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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726736/protozoadb-2-0-a-trypanosoma-brucei-case-study
#1
Rodrigo Jardim, Diogo Tschoeke, Alberto M R Da Vila
Over the last decade new species of Protozoa have been sequenced and deposited in GenBank. Analyzing large amounts of genomic data, especially using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), is not a trivial task, considering that researchers used to deal or focus their studies on few genes or gene families or even small genomes. To facilitate the information extraction process from genomic data, we developed a database system called ProtozoaDB that included five genomes of Protozoa in its first version. In the present study, we present a new version of ProtozoaDB called ProtozoaDB 2...
July 20, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719267/comparison-of-cytokine-responses-in-ecuadorian-children-infected-with-giardia-ascaris-or-both-parasites
#2
Jill Weatherhead, Andrea Arévalo Cortés, Carlos Sandoval, Maritza Vaca, Martha Chico, Sophia Loor, Philip J Cooper, Rojelio Mejia
AbstractMore than 2 billion people are infected with parasites globally, and the majority have coinfections. Intestinal protozoa and helminths induce polarizing CD4(+) T-helper cell 1 (Th1) mediated cytokine responses within the host. Such immune polarization may inhibit the ability of the host to mount an adequate immune response for pathogen clearance to concurrent pathogens. The current study evaluated the plasma cytokine profile in Ascaris and Giardia coinfected children compared with Giardia- and Ascaris-only infected children...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719054/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-proteins-from-protists-to-humans-and-plants
#3
REVIEW
Helmut Plattner
During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas, for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717312/effect-of-high-and-low-roughage-total-mixed-ration-diets-on-rumen-metabolites-and-enzymatic-profiles-in-crossbred-cattle-and-buffaloes
#4
S K Sinha, V B Chaturvedi, Putan Singh, L C Chaudhary, Mayukh Ghosh, Swati Shivani
AIM: A comparative study was conducted on crossbred cattle and buffaloes to investigate the effect of feeding high and low roughage total mixed ration (TMR) diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three rumen-fistulated crossbred cattle and buffalo were randomly assigned as per 3×3 switch over design for 21-days. Three TMR diets consisting of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and green maize fodder in the ratios of (T1) 60:20:20, (T2) 40:30:30, and (T3) 20:40:40, respectively, were fed to the animals ad libitum...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710688/death-by-food
#5
Roger W Byard
Although death from food is not an uncommon finding in forensic facilities worldwide, the range of underlying lethal mechanisms and associated conditions that should be sought at the time of autopsy is quite disparate. Deaths may occur from i) infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, cestodes, nematodes and prions; ii) natural toxins including amanita toxins, tetrodotoxin, ciguatera and scombroid; iii) anaphylaxis; iv) poisoning; v) mechanical issues around airway and gut obstruction and/or perforation; and vi) miscellaneous causes...
July 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704445/taxon-abundance-diversity-co-occurrence-and-network-analysis-of-the-ruminal-microbiota-in-response-to-dietary-changes-in-dairy-cows
#6
Ilma Tapio, Daniel Fischer, Lucia Blasco, Miika Tapio, R John Wallace, Ali R Bayat, Laura Ventto, Minna Kahala, Enyew Negussie, Kevin J Shingfield, Johanna Vilkki
The ruminal microbiome, comprising large numbers of bacteria, ciliate protozoa, archaea and fungi, responds to diet and dietary additives in a complex way. The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of increasing the depth of the community analysis in describing and explaining responses to dietary changes. Quantitative PCR, ssu rRNA amplicon based taxa composition, diversity and co-occurrence network analyses were applied to ruminal digesta samples obtained from four multiparous Nordic Red dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702015/inhibition-of-the-rumen-ciliate-entodinium-caudatum-by-antibiotics
#7
Tansol Park, Tea Meulia, Jeffrey L Firkins, Zhongtang Yu
Axenic cultures of free-living aerobic ciliates, such as Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium aurelia, have been established and routinely used in laboratory research, greatly facilitating, or enabling characterization of their metabolism, physiology, and ecology. Ruminal protozoa are anaerobic ciliates, and they play important roles in feed digestion and fermentation. Although, repeatedly attempted, no laboratory-maintainable axenic culture of ruminal ciliates has been established. When axenic ciliate cultures are developed, antibiotics are required to eliminate the accompanying bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699497/quantitative-structure-activity-relationships-of-aquatic-narcosis-a-review
#8
Chandana Adhikari, Bijay Kumar Mishra
BACKGROUND: Prior estimation of toxicity of each and every, existing and yet to be synthesized chemicals is a must to elude their adverse effect on the environment. Experimental determination of such parameters is time consuming, cost effective and above all it demands the sacrifice of many vertebrates. At this end the REACH regulations advocate for the use of non-testing predictive methods such as read-across, weight-of-evidence and QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) techniques...
July 11, 2017: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698054/bistacrines-as-potential-antitrypanosomal-agents
#9
Ines Schmidt, Sarah Göllner, Antje Fuß, August Stich, Anna Kucharski, Tanja Schirmeister, Elena Katzowitsch, Heike Bruhn, Alexandra Miliu, R Luise Krauth-Siegel, Ulrike Holzgrabe
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by two subspecies of the genus Trypanosoma, namely Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. The disease is fatal if left untreated and therapy is limited due to only five non-adequate drugs currently available. In preliminary studies, dimeric tacrine derivatives were found to inhibit parasite growth with IC50-values in the nanomolar concentration range. This prompted the synthesis of a small, but smart library of monomeric and dimeric tacrine-type compounds and their evaluation of antiprotozoal activity...
July 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696551/sorting-without-a-golgi-complex
#10
REVIEW
Maria C Touz, Nahuel Zamponi
The ER-Golgi-target organelle route is one of the most studied events and has fascinated researchers for years. However, the conservative mechanism of protein sorting and delivery is now being challenged by the finding of unconventional pathways driving protein sorting and transport. Protozoa parasites are being rediscovered as good models for analyzing alternative targeting pathways, associated with their ability to adapt to diverse environments and hosts. Here, we have gathered all the available information about secretory protein trafficking in Giardia lamblia, with a focus on how this protozoan parasite is able to sort and direct proteins to different compartments in the absence of a Golgi complex...
July 11, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692673/gastrointestinal-parasite-infections-and-self-medication-in-wild-chimpanzees-surviving-in-degraded-forest-fragments-within-an-agricultural-landscape-mosaic-in-uganda
#11
Matthew R McLennan, Hideo Hasegawa, Massimo Bardi, Michael A Huffman
Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691033/prevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-and-other-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-domestic-cats-from-households-in-thika-region-kenya
#12
Adele Nyambura Njuguna, John Maina Kagira, Simon Muturi Karanja, Maina Ngotho, Lucy Mutharia, Naomi Wangari Maina
Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites of domestic cats (Felis catus) not only cause morbidity but are also potential zoonotic agents. The current study aimed at establishing the prevalence of GIT parasites in cats kept by households in Thika region, Kenya. Fecal samples were collected randomly from 103 cats and analyzed for presence of parasites using standard parasitological methods. In descending order, the prevalence of the detected protozoa parasites was Isospora spp. 43.7% (95% CI: 40.4-47%), Cryptosporidium spp...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688187/reexamining-opportunities-for-therapeutic-protein-production-in-eukaryotic-microorganisms
#13
REVIEW
M Catherine Bartlett, Chapman Wright, Angel Kuo, Noelle Colant, Matthew Westoby, J Christopher Love
Antibodies are an important class of therapeutics and are predominantly produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines. While this manufacturing platform is sufficiently productive to supply patient populations of currently approved therapies, it is unclear whether or not the current CHO platform can address two significant areas of need: affordable access to biologics for patients around the globe and production of unprecedented quantities needed for very large populations of patients. Novel approaches to recombinant protein production for therapeutic biologic products may be needed, and might be enabled by non-mammalian expression systems and recent advances in bioengineering...
July 8, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685161/behavioral-effects-of-a-chemorepellent-receptor-knockout-mutation-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#14
Dianxiong Zou, Todd M Hennessey
A conditioned supernatant from Tetrahymena thermophila contains a powerful chemorepellent for wild-type cells, and a gene called G37 is required for this response. This is the first genomic identification of a chemorepellent receptor in any eukaryotic unicellular organism. This conditioned supernatant factor (CSF) is small (<1 kDa), and its repellent effect is resistant to boiling, protease treatment, and nuclease digestion. External BAPTA eliminated the CSF response, suggesting that Ca(2+) entry is required for the classical avoiding reactions (AR) used for chemorepulsion...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682780/intestinal-coccidian-parasites-as-an-underestimated-cause-of-travellers-diarrhoea-in-polish-immunocompetent-patients
#15
Matylda Kłudkowska, Łukasz Pielok, Krystyna Frąckowiak, Małgorzata Paul
Intestinal coccidian parasites are intracellular protozoa most frequently transmitted during food-borne and water-borne infections. This group of parasites is responsible for acute diarrhoeal illnesses especially among immunocompromised patients. However, they are more frequently detected in immunocompetent individuals including travellers, and they should also be considered as important etiologic factors of travellers' diarrhoea. We examined 221 immunocompetent patients hospitalized due to acute or chronic diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal symptoms after returning from international journeys to hot climates...
September 26, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676798/effect-of-sunflower-and-marine-oils-on-ruminal-microbiota-in-vitro-fermentation-and-digesta-fatty-acid-profile
#16
Julio E Vargas, Sonia Andrés, Timothy J Snelling, Lorena López-Ferreras, David R Yáñez-Ruíz, Carlos García-Estrada, Secundino López
This study using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) investigated the changes in the ruminal microbiota and anaerobic fermentation in response to the addition of different lipid supplements to a ruminant diet. A basal diet with no oil added was the control, and the treatment diets were supplemented with sunflower oil (2%) only, or sunflower oil (2%) in combination with fish oil (1%) or algae oil (1%). Four fermentation units were used per treatment. RUSITEC fermenters were inoculated with rumen digesta...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670304/monensin-and-nisin-affect-rumen-fermentation-and-microbiota-differently-in-vitro
#17
Junshi Shen, Zhuang Liu, Zhongtang Yu, Weiyun Zhu
Nisin, a bacteriocin, is a potential alternative to antibiotics to modulate rumen fermentation. However, little is known about its impacts on rumen microbes. This study evaluated the effects of nisin (1 and 5 μM) on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics, microbiota, and select groups of rumen microbes in comparison with monensin (5 μM), one of the most commonly used ionophores in ruminants. Nisin had greater effects than monensin in inhibiting methane production and decreasing acetate/propionate ratio...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668529/ruminal-bacteria-and-protozoa-composition-digestibility-and-amino-acid-profile-determined-by-multiple-hydrolysis-times
#18
S W Fessenden, T J Hackmann, D A Ross, A Foskolos, M E Van Amburgh
Microbial samples from 4 independent experiments in lactating dairy cattle were obtained and analyzed for nutrient composition, AA digestibility, and AA profile after multiple hydrolysis times ranging from 2 to 168 h. Similar bacterial and protozoal isolation techniques were used for all isolations. Omasal bacteria and protozoa samples were analyzed for AA digestibility using a new in vitro technique. Multiple time point hydrolysis and least squares nonlinear regression were used to determine the AA content of omasal bacteria and protozoa, and equivalency comparisons were made against single time point hydrolysis...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662149/in-vitro-additive-interaction-between-ketoconazole-and-antimony-against-intramacrophage-leishmania-leishmania-amazonensis-amastigotes
#19
Débora Cristina de Oliveira Nunes, Luiz Borges Bispo-da-Silva, Danielle Reis Napolitano, Mônica Soares Costa, Márcia Moura Nunes Rocha Figueira, Renata Santos Rodrigues, Veridiana de Melo Rodrigues, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo Yoneyama
Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by protozoa of Leishmania genus. The currently available treatments for this disease are expensive, present high toxicity and are associated to difficulties of healing and parasite resistance. Therefore, the development of strategies for leishmaniasis treatment is indispensable and includes reposition of existing drugs, as well as drug combination therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the nature of ketoconazole and antimony association on the cytotoxic effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigotes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659061/dendropsophin-1-a-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-from-the-skin-secretion-of-the-endemic-colombian-frog-dendropsophus-columbianus
#20
Luz Elena Triana-Vidal, Mariana Souza Castro, Osmindo Rodrigues Pires Júnior, Alice Cunha Morales Álvares, Sonia Maria de Freitas, Wagner Fontes, Jimmy Alexander Guerrero Vargas, Jorge Alberto Zúñiga-Baos, Isabel de Fátima Correia Batista, Philippe Grellier, Sébastien Charneau
In efforts to find new antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), we studied the skin secretion of the endemic Colombian frog Dendropsophus columbianus belonging to a genus that has not been investigated previously. From HPLC-fractionated secretion, we identified one peptide with slightly antibacterial activity. Its peptide sequence showed no sequence similarity to current annotated peptides. We named this novel peptide dendropsophin 1 (Dc1). Afterward, two analogues were designed (Dc1.1 and Dc1.2) to improve the cationic and amphipathic features...
June 29, 2017: Natural Product Research
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