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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752384/a-regulatory-pathway-involving-retinoic-acid-and-calcineurin-demarcates-and-maintains-joint-cells-and-osteoblasts-in-the-fin-regenerate
#1
Stephanie C McMillan, Jing Zhang, Hue-Eileen Phan, Shirine Jeradi, Leona Probst, Matthias Hammerschmidt, Marie-Andrée Akimenko
During zebrafish fin regeneration, blastema cells lining the epidermis differentiate into osteoblasts and joint cells to reconstruct the segmented bony rays. We show that osteoblasts and joint cells originate from a common cell lineage, but are committed to different cell fates. Pre-osteoblasts expressing runx2a/b commit to the osteoblast lineage upon expressing sp7 , while the strong upregulation of hoxa13a correlates with a commitment to a joint cell type. In the distal regenerate, hoxa13a , evx1, and pthlha are sequentially upregulated at regular intervals to define the newly identified presumptive joint cells...
May 11, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731773/romidepsin-promotes-osteogenic-and-adipocytic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-inhibition-of-histondeacetylase-activity
#2
Dalia Ali, Elna P Chalisserry, Muthurangan Manikandan, Rimi Hamam, Musaad Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Abdullah Aldahmash, Nehad M Alajez
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into mesodermal lineage cells, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. However, the epigenetic mechanisms governing the lineage-specific commitment of BMSCs into adipocytes or osteoblasts are under investigation. Herein, we investigated the epigenetic effect of romidepsin, a small molecule dual inhibitor targeting HDAC1 and HDAC2 identified through an epigenetic library functional screen. BMSCs exposed to romidepsin (5 nM) exhibited enhanced adipocytic and osteoblastic differentiation...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692843/effect-of-mta-and-cem-on-mineralization-associated-gene-expression-in-stem-cells-derived-from-apical-papilla
#3
Niusha Hajizadeh, Zahra Sadat Madani, Ebrahim Zabihi, Moniyreh Golpour, Amir Zahedpasha, Mousa Mohammadnia
Introduction: This study assessed the effect of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement on odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of stem cells. Methods and Materials: After confirmation of stemness and homogeneity of stem cells derived from apical papilla (SCAPs) using flow cytometry, the cells were exposed for 3 weeks to either osteogenic medium (OS) or CEM extract+OS (CEM+OS) or MTA extract in OS (MTA+OS) or DMEM based regular culture media (negative control)...
2018: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603740/nicotine-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-cells-under-cyclic-tensile-stress-through-canonical-wnt-pathway-and-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#4
W Yu, B Hu, X Shi, Z Cao, M Ren, Z He, J Lin, H Deng, R Hu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, affects cell metabolism, proliferation, adhesion and, importantly, the osteogenic differentiation of fibroblasts. Approximately 15% of all orthodontic patients are adults among who one-fifth are smokers. Hence, it is necessary to have insight into the effects of nicotine on the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs during orthodontic tooth movement. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of nicotine on the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) under the application of cyclic tensile stress...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580416/fabrication-of-calcium-phosphate-loaded-carboxymethyl-cellulose-non-woven-sheets-for-bone-regeneration
#5
Pan Qi, Shinsuke Ohba, Yuichi Hara, Masaya Fuke, Takayuki Ogawa, Seiichi Ohta, Taichi Ito
Calcium phosphate-loaded carboxymethyl cellulose non-woven sheets (CMC/CaP sheet) were fabricated and their potential to induce in vitro osteoblast differentiation and in vivo bone regeneration were investigated. The CMC/CaP sheets were prepared by alternately soaking protonated-CMC non-woven sheets in CaCl2 and Na2 HPO4 aqueous solutions. Because of its slow water uptake rate, the protonated-CMC was successfully loaded with a mixed phase of brushite and hydroxyapatite. In vitro, the CMC/CaP sheet induced osteoblast differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs), as shown by calcification and the upregulation of osteoblast marker genes...
June 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530719/rescue-of-a-cherubism-bone-marrow-stromal-culture-phenotype-by-reducing-tgf%C3%AE-signaling
#6
Yaling Liu, Tulika Sharma, I-Ping Chen, Ernst Reichenberger, Yasuyoshi Ueki, Yumna Arif, Daniel Parisi, Peter Maye
We utilized a bone marrow stromal culture system to investigate changes in TGFβ signaling in a mouse model for cherubism (Sh3bp2KI/KI ). Interestingly, bone marrow cultures derived from cherubism mice not only displayed impaired osteoblast differentiation, but also had spontaneous osteoclast formation. PAI1, a target gene of TGFβ signaling, was elevated 2-fold in cherubism CD11b- ,CD45- cells compared to wild type cells, while the expression of BAMBI, an inhibitor of TGFβ signaling, was down-regulated. We also discovered that treatment of cherubism cultures with antagonists of the TGFβ signaling pathway could largely rescue osteoblast differentiation and markedly reduce spontaneous osteoclast formation...
June 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523074/in-silico-comparative-analysis-of-ggdef-and-eal-domain-signaling-proteins-from-the-azospirillum-genomes
#7
Alberto Ramírez Mata, César Millán Pacheco, José F Cruz Pérez, Martha Minjárez Sáenz, Beatriz E Baca
BACKGROUND: The cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) second messenger exemplifies a signaling system that regulates many bacterial behaviors of key importance; among them, c-di-GMP controls the transition between motile and sessile life-styles in bacteria. Cellular c-di-GMP levels in bacteria are regulated by the opposite enzymatic activities of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases, which are proteins that have GGDEF and EAL domains, respectively. Azospirillum is a genus of plant-growth-promoting bacteria, and members of this genus have beneficial effects in many agronomically and ecologically essential plants...
March 9, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498687/wedelolactone-enhances-osteoblastogenesis-through-erk-and-jnk-mediated-bmp2-expression-and-smad-1-5-8-phosphorylation
#8
Di Zhu, Xue Deng, Xiao-Fei Han, Xiao-Xin Sun, Tao-Wen Pan, Lu-Ping Zheng, Yan-Qiu Liu
Our previous study showed that wedelolactone, a compound isolated from Ecliptae herba , has the potential to enhance osteoblastogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which wedelolactone promoted osteoblastogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remain largely unknown. In this study, treatment with wedelolactone (2 μg/mL) for 3, 6, and 9 days resulted in an increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), c-Jun N -terminal protein kinase (JNK), and p38. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), ERK and JNK started to increase on day 3 of treatment, and p38 phosphorylation was increased by day 6 of treatment...
March 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409769/zebrafish-sp7-mutants-show-tooth-cycling-independent-of-attachment-eruption-and-poor-differentiation-of-teeth
#9
E Kague, P E Witten, M Soenens, C L Campos, T Lubiana, S Fisher, C Hammond, K Robson Brown, M R Passos-Bueno, A Huysseune
The capacity to fully replace teeth continuously makes zebrafish an attractive model to explore regeneration and tooth development. The requirement of attachment bone for the appearance of replacement teeth has been hypothesized but not yet investigated. The transcription factor sp7 (osterix) is known in mammals to play an important role during odontoblast differentiation and root formation. Here we study tooth replacement in the absence of attachment bone using sp7 zebrafish mutants. We analysed the pattern of tooth replacement at different stages of development and demonstrated that in zebrafish lacking sp7, attachment bone is never present, independent of the stage of tooth development or fish age, yet replacement is not interrupted...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405385/specificity-protein-7-is-required-for-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-ameloblasts-and-odontoblasts
#10
Ji-Myung Bae, John C Clarke, Harunur Rashid, Mitra D Adhami, Kayla McCullough, Jordan S Scott, Haiyan Chen, Krishna M Sinha, Benoit de Crombrugghe, Amjad Javed
The Sp7/Osterix transcription factor is essential for bone development. Mutations of the Sp7 gene in humans are associated with craniofacial anomalies and osteogenesis imperfecta. However, the role of Sp7 in embryonic tooth development remains unknown. Here we identified the functional requirement of Sp7 for dentin synthesis and tooth development. Sp7-null mice exhibit craniofacial dysmorphogenesis and are completely void of alveolar bone. Surprisingly, initial tooth morphogenesis progressed normally in Sp7-null mice...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382611/novel-variant-in-sp7-osx-associated-with-recessive-osteogenesis-imperfecta-with-bone-fragility-and-hearing-impairment
#11
Melissa Fiscaletti, Andrew Biggin, Bruce Bennetts, Karen Wong, Julie Briody, Verity Pacey, Catherine Birman, Craig F Munns
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by low bone density and recurrent fractures with a wide genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. Common features include short stature, opalescent teeth, blue sclerae and hearing impairment. The majority (>90%) of patients with OI have autosomal dominant variants in COL1A1/COL1A2, which lead to defects in type 1 collagen. More recently, numerous recessive variants involving other genes have also been identified. Sp7/Osx gene, is a protein coding gene that encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, osterix, which is a member of the Sp subfamily of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins...
May 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362501/sequential-transfection-of-runx2-sp7-and-atf4-coated-onto-dexamethasone-loaded-nanospheresenhances-osteogenesis
#12
Hye Jin Kim, Ji Sun Park, Se Won Yi, Hyun Jyung Oh, Jae-Hwan Kim, Keun-Hong Park
The timing of gene transfection greatly influences stem cell differentiation. Sequential transfection is crucial for regulation of cell behavior. When transfected several days after differentiation initiation, genes expressed at the late stage of differentiation can regulate cell behaviors and functions. To determine the optimal timing of key gene delivery, we sequentially transfected human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). This method can easily control osteogenesis of stem cells. hMSCs were first transfected with RUNX2 and SP7 using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles to induce osteogenesis, and then with ATF4 after 5, 7, and 14 days...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356961/runx2-an-inducer-of-osteoblast-and-chondrocyte-differentiation
#13
REVIEW
Toshihisa Komori
Runx2 is a transcription factor that is essential for osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte maturation. Ihh, expressed in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes, is required for the specification of Runx2+ osteoprogenitors in endochondral bone development. Runx2 induces Sp7, an essential transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation. Canonical Wnt signaling is also required for osteoblast differentiation. Runx2+ osteoprogenitors retain the capacity to differentiate into chondrocytes, and Sp7 and canonical Wnt signaling direct cells to osteoblasts, thereby inhibiting chondrocyte differentiation...
April 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325202/interfacial-mineral-fusion-and-tubule-entanglement-as-a-means-to-harden-a-bone-augmentation-material
#14
Erik A B Hughes, Sophie C Cox, Megan E Cooke, Owen G Davies, Richard L Williams, Thomas J Hall, Liam M Grover
A new bone augmenting material is reported, which is formed from calcium-loaded hydrogel-based spheres. On immersion of these spheres in a physiological medium, they become surrounded with a sheath of precipitate, which ruptures due to a build-up in osmotic pressure. This results in the formation of mineral tubes that protrude from the sphere surface. When brought into close contact with one another, these spheres become fused through the entanglement and subsequent interstitial mineralization of the mineral tubules...
January 11, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208526/larg-gef-and-arhgap18-orchestrate-rhoa-activity-to-control-mesenchymal-stem-cell-lineage
#15
William R Thompson, Sherwin S Yen, Gunes Uzer, Zhihui Xie, Buer Sen, Maya Styner, Keith Burridge, Janet Rubin
The quantity and quality of bone depends on osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), where adipogenic commitment depletes the available pool for osteogenesis. Cell architecture influences lineage decisions, where interfering with cytoskeletal structure promotes adipogenesis. Mechanical strain suppresses MSC adipogenesis partially through RhoA driven enhancement of cytoskeletal structure. To understand the basis of force-driven RhoA activation, we considered critical GEFs (activators) and GAPs (inactivators) on bone marrow MSC lineage fate...
February 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184513/-hoxa2-inhibits-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-during-osteogenic-differentiation-of-the-palatal-mesenchyme
#16
Paul P R Iyyanar, Adil J Nazarali
Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital birth defects worldwide. The homeobox ( Hox ) family of genes are key regulators of embryogenesis, with Hoxa2 having a direct role in secondary palate development. Hoxa2 -/- mice exhibit cleft palate; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to cleft palate in Hoxa2 -/- mice is largely unknown. Addressing this issue, we found that Hoxa2 regulates spatial and temporal programs of osteogenic differentiation in the developing palate by inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling dependent osteoblast markers...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138859/17%C3%AE-estradiol-attenuates-ovariectomy%C3%A2-induced-bone-deterioration-through-the-suppression-of-the-epha2-ephrina2-signaling-pathway
#17
Lianyong Liu, Lin Zhou, Xiaorong Yang, Qi Liu, Ling Yang, Chao Zheng, Yongling Zhao, Zhenlin Zhang, Xiaohong Luo
The present study aimed to investigate whether 17β‑estradiol (E2) exerts protective effects on bone deterioration induced by ovariectomy (OVX) through the ephA2/ephrinA2 signaling pathway in rats. Female rats were subjected to OVX, sham surgeryor OVX+E2 treatment. Levels of biomarkers were measured in serum and urine. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed on paraffin‑embedded bone sections. Expression of genes and proteins was analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively...
January 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117218/compatible-bacterial-mixture-tolerant-to-desiccation-improves-maize-plant-growth
#18
Dalia Molina-Romero, Antonino Baez, Verónica Quintero-Hernández, Miguel Castañeda-Lucio, Luis Ernesto Fuentes-Ramírez, María Del Rocío Bustillos-Cristales, Osvaldo Rodríguez-Andrade, Yolanda Elizabeth Morales-García, Antonio Munive, Jesús Muñoz-Rojas
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium) apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040309/targeted-pth4-expressing-cell-ablation-impairs-skeletal-mineralization-in-zebrafish
#19
Paula Suarez-Bregua, Ankur Saxena, Marianne E Bronner, Josep Rotllant
Skeletal development and mineralization are essential processes driven by the coordinated action of neural signals, circulating molecules and local factors. Our previous studies revealed that the novel neuropeptide Pth4, synthesized by hypothalamic cells, was involved in bone metabolism via phosphate regulation in adult zebrafish. Here, we investigate the role of pth4 during skeletal development using single-cell resolution, two-photon laser ablation of Pth4:eGFP-expressing cells and confocal imaging in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029772/inhibition-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-with-rapamycin-prevents-trauma-induced-heterotopic-ossification
#20
Ammar T Qureshi, Devaveena Dey, Erin M Sanders, Jonathan G Seavey, Allison M Tomasino, Kaitlyn Moss, Benjamin Wheatley, David Cholok, Shawn Loder, John Li, Benjamin Levi, Thomas A Davis
A pressing clinical need exists for 63% to 65% of combat-wounded service members and 11% to 20% of civilians who develop heterotopic ossification (HO) after blast-related extremity injury and traumatic injuries, respectively. The mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is a central cellular sensor of injury. We evaluated the prophylactic effects of rapamycin, a selective inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, on HO formation in a rat model of blast-related, polytraumatic extremity injury. Rapamycin was administered intraperitoneally daily for 14 days at 0...
November 2017: American Journal of Pathology
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