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Protozoa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329230/metagenomic-virome-analysis-of-culex-mosquitoes-from-kenya-and-china
#1
Evans Atoni, Yujuan Wang, Samuel Karungu, Cecilia Waruhiu, Ali Zohaib, Vincent Obanda, Bernard Agwanda, Morris Mutua, Han Xia, Zhiming Yuan
Many blood-feeding arthropods are known vectors of viruses that are a source of unprecedented global health concern. Mosquitoes are an integral part of these arthropod vectors. Advancements in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics has expanded our knowledge on the richness of viruses harbored by arthropods. In the present study, we applied a metagenomic approach to determine the intercontinental virome diversity of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Kwale, Kenya and provinces of Hubei and Yunnan in China...
January 12, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327395/effects-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-formula-on-ruminal-fermentation-enzyme-activities-and-nutrient-digestibility-of-beef-cattle
#2
Zhi Zhu, Zhen-Hui Song, Li-Ting Cao, Yong Wang, Wen-Zhang Zhou, Pei Zhou, Fu-Yuan Zuo
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) combined with several herbs on ruminal fermentation, enzyme activities and nutrient digestibility. Twenty finishing bulls were assigned to control or different TCMFs (Yufeisan-1, -2, -3; 2.5% dry matter (DM) in concentrate). Results showed that DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) in the Yufeisan-3 group than others. Compared to control, apparent digestibility of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were increased (P < 0...
January 12, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324042/mosquito-immunobiology-the-intersection-of-vector-health-and-vector-competence
#3
Lyric C Bartholomay, Kristin Michel
As holometabolous insects that occupy distinct aquatic and terrestrial environments in larval and adult stages and utilize hematophagy for nutrient acquisition, mosquitoes are subjected to a wide variety of symbiotic interactions. Indeed, mosquitoes play host to endosymbiotic, entomopathogenic, and mosquito-borne organisms, including protozoa, viruses, bacteria, fungi, fungal-like organisms, and metazoans, all of which trigger and shape innate infection-response capacity. Depending on the infection or interaction, the mosquito may employ, for example, cellular and humoral immune effectors for septic infections in the hemocoel, humoral infection responses in the midgut lumen, and RNA interference and programmed cell death for intracellular pathogens...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316950/prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-microsporidia-and-isospora-infection-in-hiv-infected-people-a-global-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Ze-Dong Wang, Quan Liu, Huan-Huan Liu, Shuang Li, Li Zhang, Yong-Kun Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea caused by opportunistic intestinal protozoa is a common problem in HIV infection. We aimed to establish the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, misrosporidia, and Isospora in HIV-infected people using a systematic review and meta-analysis, which is central to developing public policy and clinical services. METHODS: We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Embase, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP databases for studies reporting Cryptosporidium, microsporidia, or Isospora infection in HIV-infected people...
January 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313513/diseases-due-to-intestinale-protozoa-diagnosed-at-le-dantec-university-hospital-in-dakar-senegal-from-2011-to-2015
#5
K Diongue, M Ndiaye, M C Seck, M A Diallo, Y D Ndiaye, A S Badiane, D Ndiaye
To identify the protozoa responsible for intestinal parasitosis diagnosed at Le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar, Senegal. The retrospective study included 2578 patients for whom stool samples were analyzed from 2011 to 2015. The sex ratio was 1.1. Patients' mean age was 28.5 years, with a range of 11 days to 91 years. Direct examination and the Ritchie technique were performed to search for parasites. In total, 317 patients had intestinal protozoa, for a prevalence of 12.3 %. Infections involved one (91%) or two parasites (9%)...
November 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304093/the-genomes-of-crithidia-bombi-and-c-expoeki-common-parasites-of-bumblebees
#6
Paul Schmid-Hempel, Markus Aebi, Seth Barribeau, Toshihiko Kitajima, Louis du Plessis, Regula Schmid-Hempel, Stefan Zoller
Trypanosomatids (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) are flagellated protozoa containing many parasites of medical or agricultural importance. Among those, Crithidia bombi and C. expoeki, are common parasites in bumble bees around the world, and phylogenetically close to Leishmania and Leptomonas. They have a simple and direct life cycle with one host, and partially castrate the founding queens greatly reducing their fitness. Here, we report the nuclear genome sequences of one clone of each species, extracted from a field-collected infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301495/cattle-infection-response-network-and-its-functional-modules
#7
Hamid Beiki, Abbas Pakdel, Ardeshir Nejati Javaremi, Ali Masoudi-Nejad, James M Reecy
BACKGROUND: Weighted Gene Co-expression Network analysis, a powerful technique used to extract co-expressed gene pattern from mRNA expression data, was constructed to infer common immune strategies used by cattle in response to five different bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus) and a protozoa (Trypanosoma Congolense) using 604 publicly available gene expression microarrays from 12 cattle infection experiments...
January 5, 2018: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298032/combating-intracellular-pathogens-with-repurposed-host-targeted-drugs
#8
Stanford Schor, Shirit Einav
There is a large, global unmet need for the development of countermeasures to combat intracellular pathogens. The development of novel antimicrobials is expensive and slow and typically focuses on selective inhibition of proteins encoded by a single pathogen, thereby providing a narrow spectrum of coverage. The repurposing of approved drugs targeting host functions required for microbial infections represents a promising alternative. This review summarizes progress and challenges in the repurposing of approved drugs as host-targeted broad-spectrum agents for the treatment of intracellular pathogens...
January 3, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297810/sarcocystis-neurona-associated-meningoencephalitis-in-a-pacific-walrus-odobendus-rosmarus-divergens
#9
Lana Krol, Vanessa Fravel, Diana G Procter, Kathleen M Colegrove
A 21-yr-old intact male walrus ( Odobendus rosmarus divergens) presented with acute onset of shifting lameness, initially associated with breeding behaviors. Further clinical signs manifested, including muscle tremors, anorexia, hematuria, and coughing. Diagnostics were limited, as the animal would not offer behaviors for voluntary sample collection. Signs were addressed with anti-inflammatories, anticonvulsants, and antibiotics. The walrus developed cluster seizures and ultimately, respiratory and cardiac arrest...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290328/human-intestinal-microbiota-interaction-between-parasites-and-the-host-immune-response
#10
REVIEW
Oswaldo Partida-Rodríguez, Angélica Serrano-Vázquez, Miriam E Nieves-Ramírez, Patricia Moran, Liliana Rojas, Tobias Portillo, Enrique González, Eric Hernández, B Brett Finlay, Cecilia Ximenez
The human gut is a highly complex ecosystem with an extensive microbial community, and the influence of the intestinal microbiota reaches the entire host organism. For example, the microbiome regulates fat storage, stimulates or renews epithelial cells, and influences the development and maturation of the brain and the immune system. Intestinal microbes can protect against infection by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Hence, the maintenance of homeostasis between the gut microbiota and the rest of the body is crucial for health, with dysbiosis affecting disease...
December 28, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284754/viral-discovery-and-diversity-in-trypanosomatid-protozoa-with-a-focus-on-relatives-of-the-human-parasite-leishmania
#11
Danyil Grybchuk, Natalia S Akopyants, Alexei Y Kostygov, Aleksandras Konovalovas, Lon-Fye Lye, Deborah E Dobson, Haroun Zangger, Nicolas Fasel, Anzhelika Butenko, Alexander O Frolov, Jan Votýpka, Claudia M d'Avila-Levy, Pavel Kulich, Jana Moravcová, Pavel Plevka, Igor B Rogozin, Saulius Serva, Julius Lukeš, Stephen M Beverley, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
Knowledge of viral diversity is expanding greatly, but many lineages remain underexplored. We surveyed RNA viruses in 52 cultured monoxenous relatives of the human parasite Leishmania (Crithidia and Leptomonas), as well as plant-infecting PhytomonasLeptomonas pyrrhocoris was a hotbed for viral discovery, carrying a virus (Leptomonas pyrrhocoris ostravirus 1) with a highly divergent RNA-dependent RNA polymerase missed by conventional BLAST searches, an emergent clade of tombus-like viruses, and an example of viral endogenization...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280072/new-primers-for-the-detection-leishmania-species-by-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction
#12
Carolina Cella Conter, Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni, Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira
Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus, which is divided into subgenus Viannia and Leishmania. In humans, the course of infection largely depends on the host-parasite relationship and primarily of the infective species. The objective of the present study was to design specific primers to the identification of Leishmania species using multiplex PCR. Four primers were designed, based on the GenBank sequences of the kDNA minicircle, amplifying 127 bp for subgenus Viannia, 100 bp for L. amazonensis, and 60 bp for Leishmania donovani complex and L...
December 26, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279261/flagellated-protozoa-detected-in-dermatophagoides-by-light-microscopy
#13
R Martínez-Girón
House dust mites (HDM) are arthropods of medical importance due to their relationship with allergic diseases. House dust provides a detrital habitat for these organisms, in which human skin scales are a primary food source. For digestion, wall gut cells elaborate potent proteases. Nevertheless, the observation of flagellated protozoa in intestinal extracts of HDM by light microscopy might contribute to digestive processes in mites, opening a new avenue of research regarding the ecological interactions between mites and these microorganisms in the utilisation of such substrates, as well as with regard to allergic diseases...
December 23, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279237/temperature-driven-growth-of-legionella-in-lab-scale-activated-sludge-systems-and-interaction-with-protozoa
#14
C Caicedo, K-H Rosenwinkel, R Nogueira
The occurrence of Legionella pneumophila in activated sludge systems has been reported in the literature. However, the factors triggering its growth are not yet well understood. This knowledge is needed to develop strategies to minimize the risk of the spread of Legionnaires' disease that originates in these systems. In the present study, L. pneumophila multiplied exponentially at 35 °C in activated sludge, but lower temperatures (24 °C and 15 °C) did not favour the growth of the pathogen despite the presence of its protozoan hosts (free-living amoeba and ciliates)...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276696/characterization-of-scenedesmus-obtusiusculus-at-uam-for-high-energy-molecules-accumulation-deeper-insight-into-biotechnological-potential-of-strains-of-the-same-species
#15
Alma Toledo-Cervantes, Gloria Garduño Solórzano, Jorge E Campos, Martha Martínez-García, Marcia Morales
Scenedesmus obtusiusculus AT-UAM, isolated from Cuatro Ciénegas wetlands in Mexico was taxonomically, molecularly and biochemically compared to S. obtusiusculus CCAP 276/25 (Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa, Scotland, UK). Analysis of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) secondary structures confirmed that the mexican strain belongs to S. obtusiusculus with one change in the ITS2 nucleotide sequence. However, both strains exhibited different biochemical and fatty acid profiles and therefore biotechnological potential, emphasizing the need for deeper studies among strains of the same species...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275110/photodegradation-of-taste-and-odor-compounds-in-water-in-the-presence-of-immobilized-tio2-sio2-photocatalysts
#16
Sudheera Yaparatne, Carl P Tripp, Aria Amirbahman
Disinfection by ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a growing trend in public water treatment systems because of its effectiveness with respect to inactivation of protozoa and other pathogenic microorganisms. However, removal of different classes of organic compounds, including taste and odor compounds in water is not effective with UV irradiation. In this study, a novel TiO2-based immobilized photocatalyst is developed to enhance the UV photodegradation of two of the major taste and odor compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and Geosmin (GSM) in water...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260648/enteroparasites-in-preschool-children-on-the-pacific-region-of-nicaragua
#17
Carla Muñoz-Antoli, Mónica Gozalbo, Aleyda Pavón, Paloma Escobedo, Rafael Toledo, Jose-Guillermo Esteban
The aim of this study was to determine for the first time the prevalence of enteroparasites in preschool children originating from the seven departments of the Pacific region in Nicaragua. One stool sample of each of 1,217 children, from 6 months to 5 years of age, was collected and personal data were recorded on delivery of the container. Samples fixed in 10% formalin were processed by a formol-acetate concentration and a modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. The overall prevalence of enteroparasite infections was 68...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250489/identification-of-conserved-abc-importers-necessary-for-intracellular-survival-of-legionella-pneumophila-in-multiple-hosts
#18
Amrita Lama, Samuel L Drennan, Rudd C Johnson, Grace L Rubenstein, Eric D Cambronne
It is established that the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila becomes significantly augmented for infection of macrophages after intracellular growth in amoebae when compared to like-strains cultivated in laboratory media. Based on this observation, we reasoned that the most critical virulence determinants of L.p. are expressed by responding to stimuli generated by the protozoan host specifically; a process we term "protozoan-priming." We sought to identify L.p. virulence factors that were required for replication in amoebae in order to highlight the genes necessary for production of the most infectious form of the bacterium...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250488/from-many-hosts-one-accidental-pathogen-the-diverse-protozoan-hosts-of-legionella
#19
REVIEW
David K Boamah, Guangqi Zhou, Alexander W Ensminger, Tamara J O'Connor
The 1976 outbreak of Legionnaires' disease led to the discovery of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Given their impact on human health, Legionella species and the mechanisms responsible for their replication within host cells are often studied in alveolar macrophages, the primary human cell type associated with disease. Despite the potential severity of individual cases of disease, Legionella are not spread from person-to-person. Thus, from the pathogen's perspective, interactions with human cells are accidents of time and space-evolutionary dead ends with no impact on Legionella's long-term survival or pathogenic trajectory...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248979/application-of-modified-jdp-dgge-based-molecular-genotyping-method-to-predict-acanthamoeba-genotype-and-to-analyse-community-diversity-in-aquatic-environments
#20
Tsui-Kang Hsu, Jung-Sheng Chen, Bing-Mu Hsu, Yu-Pin Chen, Tsai-Hsueh Leu, Tung-Yi Huang, Yu-Wen Hsu, Shu-Fen Wu
Acanthamoeba spp. are ubiquitous, opportunistic potential human pathogens, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and keratitis. They are classified as protozoa, and they include at least 20 different genotypes (T1-T20) based on variation in the 18S rRNA gene. Acanthamoeba spp. are diverse in their production of toxins and in their ability to resist environmental factors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a rapid genotyping method for Acanthamoeba spp. in aquatic environments. Although the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method for analysing microbial genotypes is potentially useful for rapid identification of aquatic environmental species, the technique has been compromised by artificial DGGE profiles in which many DNA fragments of identical sequences are segregated and displayed as different bands...
December 17, 2017: Parasitology Research
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