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Diabetes type I

Ruth S Weinstock, Ingrid Schütz-Fuhrmann, Crystal G Connor, Julia M Hermann, David M Maahs, Morten Schütt, Shivani Agarwal, Sabine E Hofer, Roy W Beck, Reinhard W Holl
AIMS: Compare characteristics, therapies and clinical outcomes in older adults with type 1 diabetes in the United States T1D Exchange (T1DX) and German/Austrian Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV) registries. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of adults ≥60years old with type 1 diabetes seen in 2011-2012 in the T1DX (n=1283) and DPV (n=2014) registries. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Rachelle Hornby
I began watching the BBC's Panorama documentary Diabetes: The Hidden Killer but got frustrated and had to turn it off. I have had type 1 diabetes for 28 years and am shocked at the resources thrown at people with type 2, which can easily be prevented. This funding would be better used on research into type 1 diabetes and its treatment.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Connie M Rhee, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Like other biguanide agents, metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent with lower tendency towards hypoglycemia compared to other anti-diabetic drugs. Given its favorable effects on serum lipids, obese body habitus, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, metformin is recommended as the first-line pharmacologic agent for type 2 diabetes in the absence of contraindications. However, as metformin accumulation may lead to type B non-hypoxemic lactic acidosis, especially in the setting of kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and overdose, regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have maintained certain restrictions regarding its use in kidney dysfunction...
October 20, 2016: Nephron
Max C Petersen, Anila K Madiraju, Brandon M Gassaway, Michael Marcel, Ali R Nasiri, Gina Butrico, Melissa J Marcucci, Dongyan Zhang, Abudukadier Abulizi, Xian-Man Zhang, William Philbrick, Stevan R Hubbard, Michael J Jurczak, Varman T Samuel, Jesse Rinehart, Gerald I Shulman
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether NAFLD plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of T2D is uncertain. One proposed mechanism linking NAFLD to hepatic insulin resistance involves diacylglycerol-mediated (DAG-mediated) activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKCε) and the consequent inhibition of insulin receptor (INSR) kinase activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PKCε inhibition of INSR kinase activity is unknown. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify the phosphorylation site Thr1160 as a PKCε substrate in the functionally critical INSR kinase activation loop...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
S J van Rooijen, D Huisman, M Stuijvenberg, J Stens, R M H Roumen, F Daams, G D Slooter
BACKGROUND: Colorectal anastomotic leakage (CAL) is a major surgical complication in intestinal surgery. Despite many optimizations in patient care, the incidence of CAL is stable (3-19%) [1]. Previous research mainly focused on determining patient and surgery related risk factors. Intraoperative non-surgery related risk factors for anastomotic healing also contribute to surgical outcome. This review offers an overview of potential modifiable risk factors that may play a role during the operation...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Gabriela Barcenas-Morales, Peter Jandus, Rainer Döffinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concise overview of the field of anticytokine autoantibodies with a focus on recent developments. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in particular in the analysis of autoantibodies to IFNγ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IFN-1 are presented. The target epitope for anti-IFNγ autoantibodies has been found to have high homology to a protein from Aspergillus suggesting molecular mimicry as a mechanism of breaking self-tolerance...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Michel E Safar
Mid-life elevated BP is classically associated with a raised systemic vascular resistance. A classical interpretation of the association between aortic stiffness and blood pressure (BP) invokes hypertension as a simple form of premature aging that increases stress on the arterial wall and accelerates age-related stiffening of the aorta. Recent clinical and experimental data have called into question the directionality of this sequence of events associating stiffness and hypertension.Therefore an initial abnormality in stiffness may antedate and contribute initially to the pathogenesis of hypertension, namely isolated systolic hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kazuomi Kario
Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension and related cardiovascular disease. Stroke is more common than coronary artery disease in Eastern Asian countries, while the coronary artery disease is more common than stroke in Western countries. The association slope between higher blood pressure (BP) and the risk of cardiovascular events is steeper in Asians than in Caucasians. This may partly explained by the recent result demonstrating that the morning BP surge in Asians is more extended (Hoshide, Kario, Parati et al...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ki Chul Sung
BMI is a proxy measure for adiposity in population-based studies and it is well established that increasing body fat is strongly associated with component features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as dyslipidaemia (low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high triglyceride concentrations, increased glucose concentrations, high blood pressure, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Whether any or all of these components of the MetS account for relationships between body fatness and all cause mortality is uncertain, but we have recently shown in a large Korean cohort that co-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes or hypertension explained much of the increased risk of CVD mortality in obese individuals...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Antonius Baartscheer, Cees A Schumacher, Rob C I Wüst, Jan W T Fiolet, Ger J M Stienen, Ruben Coronel, Coert J Zuurbier
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Empagliflozin (EMPA), an inhibitor of the renal sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2, reduces the risk of cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanism of this effect is unknown. Elevated cardiac cytoplasmic Na(+) ([Na(+)]c) and Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]c) concentrations and decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) are drivers of heart failure and cardiac death. We therefore hypothesised that EMPA would directly modify [Na(+)]c, [Ca(2+)]c and [Ca(2+)]m in cardiomyocytes...
October 17, 2016: Diabetologia
Huiting Su, Ning Na, Xiaodong Zhang, Yong Zhao
CD74 (MHC class II invariant chain, Ii) is a non-polymorphic type II transmembrane glycoprotein. It is clear that, in addition to be an MHC class II chaperone, CD74 has a diversity of biological functions in physiological and pathological situations. CD74 also participates in other non-MHC II protein trafficking, such as angiotensin II type I receptor. In addition, CD74 is a cell membrane high-affinity receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT/MIF-2) and bacterial proteins...
October 17, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Norikazu Kiguchi, Huiping Ding, Christopher M Peters, Nancy D Kock, Shiroh Kishioka, J Mark Cline, Janice D Wagner, Mei-Chuan Ko
Neuroinflammation is a pathological condition that underlies diabetes and affects sensory processing. Given the high prevalence of pain in diabetic patients and crosstalk between chemokines and opioids, it is pivotal to know whether neuroinflammation-associated mediators are dysregulated in the central nervous system of diabetic primates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether mRNA expression levels of glial markers, chemokines, and opioid receptors are altered in the spinal cord and thalamus of naturally occurring type 2 diabetic monkeys (n=7) compared with age-matched non-diabetic monkeys (n=6)...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Eric R Craig, Angelina I Londoño, Lyse A Norian, Rebecca C Arend
OBJECTIVE: Epithelial ovarian cancer continues to be the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. Patients with both diabetes mellitus and obesity have poorer outcomes, yet research correlating metabolic abnormalities, such as metabolic syndrome, to ovarian cancer risk and outcomes is lacking. This article reviews the literature regarding metabolic derangements and their relationship to epithelial ovarian cancer, with a focus on potential mechanisms behind these associations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles in the English language regarding epithelial ovarian cancer, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, with a focus on studies conducted since 1990...
October 14, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Nicola Jones, Leigh M Riby, Michael A Smith
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) exhibit accelerated decline in some domains of cognition including verbal episodic memory. Few studies have investigated the influence of DM2 status in older adults on recognition memory for more complex stimuli such as faces. In the present study we sought to compare recognition memory performance for words, objects and faces under conditions of relatively low and high cognitive load. METHODS: Healthy older adults with good glucoregulatory control (n = 13) and older adults with DM2 (n = 24) were administered recognition memory tasks in which stimuli (faces, objects and words) were presented under conditions of either i) low (stimulus presented without a background pattern) or ii) high (stimulus presented against a background pattern) cognitive load...
July 2016: Archives of Medical Research
Qing Yang, Ping Fang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and type 2 diabetes is the most common type accounting for 90% of all diabetes cases. Health education is considered as the first choice to control blood glucose levels. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effect of health education tool "Conversation Map" in diabetes patients to control blood glucose. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, and China Science Periodical Database up to December, 2015...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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