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Fish oil and inflammation

Ze-Hao Zhuang, Jing-Jing Xie, Jing-Jing Wei, Du-Peng Tang, Li-Yong Yang
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play various roles in inflammation. However, the effect of PUFAs in the development of reflux esophagitis (RE) is unclear. This study is to investigate the potential effect of n-3/n-6 PUFAs on acute RE in rats along with the underlying protective mechanisms. METHODS: Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group). RE model was established by pyloric clip and section ligation...
October 4, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Valentin P Yakubenko, Tatiana V Byzova
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to be present and/or enriched in vegetable and fish oils. Among fatty acids, n-3 PUFA are generally considered to be protective in inflammation-related diseases. The guidelines for substituting saturated fatty acids for PUFAs have been highly publicized for decades by numerous health organizations. Recently, however, the beneficial properties of n-3 PUFA are questioned by detailed analyses of multiple randomized controlled clinical trials...
October 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
S Ito, Y Sano, K Nagasawa, N Matsuura, Y Yamada, A Uchinaka, T Murohara, K Nagata
INTRODUCTION: n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are abundant in fish oil, have been shown to delay the onset of cardiovascular events. We previously established DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats, as a model of metabolic syndrome. This study has now explored the influence of highly purified EPA on cardiac and adipose tissue pathophysiology in this animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DS/obese rats were administered EPA (300 or 1,000 mg kg(-1) d(-1), per os) or vehicle from age 9 to 13 weeks...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
Jean A Hall, Jaye Hartman, Monica M Skinner, Adam R Schwindt, Kay A Fischer, William R Vorachek, Gerd Bobe, Beth A Valentine
The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent decades, which may be related to higher dietary intake of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower intake of (n-3) PUFA, e.g., those contained in fish oil. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary PUFA enrichment decreases mucus production or the inflammatory response associated with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation. Mice (n = 10/group) were fed control, 20% fish oil, or 20% corn oil enriched diets for a total of 12 weeks...
2016: PloS One
Thomas C Hall, Dilraj K Bilku, Christopher P Neal, Jill Cooke, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder, Ashley R Dennison
BACKGROUND: Death from sepsis in the intensive therapy unit (ITU) is frequently preceded by the development of multiple organ failure as a result of uncontrolled inflammation. Treatment with omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs), principally eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been demonstrated to attenuate the effects of uncontrolled inflammation and may be clinically beneficial in reducing mortality from organ dysfunction. Fish oil (FO) is a source of EPA and DHA...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Jessay Gopuran Devassy, Shan Leng, Melissa Gabbs, Md Monirujjaman, Harold M Aukema
Alzheimer disease (AD) is becoming one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative conditions worldwide. Although the disease progression is becoming better understood, current medical interventions can only ameliorate some of the symptoms but cannot slow disease progression. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of this disorder, and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in both the reduction in and resolution of inflammation. These effects may be mediated by the anti-inflammatory and proresolving effects of bioactive lipid mediators (oxylipins) derived from n-3 PUFAs [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in fish oil...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Khurram Rehman, Mohd Hanif Zulfakar
PURPOSE: To characterize bigel system as a topical drug delivery vehicle and to establish the immunomodulatory role of imiquimod-fish oil combination against skin cancer and inflammation resulting from chemical carcinogenesis. METHODS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigel colloidal system was prepared using a blend of carbopol hydrogel and fish oil oleogel. Bigels were first characterized for their mechanical properties and compared to conventional gel systems. Ex vivo permeation studies were performed on murine skin to analyze the ability of the bigels to transport drug across skin and to predict the release mechanism via mathematical modelling...
September 12, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
João Pedro de Magalhães, Michael Müller, G Ed Rainger, Wilma Steegenga
Fish oil supplementation is of great medical and public interest with epidemiological evidence of health benefits in humans, in particular by conferring protection against heart diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have also been reported. Initial results from short-lived mouse strains showed that fish oil can increase lifespan, affecting pathways like inflammation and oxidation thought to be involved in the regulation of aging. Could fish oil and its omega-3 fatty acids act as geroprotectors? Probably not...
August 2016: Aging
Anna Boss, Karen S Bishop, Gareth Marlow, Matthew P G Barnett, Lynnette R Ferguson
The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO...
2016: Nutrients
Hye-Won Yum, Hye-Kyung Na, Young-Joon Surh
The implication of inflammatory tissue damage in pathophysiology of human cancer as well as some metabolic disorders has been under intense investigation. Numerous studies have identified a series of critical signaling molecules involved in cellular responses to inflammatory stimuli. These include nuclear factor κB, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1. The proper regulation of these transcription factors mediating pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling hence provides an important strategy for the chemoprevention of inflammation-associated cancer...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Mohd Hanif Zulfakar, Rebecca M Porter, Charles M Heard
Psoriasis is an incurable autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal red, itchy and scaly skin. This work examined the modulation of inflammation, hyperproliferation and immune cell markers following topical application of fish oil (FO) in comparison to the antipsoriatic agents, betamethasone dipropionate (BD) and salicylic acid (SA), to GsdmA3(Dfl)/+ mice, a hair loss mutant which also exhibits epidermal hyperproliferation akin to psoriasis. The mice were dosed with 100 mg of the test formulation and after 10 days, the mice were sacrificed, skin sections excised and subjected to immunohistochemical determination of COX-2, K17 and MAC-1; and immunofluorescence of Ki-67...
August 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Hirona Kugo, Nobuhiro Zaima, Hiroki Tanaka, Youhei Mouri, Kenichi Yanagimoto, Kohsuke Hayamizu, Keisuke Hashimoto, Takeshi Sasaki, Masaki Sano, Tatsuro Yata, Tetsumei Urano, Mitsutoshi Setou, Naoki Unno, Tatsuya Moriyama
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving the gradual dilation of the abdominal aorta. It has been reported that development of AAA is associated with inflammation of the vascular wall; however, the mechanism of AAA rupture is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying AAA rupture using a hypoperfusion-induced animal model. We found that the administration of triolein increased the AAA rupture rate in the animal model and that the number of adipocytes was increased in ruptured vascular walls compared to non-ruptured walls...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kazuki Moro, Masayuki Nagahashi, Rajesh Ramanathan, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai
Inflammation is a central process in several disorders and contributes to cancer progression. Inflammation involves a complex cascade of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signaling events with protein and lipid mediators. Recent advances in lipid detection have revealed the importance of lipid mediators in inflammation. Omega three polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are found naturally in fish oil and have been extensively studied in multiple inflammatory diseases with improved outcomes. Resolvins are thought to be the active metabolites of ω-3 PUFA, and are responsible for facilitating the resolving phase of acute inflammation...
July 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Kun Zhang, Yanan Chang, Zhemin Shi, Xiaohui Han, Yawei Han, Qingbin Yao, Zhimei Hu, Hongmei Cui, Lina Zheng, Tao Han, Wei Hong
Elevated levels of the transcriptional regulators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivators with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), key effectors of the Hippo pathway, have been shown to play essential roles in controlling liver cell fate and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) has been positively associated with a number of health benefits including prevention and reduction of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation and cancers...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jiyuan Bu, Yang Dou, Xiaodi Tian, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Bill Lands
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a preventable disease, which combines two general processes: chronic vascular inflammation and acute thrombosis. Both are amplified with positive feedback signals by n-6 eicosanoids derived from food-based n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-6 HUFA). This amplification is lessened by competing actions of n-3 HUFA. Death results from fatal interactions of the vascular wall with platelets and clotting proteins. The benefits of fish oil interventions are confounded by complex details in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse events, timescale factors, topology, financial incentives and people's sense of cause and effect...
September 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Katherine Esposito, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Dario Giugliano
Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals...
July 9, 2016: Endocrine
Alexander V Sorokin, Zhi-Hong Yang, Boris L Vaisman, Seth Thacker, Zu-Xi Yu, Maureen Sampson, Charles N Serhan, Alan T Remaley
Aspirin (ASA) is known to alter the production of potent inflammatory lipid mediators, but whether it interacts with omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish oil to affect atherosclerosis has not been determined. The goal was to investigate the impact of a fish oil-enriched diet alone and in combination with ASA on the production of lipid mediators and atherosclerosis. ApoE(-/-) female mice were fed for 13weeks one of the four following diets: omega-3 FA deficient (OD), omega-3 FA rich (OR) (1.8g omega-3 FAs/kg·diet per day), omega-3 FA rich plus ASA (ORA) (0...
September 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Emanuela Viggiano, Maria Pina Mollica, Lillà Lionetti, Gina Cavaliere, Giovanna Trinchese, Chiara De Filippo, Sergio Chieffi, Marcello Gaita, Antonio Barletta, Bruno De Luca, Marianna Crispino, Marcellino Monda
The high fat diet (HFD) rich in lard induces obesity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and the deregulation of hypothalamic nuclei plays an important role in this mechanism. One important factor involved in the food intake and inflammation is adenosine monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine kinase activated by phosphorylation. Omega (ω)3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary compounds known to attenuate the obesity-related diseases, although the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions in the hypothalamus are not completely understood...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Asha Shrestha, Asena Bahce-Altuntas, Wenzhu Mowrey, Anna Broder
OBJECTIVE: The association between psoriatic arthritis (PsA) disease activity and lipid profiles has not been explored. We studied the association between active peripheral arthritis and/or enthesitis/daclylitis with lipid measurements in PsA. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of PsA patients enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North American (CORRONA) registry. Low activity was defined as Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ≤ 10 without enthesitis or dactylitis...
June 2, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
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