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Elizabeth A Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A Salisbury, Diana Hoang, Eleanor L Davis, ZaWaunyka Lazard, Corinne Sonnet, Thomas A Davis, Jonathan A Forsberg, Alan R Davis
Studies presented here, using a murine model of bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (BMP2)-induced heterotopic ossification (HO) show that the protein initiates HO by signaling through progenitors in the endoneurium of peripheral nerves. In the mouse, these cells were identified in the endoneurium one day after BMP2 induction using antibody against phosphoSMAD (PS) 1, 5, and 8. Studies conducted in a tracking mouse that contains a tamoxifen-regulated Wnt1-Cre recombinase crossed with a td Tomato red (TR) reporter (Wnt1(CreErt) :Ai9Tm) confirmed their neural origin...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Rakesh Naduvile Veedu, Lukas Aaldering, Vasanthanathan Poongavanam, Niels Langkjaer, Arul Murugan, Per Trolle Jørgensen, Jesper Wengel
Thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) that shows anticoagulant properties is one of the most studied G-quadruplex forming aptamers. In this study, we investigated the impact of different chemical modifications such as Spacer-C3, unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) and 3'-amine-modified UNA (amino-UNA) on the structural dynamics and stability of TBA. All three modifications were incorporated at three different loop positions (T3, T7 and T12) of the TBA G-quadruplex structure rendering a series of TBA variants and studied their stability by thermal denaturation studies, folding by circular dichroism spectroscopy and thrombin clotting time...
February 2, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Brigitte Altmann, Kerstin Rabel, Ralf J Kohal, Susanne Proksch, Pascal Tomakidi, Erik Adolfsson, Falk Bernsmann, Paola Palmero, Tobias Fürderer, Thorsten Steinberg
OBJECTIVE: To adequately address clinically important issues such as osseointegration and soft tissue integration, we screened for the direct biological cell response by culturing human osteoblasts and gingival fibroblasts on novel zirconia-based dental implant biomaterials and subjecting them to transcriptional analysis. METHODS: Biomaterials used for osteoblasts involved micro-roughened surfaces made of a new type of ceria-stabilized zirconia composite with two different topographies, zirconium dioxide, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (control)...
January 10, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
AtLee T D Watson, Antonio Planchart, Carolyn J Mattingly, Christoph Winkler, David M Reif, Seth W Kullman
Recent studies from mammalian, fish, and in vitro models have identified bone and cartilage development as sensitive targets for dioxins and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. In this study, we assess how embryonic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorochlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure impacts axial osteogenesis in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), a vertebrate model of human bone development. Embryos from inbred wild-type Orange-red Hd-dR and 3 transgenic medaka lines (twist:EGFP, osx/sp7:mCherry, col10a1:nlGFP) were exposed to 0...
February 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Tingsheng Yu, Martin Graf, Joerg Renn, Manfred Schartl, Daria Larionova, Ann Huysseune, Paul Eckhard Witten, Christoph Winkler
osterix (osx; sp7) encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls osteoblast differentiation in mammals. Although identified in all vertebrate lineages, its role in non-mammalian bone formation remains elusive. Here, we show that an osx mutation in medaka results in severe bone defects and larval lethality. Pre-osteoblasts fail to differentiate leading to severe intramembranous and perichondral ossification defects. The notochord sheath mineralizes normally, supporting the idea of an osteoblast-independent mechanism for teleost vertebral centra formation...
January 15, 2017: Development
Heather A Himburg, Phuong L Doan, Mamle Quarmyne, Xiao Yan, Joshua Sasine, Liman Zhao, Grace V Hancock, Jenny Kan, Katherine A Pohl, Evelyn Tran, Nelson J Chao, Jeffrey R Harris, John P Chute
The role of osteolineage cells in regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regeneration following myelosuppression is not well understood. Here we show that deletion of the pro-apoptotic genes Bak and Bax in osterix (Osx, also known as Sp7 transcription factor 7)-expressing cells in mice promotes HSC regeneration and hematopoietic radioprotection following total body irradiation. These mice showed increased bone marrow (BM) levels of the protein dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), which was produced in Osx-expressing BM cells...
January 2017: Nature Medicine
Hamid Reza Ghanavi, Elena G Gonzalez, Ignacio Doadrio
The Middle East contains a great diversity of Capoeta species, but their taxonomy remains poorly described. We used mitochondrial history to examine diversity of the algae-scraping cyprinid Capoeta in Iran, applying the species-delimiting approaches General Mixed Yule-Coalescent (GMYC) and Poisson Tree Process (PTP) as well as haplotype network analyses. Using the BEAST program, we also examined temporal divergence patterns of Capoeta. The monophyly of the genus and the existence of three previously described main clades (Mesopotamian, Anatolian-Iranian, and Aralo-Caspian) were confirmed...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Farzaneh Khani, Roman Thaler, Christopher R Paradise, David R Deyle, Marianne Kruijthof-de Julio, Mario Galindo, Jonathan A Gordon, Gary S Stein, Amel Dudakovic, Andre J van Wijnen
Osteogenic lineage commitment and progression is controlled by multiple signaling pathways (e.g., WNT, BMP, FGF) that converge on bone-related transcription factors. Access of osteogenic transcription factors to chromatin is controlled by epigenetic regulators that generate post-translational modifications of histones ("histone code"), as well as read, edit and/or erase these modifications. Our understanding of the biological role of epigenetic regulators in osteoblast differentiation remains limited. Therefore, we performed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and established which chromatin-related proteins are robustly expressed in mouse bone tissues (e...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jolanta M Topczewska, Ramy A Shoela, Joanna P Tomaszewski, Rupa B Mirmira, Arun K Gosain
Using morphological, histological, and TEM analyses of the cranium, we provide a detailed description of bone and suture growth in zebrafish. Based on expression patterns and localization, we identified osteoblasts at different degrees of maturation. Our data confirm that, unlike in humans, zebrafish cranial sutures maintain lifelong patency to sustain skull growth. The cranial vault develops in a coordinated manner resulting in a structure that protects the brain. The zebrafish cranial roof parallels that of higher vertebrates and contains five major bones: one pair of frontal bones, one pair of parietal bones, and the supraoccipital bone...
2016: PloS One
Hugo Sepulveda, Rodrigo Aguilar, Catalina P Prieto, Francisco Bustos, Sócrates Aedo, José Lattus, Brigitte van Zundert, Veronica Palma, Martin Montecino
Wharton's Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are an attractive potential source of multipotent stem cells for bone tissue replacement therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in their osteogenic conversion are poorly understood. Particularly, epigenetic control operating at the promoter regions of the two master regulators of the osteogenic program, RUNX2/P57 and SP7 has not yet been described in WJ-MSCs. Via quantitative PCR profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies here we analyze the ability of WJ-MSCs to engage osteoblast lineage...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yi Chen, Mengyuan Wang, Demeng Chen, Jun Wang, Ning Kang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great therapeutic potential due to their abilities to self-renewal and their potential for differentiating into a variety of cell lineages. However, how to improve the differentiation efficiency of MSC into osteoblast remains a big challenge in the field of bone regenerative medicine. In current study, we identified a role of CHD7 in osteogenic differentiation of MSC. We showed that CHD7 expression in MSC could be induced by BMP2 or osteogenic induction medium. Depletion of CHD7 in MSC via siRNA knockdown resulted in inhibition of key osteogenic transcription factors and impaired osteogenic capability of MSC...
September 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Cong-Xiang Jian, Quan-Shui Fan, Yong-He Hu, Yong He, Ming-Zhe Li, Wei-Yin Zheng, Yu Ren, Chen-Jun Li
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are tissue-specific mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), having an important role in regenerative therapy for teeth loss. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a key cytokine produced by stromal cells including MSCs, and exhibits specific roles for B and T cell development and osteoblasts differentiation of multiple myeloma. However, the effect of IL-7 on osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study we determined whether IL-7 affects the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in vitro and explored the associated signaling pathways for IL-7-mediated cell differentiation...
October 2016: Organogenesis
Yifeng Zhang, Jiankun Xu, Ye Chun Ruan, Mei Kuen Yu, Micheal O'Laughlin, Helen Wise, Di Chen, Li Tian, Dufang Shi, Jiali Wang, Sihui Chen, Jian Q Feng, Dick Ho Kiu Chow, Xinhui Xie, Lizhen Zheng, Le Huang, Shuo Huang, Kwoksui Leung, Na Lu, Lan Zhao, Huafang Li, Dewei Zhao, Xia Guo, Kaiming Chan, Frank Witte, Hsiao Chang Chan, Yufeng Zheng, Ling Qin
Orthopedic implants containing biodegradable magnesium have been used for fracture repair with considerable efficacy; however, the underlying mechanisms by which these implants improve fracture healing remain elusive. Here we show the formation of abundant new bone at peripheral cortical sites after intramedullary implantation of a pin containing ultrapure magnesium into the intact distal femur in rats. This response was accompanied by substantial increases of neuronal calcitonin gene-related polypeptide-α (CGRP) in both the peripheral cortex of the femur and the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
Shi-Ying Luo, Jing-Feng Chen, Zhi-Guo Zhong, Xiao-Hua Lv, Ya-Jun Yang, Jing-Jing Zhang, Liao Cui
AIM: Our previous studies show that salvianolic acid B (Sal B) promotes osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Sal B on the osteogenesis in dexamethasone (Dex)-treated larval zebrafish, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: At 3 d post fertilization, wild-type AB zebrafish larvae or bone transgenic tg (sp7:egfp) zebrafish larvae were exposed to Sal B, Dex, or a mixture of Dex+Sal B for 6 d...
September 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Xin-Xing Zhu, Ya-Wei Yan, Demeng Chen, Chun-Zhi Ai, Xifeng Lu, Shan-Shan Xu, Shan Jiang, Gen-Shen Zhong, Dong-Bao Chen, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in gene regulation and are involving in diverse cellular processes. However, their roles in reprogramming of gene expression profiles during lineage commitment and maturation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain poorly understood. In the current study, we characterize the expression of a lncRNA, HoxA-AS3, during the differentiation of MSCs. We showed that HoxA-AS3 is increased upon adipogenic induction of MSCs, while HoxA-AS3 remains unaltered during osteogenic induction...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Sudhir Singh, Susheel Kumar Dwivedi, Vijay Shankar Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi
OxyR proteins are LysR-type transcriptional regulators, which play an important role in responding to oxidative stress in bacteria. Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 harbours two copies of OxyR. The inactivation of the oxyR1, the gene organized divergently to ahpC in A. brasilense Sp7, led to an increased tolerance to alkyl hydroperoxides, which was corroborated by an increase in alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) activity, enhanced expression of ahpC :lacZ fusion and increased synthesis of AhpC protein in the oxyR1::km mutant...
October 2016: Microbiology
João S Fernandes, Piergiorgio Gentile, Margarida Martins, Nuno M Neves, Cheryl Miller, Aileen Crawford, Ricardo A Pires, Paul Hatton, Rui L Reis
UNLABELLED: Herein, for the first time, we combined poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) with a strontium borosilicate bioactive glass (BBG-Sr) using electrospinning to fabricate a composite bioactive PLLA membrane loaded with 10% (w/w) of BBG-Sr glass particles (PLLA-BBG-Sr). The composites were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μ-CT), and the results showed that we successfully fabricated smooth and uniform fibres (1-3μm in width) with a homogeneous distribution of BBG-Sr microparticles (<45μm)...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ashutosh Prakash Dubey, Santosh Kumar, Debashis Dutta, Mukti Nath Mishra, Bhupendra Narain Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi
: Carotenoids constitute an important component of the defense system against photooxidative stress in bacteria. In Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, a nonphotosynthetic rhizobacterium, carotenoid synthesis is controlled by a pair of extracytoplasmic function sigma factors (RpoEs) and their cognate zinc-binding anti-sigma factors (ChrRs). Its genome harbors two copies of the gene encoding geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (CrtE), the first critical step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in bacteria...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Christoph Klingelhöffer, Consuela Codrin, Tobias Ettl, Torsten Reichert, Christian Morsczeck
OBJECTIVE: Human dental follicle cells (DFCs) are genuine precursor cells of cementoblasts and alveolar bone osteoblasts. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of non-coding endogenous RNAs that silence gene expression post-transcriptionally. miRNA101 actively regulates the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the role of miRNA101 during the osteogenic differentiation in DFCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DFCs were isolated, cultivated and osteogenic differentiated in differentiation medium...
December 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Nobuaki Ozeki, Makio Mogi, Naoko Hase, Taiki Hiyama, Hideyuki Yamaguchi, Rie Kawai, Toru Matsumoto, Kazuhiko Nakata
We established a differentiation method for homogeneous α7 integrin-positive human skeletal muscle stem cell (α7(+)hSMSC)-derived osteoblast-like cells with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. To explore the early signaling cascade for osteoblastic differentiation, we examined the upregulation of autophagy-related gene (Atg) and wingless/int1 (Wnt) signaling during BMP-2-mediated human osteoblastic differentiation. In a screening experiment, BMP-2 increased the mRNA and protein levels of Atg7, Wnt16, and Lrp5/Fzd2 (a Wnt receptor), but not microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (LC3; a mammalian homolog of yeast Atg8), TFE3, Beclin1, Atg5, Atg12, Wnt3a, or Wnt5, together with the amounts of autophagosomes and autophagy fluxes...
September 10, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
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