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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865233/cyp2e1-polymorphism-acetylator-profiles-and-drug-induced-liver-injury-incidence-of-indonesian-tuberculosis-patients
#1
Dyah A Perwitasari, Lalu M Irham, Endang Darmawan, Ully A Mulyani, J Atthobari
OBJECTIVE: A polymorphism of CYP2E1 may be directly associated with the development of INH hepatotoxicity. We conducted this study to evaluate the association between polymorphisms of CYP2E1, Isoniazid (INH) concentration and the acetylator status of INH in cases of Indonesian tuberculosis patients with drug-induced liver disease (DILI). METHODS: We conducted our study with a cohort design consisting of 55 Indonesian adult tuberculosis (TB) patients. Acetylating phenotypes were studied in using the metabolic ratio of plasma AcHZ/HZ...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865212/changes-in-the-oral-health-of-the-children-of-dili-timor-leste-between-2002-and-2014
#2
Lucio F Babo Soares, Penny L Allen, Jenna Kingi, Kaye Roberts-Thomson, Silvana Bettiol, Leonard Crocombe
INTRODUCTION: This research compared the oral health status of school children in Dili (the capital of Timor Leste) in 2002 and 2014. METHODS: The 2014 oral health survey of Dili's children replicated the methods of an AusAID-supported oral health survey conducted in 2002. Equal numbers of children were invited to participate from four age groups (6-8, 9-11, 12-14 and 15-17 years). For the 2014 survey, the subdistricts of Dom Aleixo, Cristo Rei, Metinaro and Vera Cruz were randomly selected for inclusion...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861792/drug-induced-liver-injury-advances-in-mechanistic-understanding-that-will-inform-risk-management
#3
Merrie Mosedale, Paul B Watkins
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major public health problem. Intrinsic (dose-dependent) DILI associated with acetaminophen overdose is the number one cause of acute liver failure in the US. However the most problematic type of DILI impacting drug development is idiosyncratic, occurring only very rarely among treated patients and often only after several weeks or months of treatment with the offending drug. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of DILI suggest that three mechanisms may underlie the hepatocyte effects in response to both intrinsic and idiosyncratic DILI drugs: mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and alterations in bile acid homeostasis...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860186/profiles-of-mirnas-in-serum-in-severe-acute-drug-induced-liver-injury-and-their-prognostic-significance
#4
Mark W Russo, Nury Steuerwald, Harry J Norton, William E Anderson, David Foureau, Naga Chalasani, Robert J Fontana, Paul B Watkins, Jose Serrano, Herbert L Bonkovsky
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is challenging because of the lack of biomarkers to predict mortality. Our aim was to describe miRNA changes in sera of subjects with acute idiosyncratic DILI and determine if levels of miRNAs were associated with 6 month mortality. METHODS: Clinical data and sera were collected from subjects enrolled in the Drug Induced Liver Injury Network prospective study. miRNAs were isolated from serum obtained from 78 subjects within 2 weeks of acute DILI and followed up for 6 months or longer...
November 12, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860156/hepatotoxicity-of-statins-and-other-lipid-lowering-agents
#5
REVIEW
Einar S Björnsson
Statins are generally well tolerated and adverse effects are relatively rare. Clinical trials are underpowered to detect uncommon adverse effects such as idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. This review is aimed at covering the current knowledge on the hepatotoxicity associated with statins and other lipid lowering drugs. Both atorvastatin and simvastatin have been associated with more than 50 case reports of liver injury and other statins have been implicated in this type of liver injury as well. Idiosyncratic liver injury due to statins has been reported to occur 1...
November 8, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855458/-drug-induced-liver-injury
#6
Hans Christian Spangenberg
The incidence of drug induced liver injury (DILI) has been reported to be between 14 - 20 per 100 000 inhabitants. The diagnosis of DILI is based on an accurate anamnesis and exclusion of other liver diseases. Drugs most commonly involved in DILI belong to the classes of antibiotics and analgetics. The most important therapeutic issue is to identify and withdraw the toxic compound.
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848888/immunotherapy-in-liver-diseases-a-balance-between-immunity-and-tolerance
#7
Alaknanda Mishra, Pramod K Upadhyay, Perumal Nagarajan
In today's context when liver diseases have spread across countries and people of all ages, it is of high importance to consider novel methods of non-toxic and long lived therapeutics. Among various therapies, immunotherapy for acute and chronic liver diseases is rapidly moving to the forefront among treatment options in hepatology medicine. Liver has a unique immuno- biological advantage which is utilized to maintain a balance between immunity and tolerance. This intricate balance of hepatic immune cells can be modulated to effect treatments in various liver diseases...
November 16, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843779/the-role-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-hepatic-disease-a-review-article
#8
REVIEW
Maryam Soleimanpour, Farnad Imani, Saeid Safari, Sarvin Sanaie, Hassan Soleimanpour, Hoorolnesa Ameli, Seyed Moayed Alavian
CONTEXT: Patients with hepatic dysfunction suffer from many problems and associated complications in organs other than the liver. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the effects of different drugs in the treatment of these patients. Due to the high consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), studying the effects of these drugs in patients with hepatic dysfunction is particularly important. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Research studies published from 1958 to 2014 were investigated in the present study...
August 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842775/epidemiology-and-genetic-risk-factors-of-drug-hepatotoxicity
#9
REVIEW
Jawad Ahmad, Joseph A Odin
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) from prescription medications and herbal and dietary supplements has an annual incidence rate of approximately 20 cases per 100,000 per year. However, the risk of DILI varies greatly according to the drug. In the United States and Europe, antimicrobials are the commonest implicated agents, with amoxicillin/clavulanate the most common, whereas in Asian countries, herbal and dietary supplements predominate. Genetic analysis of DILI is currently limited, but multiple polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigen genes and genes involved in drug metabolism and transport have been identified as risk factors for DILI...
February 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842773/drug-induced-liver-disease-clinical-course
#10
REVIEW
Hemamala Saithanyamurthi, Alison Jazwinski Faust
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a term used to describe a spectrum of clinical presentations and severity that ranges from mild elevation of liver enzymes on routine blood work to acute liver failure and death. Approximately 10% of all patients with DILI develop acute liver failure resulting in death or liver transplantation. DILI may be prolonged with persistence of elevated liver enzymes for longer than 6 months in approximately 5% to 20% of cases. Cirrhosis and long-term liver-related morbidity and mortality have also been described but are rare, occurring in 1% to 3% of cases...
February 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842770/management-of-acute-hepatotoxicity-including-medical-agents-and-liver-support-systems
#11
REVIEW
Humberto C Gonzalez, Syed-Mohammed Jafri, Stuart C Gordon
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can be predictable or idiosyncratic and has an estimated incidence of approximately 20 cases per 100,000 persons per year. DILI is a common cause of acute liver failure in the United States. No accurate tests for diagnosing DILI exist, and its diagnosis is based on exclusion of other conditions. Managing DILI includes discontinuing the suspected causative agent and in selected cases administering an antidote. Liver support systems are used for long-term support or as a bridge to transplantation and are effective for improving encephalopathy, hyperbilirubinemia, and other liver-related conditions, but whether they improve survival remains uncertain...
February 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832142/predictors-of-prolonged-tb-treatment-in-a-dutch-outpatient-setting
#12
Natasha Van't Boveneind-Vrubleuskaya, Alper Daskapan, Jos G W Kosterink, Tjip S van der Werf, Susan van den Hof, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
INTRODUCTION: Standard treatment duration for drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB) treatment is 6 months. Treatment duration is often extended-and for various different reasons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to assess risk factors associated with extended TB treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data including demographic, clinical, radiological and microbiological information from the Netherlands TB Register (NTR) of 90 patients with smear and culture positive pulmonary TB of the region Haaglanden, The Netherlands, was eligible for analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832041/investigation-of-liver-dysfunction-who-should-we-test-for-hepatitis-e
#13
Sebastian J Wallace, Glynn W Webb, Richie G Madden, Hugh C Dalton, Joanne Palmer, Richard T Dalton, Adam Pollard, Rhys Martin, Vasilis Panayi, Gwyn Bennett, Richard P Bendall, Harry R Dalton
AIM: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in developed countries, but unrecognized infection is common. Many national guidelines now recommend HEV testing in patients with acute hepatitis irrespective of travel history. The biochemical definition of 'hepatitis' that best predicts HEV infection has not been established. This study aimed to determine parameters of liver biochemistry that should prompt testing for acute HEV. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of serial liver function tests (LFTs) in cases of acute HEV (n=74) and three comparator groups: common bile duct stones (CBD, n=87), drug-induced liver injury (DILI, n=69) and patients testing negative for HEV (n=530)...
November 9, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822971/drug-induced-liver-injury-is-chronic-liver-disease-a-risk-factor-and-a-clinical-issue
#14
Rolf Teschke, Gaby Danan
Clinicians and practitioners caring for patients with chronic liver disease are often unsure whether drug therapy is a hazard that increases their patient's risk for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Areas covered: We searched for reports of drug induced liver injury, both idiosyncratic and intrinsic, in patients with chronic liver disease including non-alcoholic and alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Reports we analyzed include statin treatment in patients with fatty liver, acetaminophen use in alcoholic fatty liver, antituberculous drugs in patients with tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, antiviral medications in hepatitis and antiretroviral medications in HIV/AIDS...
November 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813081/genetics-and-genomics-of-ovarian-sex-cord-stromal-tumors
#15
REVIEW
Peter J Fuller, Dilys Leung, Simon Chu
Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors represent ~8% of malignant ovarian tumors. The most common are granulosa cell tumors (GCT) which account for ~90% of malignant sex cord-stromal tumors. Recent studies have unravelled the key genomic and genetic events contributing to their pathogenesis. Sex cord-stromal tumors are found in the hereditary syndromes: Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome, and DICER1 syndrome. Genomic studies have largely been limited to GCT where a number of recurring chromosomal abnormalities (monsomy and trisomy) have been identified although their contribution to pathogenesis remains unclear...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793116/the-incidence-presentation-outcomes-risk-of-mortality-and-economic-data-of-drug-induced-liver-injury-from-a-national-database-in-thailand-a-population-base-study
#16
Abhasnee Sobhonslidsuk, Kittiyod Poovorawan, Ngamphol Soonthornworasiri, Wirichada Pan-Ngum, Kamthorn Phaosawasdi
BACKGROUND: Toxic liver diseases are mainly caused by drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We assessed incidences and outcomes of DILI including associated factors for mortality. METHODS: We performed a population-based study of hospitalized patients with DILI. Information was retrieved from the Nationwide Hospital Admission Data using ICD-10 code of toxic liver diseases (K71) and additional codes (T36-T65). The associated factors were analyzed with log-rank test, univariate and multiple cox regression analysis...
October 28, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785887/exploration-of-biomarkers-for-amoxicillin-clavulanate-induced-liver-injury-multi-omics-approaches
#17
J Lee, S C Ji, B Kim, S Yi, K H Shin, J Y Cho, K S Lim, S H Lee, S H Yoon, J Y Chung, K S Yu, H S Park, S H Kim, I J Jang
To explore potential biomarkers for amoxicillin/clavulanate-induced liver injury (AC-DILI), we conducted a clinical trial in 32 healthy subjects based on multi-omics approaches. Every subject was administered amoxicillin/clavulanate for 14 days. The liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) level increased prior to and correlated well with the observed alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level increase. This result indicates its potential as a sensitive early marker for AC-DILI. We also identified urinary metabolites, such as azelaic acid and 7-methylxanthine, with levels that significantly differed among the groups classified by ALT elevation level on day 8 after drug administration (P < 0...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779329/indications-for-cesarean-delivery-in-mexico-evaluation-of-appropriate-use-and-justification
#18
Juan Carlos Aranda-Neri, Leticia Suárez-López, Lisa M DeMaria, Dilys Walker
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery is one of the most widely used surgical interventions in Latin America and in many cases it is performed with no clear medical indication. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between reported indications for a cesarean and support for that indication in the clinical record in four Mexican hospitals, during the 2006-2007 period. METHODS: The data are from 604 (37.1%) women from a total of 1,625 who were admitted to the hospital in labor, and who gave birth through cesarean...
October 25, 2016: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775817/stem-cell-derived-models-to-improve-mechanistic-understanding-and-prediction-of-human-drug-induced-liver-injury
#19
REVIEW
Christopher Goldring, Daniel J Antoine, Frank Bonner, Jonathan Crozier, Chris Denning, Robert J Fontana, Neil A Hanley, David C Hay, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, Satu Juhila, Neil Kitteringham, Beatriz Silva-Lima, Alan Norris, Chris Pridgeon, James A Ross, Rowena Sison Young, Danilo Tagle, Belen Tornesi, Bob van de Water, Richard J Weaver, Fang Zhang, B Kevin Park
Current preclinical drug testing does not predict some forms of adverse drug reactions in humans. Efforts at improving predictability of drug-induced tissue injury in humans include using stem cell technology to generate human cells for screening for adverse effects of drugs in humans. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells means that it may ultimately be possible to develop personalized toxicology to determine interindividual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the complexity of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury means that no current single-cell model, whether of primary liver tissue origin, from liver cell lines, or derived from stem cells, adequately emulates what is believed to occur during human drug-induced liver injury...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766365/current-limitations-and-future-opportunities-for-prediction-of-dili-from-in-vitro
#20
Christoph Funk, Adrian Roth
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major concern for drug developers, regulators and clinicians. It is triggered by drug and xenobiotic insults leading to liver impairment or damage, in the worst-case liver failure. In contrast to acute "intrinsic" hepatotoxicity, DILI typically manifests in a very small subset of the population under treatment with no clear dose relationship and inconsistent temporal patterns and is therefore termed an idiosyncratic event. Involved are multifactorial, compound-dependent mechanisms and host-specific factors, making the prediction in preclinical test systems very challenging...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
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