, F J Solorio-Sánchez, C F Aguilar-Pérez, L Olivera-Castillo, J C Ku-Vera
An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of supplementing ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum in a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass on feed intake, rumen volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and protozoa and methane (CH4) production by hair sheep. Four male sheep (Pelibuey × Katahdin) with a mean live weight of 27.0 kg (SD ± 0.5) were supplemented with 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 kg of dry matter (DM) of E. cyclocarpum pods daily; equivalent to 0.00, 4.35, 8.70, and 13.05 g of crude saponins, respectively...
March 23, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336217/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia
#6
REVIEW
Gabriela Certad, Eric Viscogliosi, Magali Chabé, Simone M Cacciò
Intestinal protozoa are important etiological agents of diarrhea, particularly in children, yet the public health risk they pose is often neglected. Results from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) showed that Cryptosporidium is among the leading causes of moderate to severe diarrhea in children under 2 years. Likewise, Giardia infects approximately 200 million individuals worldwide, and causes acute diarrhea in children under 5 years. Despite this recognized role as pathogens, the question is why and how these parasites cause disease in some individuals but not in others...
March 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335309/separation-of-bacteria-protozoa-and-carbon-nanotubes-by-density-gradient-centrifugation
#7
Monika Mortimer, Elijah J Petersen, Bruce A Buchholz, Patricia A Holden
Sustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates...
October 12, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334205/tetrahymena-phagocytic-vesicles-as-ecological-micro-niches-of-phage-transfer
#8
Iqbal Aijaz, Gerald B Koudelka
The microbial communities in natural environments such as soil, pond water, or animal rumens are comprised of a diverse mixture of bacteria and protozoa including ciliates or flagellates. In such microbiomes, a major source of bacterial mortality is grazing by phagocytic protists. Many protists are omnivorous heterotrophs, feeding on a range of different bacterial species. Due to this indiscriminate feeding, different bacterial species can assemble together in the same phagocytic vesicles where can they potentially exchange genetic material...
March 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327879/antibodies-against-apicomplexa-protozoa-and-absence-sarcocysts-in-heart-tissues-from-horses-in-southern-brazil
#9
Luiza Pires Portella, Gustavo Cauduro Cadore, Luis Antonio Sangioni, Luiz Fernando Vilani Pellegrini, Rafael Fighera, Fernanda Ramos, Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel
Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are Apicomplexa protozoa that can infect horses. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of antibodies against Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and T. gondii in horses slaughtered in southern Brazil. The presence of histological lesions, tissue cysts, and Sarcocystis spp. DNA in the hearts of these horses was also investigated. A total of 197 paired serum and heart samples were evaluated by serology and direct microscopic examination; 50 of these samples were subjected to histopathological and PCR analyses...
March 16, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326448/anaerobic-metabolism-in-t4-acanthamoeba-genotype
#10
Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira Alves, Luciano Moreira Alves, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Ana Maria de Castro, Marina Clare Vinaud
Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are of the most common protozoa that has been isolated from a variety of environment and affect immunocompromised individuals, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and skin lesions. Acanthamoeba, in immunocompetent patients, may cause a keratitis related to corneal microtrauma. These free-living amoebas easily adapt to the host environment and wield metabolic pathways such as the energetic and respiratory ones in order to maintain viability for long periods. The energetic metabolism of cysts and trophozoites remains mostly unknown...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325372/is-predominant-clonal-evolution-a-common-evolutionary-adaptation-to-parasitism-in-pathogenic-parasitic-protozoa-fungi-bacteria-and-viruses
#11
M Tibayrenc, F J Ayala
We propose that predominant clonal evolution (PCE) in microbial pathogens be defined as restrained recombination on an evolutionary scale, with genetic exchange scarce enough to not break the prevalent pattern of clonal population structure. The main features of PCE are (1) strong linkage disequilibrium, (2) the widespread occurrence of stable genetic clusters blurred by occasional bouts of genetic exchange ('near-clades'), (3) the existence of a "clonality threshold", beyond which recombination is efficiently countered by PCE, and near-clades irreversibly diverge...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322271/mechanistic-and-structural-basis-of-bioengineered-bovine-cathelicidin-5-with-optimized-therapeutic-activity
#12
Bikash R Sahoo, Kenta Maruyama, Jyotheeswara R Edula, Takahiro Tougan, Yuxi Lin, Young-Ho Lee, Toshihiro Horii, Toshimichi Fujiwara
Peptide-drug discovery using host-defense peptides becomes promising against antibiotic-resistant pathogens and cancer cells. Here, we customized the therapeutic activity of bovine cathelicidin-5 targeting to bacteria, protozoa, and tumor cells. The membrane dependent conformational adaptability and plasticity of cathelicidin-5 is revealed by biophysical analysis and atomistic simulations over 200 μs in thymocytes, leukemia, and E. coli cell-membranes. Our understanding of energy-dependent cathelicidin-5 intrusion in heterogeneous membranes aided in designing novel loss/gain-of-function analogues...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319677/characterization-and-distribution-of-isospora-sabiai-n-sp-apicomplexa-eimeriidae-from-thrushes-turdus-spp-passeriformes-turdidae-from-brazil
#13
Irlane Fde Pinho, Mariana B Rodrigues, Lidiane M Silva, Brunodo B Lopes, Mariana S Oliveira, Matheus A Ferreira, Sergian V Cardozo, Hermes R Luz, Ildemar Ferreira, Carlos Wilson G Lopes, Bruno Pereira Berto
A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Isospora) is described parasitizing white-necked thrushes Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818, rufous-bellied thrushes Turdus rufiventris Vieillot, 1818, pale-breasted thrushes Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 and yellow-legged thrushes Turdus flavipes Vieillot, 1818 from 3 different localities in Brazil. Isospora sabiai n. sp. has oocysts that are sub-spherical to ellipsoidal, 20.9 × 18.6 µm, with smooth, delicate, bilayered wall, ~1.1 μm thick. Micropyle inconspicuous or imperceptible...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317562/normal-oral-flora-and-the-oral-ecosystem
#14
REVIEW
Lakshman Samaranayake, Victor H Matsubara
The oral ecosystem comprises the oral flora, so-called oral microbiome, the different anatomic microniches of the oral cavity, and its bathing fluid, saliva. The oral microbiome comprises a group of organisms and includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The oral microbiome exists suspended in saliva as planktonic phase organisms or attached to oral surfaces as a plaque biofilm. Homeostasis of the plaque biofilm and its symbiotic relationship with the host is critical for oral health. Disequilibrium or dysbiosis within the plaque biofilms is the initiating event that leads to major oral diseases, such as caries and periodontal disease...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315137/sheep-fed-with-banana-leaf-hay-reduce-ruminal-protozoa-population
#15
Cláudio Eduardo Silva Freitas, Eduardo Robson Duarte, Dorismar David Alves, Isabel Martinele, Marta D'Agosto, Franciane Cedrola, Angélica Alves de Moura Freitas, Franklin Delano Dos Santos Soares, Makenzi Beltran
A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay...
March 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302673/pneumococcal-vaccine-response-after-exposure-to-parasites-in-utero-in-infancy-or-mid-childhood
#16
Monica Nayakwadi Singer, Claire Heath, Jackson Muinde, Virginia Gildengorin, Francis M Mutuku, David Vu, Dunstan Mukoko, Christopher L King, Indu J Malhotra, Charles H King, A Desirée LaBeaud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization...
March 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293543/the-tudor-staphylococcal-nuclease-protein-of-entamoeba-histolytica-participates-in-transcription-regulation-and-stress-response
#17
Javier Cázares-Apátiga, Christian Medina-Gómez, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Mercedes Calixto-Gálvez, Esther Orozco, Carlos Vázquez-Calzada, Aarón Martínez-Higuera, Mario A Rodríguez
Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoa parasite responsible of human amoebiasis, disease that causes from 40,000 to 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. However, few are known about the expression regulation of molecules involved in its pathogenicity. Transcription of some virulence-related genes is positively controlled by the cis-regulatory element named URE1. Previously we identified the transcription factor that binds to URE1, which displayed a nuclear and cytoplasmic localization. This protein belongs to the Tudor Staphyococcal nuclease (TSN) family, which in other systems participates in virtually all pathways of gene expression, suggesting that this amoebic transcription factor (EhTSN; former EhURE1BP) could also play multiple functions in E...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291600/evidence-of-multiple-species-of-chilodonella-protozoa-ciliophora-infecting-australian-farmed-freshwater-fishes
#18
Giana Bastos Gomes, Terrence L Miller, David B Vaughan, Dean R Jerry, Christina McCowan, Tracey L Bradley, Kate S Hutson
Parasitic Chilodonella species, Chilodonella piscicola and Chilodonella hexasticha, cause considerable economic losses globally to freshwater farmed fish production. Some genetic studies of Chilodonella spp. have indicated that many species within the genus may form cryptic species complexes. To understand the diversity of Chilodonella spp. infecting Australian freshwater farmed fish, specimens were isolated from infected barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii) from fish farms in tropical north Queensland (QLD), temperate Victoria (Vic) and New South Wales (NSW) for genetic and morphological analysis...
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289403/methane-oxidizing-bacteria-shunt-carbon-to-microbial-mats-at-a-marine-hydrocarbon-seep
#19
Blair G Paul, Haibing Ding, Sarah C Bagby, Matthias Y Kellermann, Molly C Redmond, Gary L Andersen, David L Valentine
The marine subsurface is a reservoir of the greenhouse gas methane. While microorganisms living in water column and seafloor ecosystems are known to be a major sink limiting net methane transport from the marine subsurface to the atmosphere, few studies have assessed the flow of methane-derived carbon through the benthic mat communities that line the seafloor on the continental shelf where methane is emitted. We analyzed the abundance and isotope composition of fatty acids in microbial mats grown in the shallow Coal Oil Point seep field off Santa Barbara, CA, USA, where seep gas is a mixture of methane and CO2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289269/epidemiological-investigation-of-parasitic-infection-of-schoolchildren-from-six-elementary-schools-in-sakon-nakhon-province-thailand
#20
Ryuichi Doi, Makoto Itoh, Somchai Chakhatrakan, Shoji Uga
We conducted an epidemiological study of intestinal parasitic infection in 572 schoolchildren aged 4 to 12 years old from six elementary schools in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand from June 2013 to August 2014. We collected fecal, blood, and urine samples to investigate parasitic infection and conducted a questionnaire survey. Soil samples were examined for egg contamination. Fecal examination, using the formalin-ether sedimentation method, revealed that 39% of schoolchildren were infected with eight genera and eight species of parasites; three nematodes, two trematodes, one cestode, and two protozoa...
February 15, 2017: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
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