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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921993/can-sergentomyia-diptera-psychodidae-play-a-role-in-the-transmission-of-mammal-infecting-leishmania
#1
Carla Maia, Jérôme Depaquit
Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The parasites, which infect various wild and domestic mammals, including humans, are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to the Phlebotomus genus in the Old World and to several genera (including Lutzomyia, Psychodopygus and Nyssomyia) in the New World. In this paper, we consider the genus Sergentomyia as divided into seven subgenera, mainly based on spermathecal morphology: Sergentomyia, Sintonius, Parrotomyia, Rondanomyia, Capensomyia, Vattieromyia and Trouilletomyia...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920756/salmonella-typhimurium-and-multidirectional-communication-in-the-gut
#2
REVIEW
Elena V Gart, Jan S Suchodolski, Thomas H Welsh, Robert C Alaniz, Ronald D Randel, Sara D Lawhon
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917301/separation-of-bacteria-protozoa-and-carbon-nanotubes-by-density-gradient-centrifugation
#3
Monika Mortimer, Elijah J Petersen, Bruce A Buchholz, Patricia A Holden
Sustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates...
2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911895/dna-microarray-detection-of-18-important-human-blood-protozoan-species
#4
Mu-Xin Chen, Lin Ai, Jun-Hu Chen, Xin-Yu Feng, Shao-Hong Chen, Yu-Chun Cai, Yan Lu, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Jia-Xu Chen, Wei Hu
BACKGROUND: Accurate detection of blood protozoa from clinical samples is important for diagnosis, treatment and control of related diseases. In this preliminary study, a novel DNA microarray system was assessed for the detection of Plasmodium, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia in humans, animals, and vectors, in comparison with microscopy and PCR data. Developing a rapid, simple, and convenient detection method for protozoan detection is an urgent need. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The microarray assay simultaneously identified 18 species of common blood protozoa based on the differences in respective target genes...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905279/cloning-of-the-dna-vaccine-candidate-lack-gene-of-leishmania-infantum
#5
Serkan Karaca, Şirin Sahra Ceylan, Süleyman Yazar, Salih Kuk
OBJECTIVE: Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus and listed among major tropical diseases by WHO. Because of the high costs, toxicity, and adverse effects of routinely used compounds in the treatment, alternative treatment and vaccine studies are underway. An effective vaccine has not been developed to date. In this study, we aimed to clone one of the most promising DNA vaccine candidates: the homolog-activated C kinase (LACK) gene of Leishmania infantum...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903290/assessing-the-burden-of-intestinal-parasites-affecting-newly-arrived-immigrants-in-qatar
#6
Marawan A Abu-Madi, Jerzy M Behnke, Ahmed Ismail, Sonia Boughattas
BACKGROUND: In the last decades, the enormous influx of immigrants to industrialized countries has led to outbreaks of parasitic diseases, with enteric infections being amongst the most frequently encountered. In its strategy to control such infection, Qatar has established the Pre-Employment Certificate (PEC) program which requires medical inspection before arrival in Qatar and which is mandatory for immigrant workers travelling to the country. To assess the reliability of the PEC, we conducted a survey of intestinal parasites, based on examination of stool samples provided by immigrant workers (n = 2,486) recently arrived in Qatar...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902323/one-freshwater-cyclidium-species-c-sinicum-spec-nov-protozoa-ciliophora-with-an-improved-diagnosis-of-the-genus-cyclidium
#7
Xuming Pan, Chengdong Liang, Chundi Wang, Alan Warren, Wejie Mu, Hui Chen, Lijie Yu, Ying Chen
The morphology and infraciliature of one freshwater ciliate, Cyclidium sinicum spec. nov., isolated from a farmland pond in Harbin, northeastern China, was investigated using living observation and silver staining methods. Cyclidium sinicum spec. nov. is distinguished by the following features: body approximately 20-25 × 10-15 μm in vivo; buccal field about 45-50 % of body length; 11 somatic kineties; somatic kinety n terminating sub-caudally; two macronuclei and one micronucleus; M1 almost as long as M2; M2 triangle-shaped...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902306/description-of-gloeomargarita-lithophora-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-thylakoid-bearing-basal-branching-cyanobacterium-with-intracellular-carbonates-and-proposal-for-gloeomargaritales-ord-nov
#8
David Moreira, Rosaluz Tavera, Karim Benzerara, Fériel Skouri-Panet, Estelle Couradeau, Emmanuelle Gérard, Céline Loussert Fonta, Eberto Novelo, Yvan Zivanovic, Purificación López-García
A unicellular cyanobacterium, strain Alchichica-D10, was isolated from microbialites of the alkaline Lake Alchichica, Mexico. The cells were short rods (3.9 ± 0.6 μm in length and 1.1 ± 0.1 μm in width) forming biofilms of intense emerald green color. They exhibited red autofluorescence under UV light excitation. UV-visible absorption spectra revealed that they contain chlorophyll a and phycocyanin, and electron microscopy showed the presence of thylakoids. The strain grew within a temperature range of 15-30 °C...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899535/a-tomato-universal-stress-protein-involved-in-oxidative-stress-is-a-cipk6-phosphorylation-target
#9
Emilio Gutierrez-Beltran, José María Personat, Fernando N de la Torre, Olga Del Pozo
Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) decode calcium signals upon interaction with the calcium sensors calcineurin B like proteins (CBLs) into phosphorylation events that result into adaptation to environmental stresses. Few phosphorylation targets of CIPKs are known and therefore the molecular mechanisms underlying their downstream output responses are not fully understood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Cipk6 regulates immune and susceptible Programmed cell death (PCD) in immunity transforming Ca2+ signals into Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) signaling...
November 29, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898865/monensin-virginiamycin-and-flavomycin-in-a-no-roughage-finishing-diet-fed-to-zebu-cattle
#10
B J M Lemos, F G F Castro, L S Santos, B P C Mendonça, V R M Couto, J J R Fernandes
Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of monensin, virginiamycin, and flavomycin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation of zebu cattle fed a no-roughage finishing diet (whole shelled corn [WSC] based). In Exp. 1, 100 crossbred bulls (; 392 kg [SD 46.8] average initial BW) were blocked by initial BW in a 101-d feedlot trial. Five treatments were evaluated using 4 pens per treatment (5 bulls/pen): monensin at 30 mg/kg DM, virginiamycin at 25 mg/kg DM, monensin at 20 mg/kg DM plus virginiamycin at 25 mg/kg DM, flavomycin at 4...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895543/proteome-analysis-of-excretory-secretory-proteins-of-entamoeba-histolytica-hm1-imss-via-lc-esi-ms-ms-and-lc-maldi-tof-tof
#11
Jorim Anak Ujang, Soon Hong Kwan, Mohd Nazri Ismail, Boon Huat Lim, Rahmah Noordin, Nurulhasanah Othman
BACKGROUND: Excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of E. histolytica are thought to play important roles in the host invasion, metabolism, and defence. Elucidation of the types and functions of E. histolytica ES proteins can further our understanding of the disease pathogenesis. Thus, the aim of this study is to use proteomics approach to better understand the complex ES proteins of the protozoa. METHODS: E. histolytica ES proteins were prepared by culturing the trophozoites in protein-free medium...
2016: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895225/loss-of-inositol-phosphorylceramide-sphingolipid-mannosylation-induces-plant-immune-responses-and-reduces-cellulose-content-in-arabidopsis
#12
Lin Fang, Toshiki Ishikawa, Emilie A Rennie, Gosia M Murawska, Jeemeng Lao, Jingwei Yan, Alex Yl Tsai, Edward E K Baidoo, Jun Xu, Jay D Keasling, Taku Demura, Maki Kawai-Yamada, Henrik Vibe Scheller, Jenny C Mortimer
Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) are a class of glycosylated sphingolipids found in plants, fungi, and protozoa. These lipids are abundant in the plant plasma membrane, forming ~25% of total plasma membrane lipids. Little is known about the function of the glycosylated headgroup, but two recent studies have indicated that they play a key role in plant signaling and defense. Here, we show that a member of glycosyltransferase (GT) family 64, previously named ECTOPICALLY PARTING CELLS1 (EPC1), is likely a Golgi-localized GIPC-specific mannosyl-transferase, which we renamed GIPC MANNOSYL-TRANSFERASE1 (GMT1)...
November 28, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891182/case-control-study-of-diarrheal-disease-etiology-in-individuals-over-5%C3%A2-years-in-southwest-china
#13
Shun-Xian Zhang, Chun-Li Yang, Wen-Peng Gu, Lin Ai, Emmanuel Serrano, Pin Yang, Xia Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Shan Lv, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Jun-Hu Chen, Wei Hu, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Most of studies on acute diarrhea have been made on infants aged below 5 years and few efforts have been made to identify the etiological agents of acute diarrhea in people over five, especially in China. METHODS: 271 diarrhea cases and 149 healthy controls over 5 years were recruited from four participating hospitals between June 2014 and July 2015. Each stool specimen was collected to detect a series of enteric pathogens, involving five viruses (Rotavirus group A, RVA; Norovirus, NoV; Sapovirus, SaV; Astrovirus, As; and Adenovirus, Ad), seven bacteria (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, DEC; non-typhoidal Salmonella, NTS; Shigella spp...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884621/photoantimicrobials-are-we-afraid-of-the-light
#14
REVIEW
Mark Wainwright, Tim Maisch, Santi Nonell, Kristjan Plaetzer, Adelaide Almeida, George P Tegos, Michael R Hamblin
Although conventional antimicrobial drugs have been viewed as miraculous cure-alls for the past 80 years, increasing antimicrobial drug resistance requires a major and rapid intervention. However, the development of novel but still conventional systemic antimicrobial agents, having only a single mode or site of action, will not alleviate the situation because it is probably only a matter of time until any such agents will also become ineffective. To continue to produce new agents based on this notion is unacceptable, and there is an increasing need for alternative approaches to the problem...
November 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884121/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-intestinal-protozoan-infections-a-population-based-study-in-rural-areas-of-boyer-ahmad-district-southwestern-iran
#15
Bahador Sarkari, Ghasem Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Mohammad Fararouei, Abdolali Moshfe
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are still a significant health problem in rural areas in developing countries including Iran. There is no recent population-based data about the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in most rural areas of Iran. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infection in inhabitants of rural areas of Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran. METHODS: A total of 1025 stool samples were collected from the inhabitant of 50 randomly selected villages in Boyer-Ahmad Township...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882241/immune-profile-of-honduran-schoolchildren-with-intestinal-parasites-the-skewed-response-against-geohelminths
#16
José Antonio Gabrie, María Mercedes Rueda, Carol Anahelka Rodríguez, Maritza Canales, Ana Lourdes Sanchez
Soil-transmitted helminth infections typically induce a type-2 immune response (Th2), but no immunoepidemiological studies have been undertaken in Honduras, an endemic country where the main control strategy is children's annual deworming. We aimed to characterize the immune profile of Honduran schoolchildren harbouring these parasitoses. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained through a survey; nutritional status was assessed through anthropometry; intestinal parasites were diagnosed by formol-ether and Kato-Katz; and blood samples were collected to determine immunological markers including Th1/Th2 cytokines, IgE, and eosinophil levels...
2016: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871871/paleoparasitological-analysis-of-the-extinct-myotragus-balearicus-bate-1909-artiodactyla-caprinae-from-mallorca-balearic-islands-western-mediterranean
#17
Victor Hugo Borba Nunes, Josep Antoni Alcover, Valmir Laurentino Silva, Paula Borba Cruz, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Adauto José Gonçalves de Araújo
Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca...
November 18, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867026/artemisinin-and-its-derivatives-in-treating-protozoan-infections-beyond-malaria
#18
REVIEW
Cecilia Shi Ni Loo, Nelson Siu Kei Lam, Deying Yu, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
Many parasitic protozoan diseases continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems, which are also common among poor populations. Currently available drugs for treatment present drawbacks, urging the need for more effective, safer, and cheaper drugs. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives are some of the most important classes of antimalarial agents originally derived from Artemisia annua L. However, besides the outstanding antimalarial and antischistosomal activities, ART and its derivatives also possess activities against other parasitic protozoa...
November 17, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866614/in-vivo-synthesis-of-nano-selenium-by-tetrahymena-thermophila-sb210
#19
Yin-Hua Cui, Ling-Li Li, Nan-Qing Zhou, Jing-Hua Liu, Qing Huang, Hui-Juan Wang, Jie Tian, Han-Qing Yu
Nano-selenium has a great potential to be used in chemical, biological, medical and environmental fields. Biological methods for nano-selenium synthesis have attracted wide interests, because they can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure without complicated equipments. In this work, a protozoa, Tetrahymena thermophila (T. thermophila) SB210, was used to in vivo synthesize nano-selenium. The biosynthesized nano-selenium was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy...
December 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864857/protein-sumoylation-is-involved-in-cell-cycle-progression-and-cell-morphology-in-giardia-lamblia
#20
Bruno M Di Genova, Richard C da Silva, Júlia P C da Cunha, Pablo R Gargantini, Renato A Mortara, Renata R Tonelli
The unicellular protozoa Giardia lamblia is a food- and waterborne parasite that causes giardiasis. This illness is manifested as acute and self-limited diarrhea and can evolve to long-term complications. Successful establishment of infection by Giardia trophozoites requires adhesion to host cells and colonization of the small intestine, where parasites multiply by mitotic division. The tight binding of trophozoites to host cells occurs by means of the ventral adhesive disc, a spiral array of microtubules and associated proteins such as giardins...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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