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Hugo Sepulveda, Rodrigo Aguilar, Catalina P Prieto, Francisco Bustos, Sócrates Aedo, José Lattus, Brigitte van Zundert, Veronica Palma, Martin Montecino
Wharton's Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are an attractive potential source of multipotent stem cells for bone tissue replacement therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in their osteogenic conversion are poorly understood. Particularly, epigenetic control operating at the promoter regions of the two master regulators of the osteogenic program, RUNX2/P57 and SP7 has not yet been described in WJ-MSCs. Via quantitative PCR profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies here we analyze the ability of WJ-MSCs to engage osteoblast lineage...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yi Chen, Mengyuan Wang, Demeng Chen, Jun Wang, Ning Kang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great therapeutic potential due to their abilities to self-renewal and their potential for differentiating into a variety of cell lineages. However, how to improve the differentiation efficiency of MSC into osteoblast remains a big challenge in the field of bone regenerative medicine. In current study, we identified a role of CHD7 in osteogenic differentiation of MSC. We showed that CHD7 expression in MSC could be induced by BMP2 or osteogenic induction medium. Depletion of CHD7 in MSC via siRNA knockdown resulted in inhibition of key osteogenic transcription factors and impaired osteogenic capability of MSC...
September 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Cong-Xiang Jian, Quan-Shui Fan, Yong-He Hu, Yong He, Ming-Zhe Li, Wei-Yin Zheng, Yu Ren, Chen-Jun Li
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are tissue-specific mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), having an important role in regenerative therapy for teeth loss. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a key cytokine produced by stromal cells including MSCs, and exhibits specific roles for B and T cell development and osteoblasts differentiation of multiple myeloma. However, the effect of IL-7 on osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study we determined whether IL-7 affects the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in vitro and explored the associated signaling pathways for IL-7-mediated cell differentiation...
August 31, 2016: Organogenesis
Yifeng Zhang, Jiankun Xu, Ye Chun Ruan, Mei Kuen Yu, Micheal O'Laughlin, Helen Wise, Di Chen, Li Tian, Dufang Shi, Jiali Wang, Sihui Chen, Jian Q Feng, Dick Ho Kiu Chow, Xinhui Xie, Lizhen Zheng, Le Huang, Shuo Huang, Kwoksui Leung, Na Lu, Lan Zhao, Huafang Li, Dewei Zhao, Xia Guo, Kaiming Chan, Frank Witte, Hsiao Chang Chan, Yufeng Zheng, Ling Qin
Orthopedic implants containing biodegradable magnesium have been used for fracture repair with considerable efficacy; however, the underlying mechanisms by which these implants improve fracture healing remain elusive. Here we show the formation of abundant new bone at peripheral cortical sites after intramedullary implantation of a pin containing ultrapure magnesium into the intact distal femur in rats. This response was accompanied by substantial increases of neuronal calcitonin gene-related polypeptide-α (CGRP) in both the peripheral cortex of the femur and the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
Shi-Ying Luo, Jing-Feng Chen, Zhi-Guo Zhong, Xiao-Hua Lv, Ya-Jun Yang, Jing-Jing Zhang, Liao Cui
AIM: Our previous studies show that salvianolic acid B (Sal B) promotes osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Sal B on the osteogenesis in dexamethasone (Dex)-treated larval zebrafish, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: At 3 d post fertilization, wild-type AB zebrafish larvae or bone transgenic tg (sp7:egfp) zebrafish larvae were exposed to Sal B, Dex, or a mixture of Dex+Sal B for 6 d...
September 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Xin-Xing Zhu, Ya-Wei Yan, Demeng Chen, Chun-Zhi Ai, Xifeng Lu, Shan-Shan Xu, Shan Jiang, Gen-Shen Zhong, Dong-Bao Chen, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in gene regulation and are involving in diverse cellular processes. However, their roles in reprogramming of gene expression profiles during lineage commitment and maturation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain poorly understood. In the current study, we characterize the expression of a lncRNA, HoxA-AS3, during the differentiation of MSCs. We showed that HoxA-AS3 is increased upon adipogenic induction of MSCs, while HoxA-AS3 remains unaltered during osteogenic induction...
August 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Sudhir Singh, Susheel Dwivedi, Vijay Shankar Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi
OxyR proteins are LysR-type transcription regulators, which play an important role in responding to oxidative stress in bacteria. Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 harbours two copies of OxyR. Inactivation of the oxyR1, the gene organized divergently to ahpC in A. brasilense Sp7, led to an increased tolerance to alkyl hydroperoxides, which was corroborated by an increase in alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) activity, enhanced expression of ahpC:lacZ fusion, and increased synthesis of AhpC protein in the oxyR1::km mutant...
August 23, 2016: Microbiology
João S Fernandes, Piergiorgio Gentile, Margarida Martins, Nuno M Neves, Cheryl Miller, Aileen Crawford, Ricardo A Pires, Paul Hatton, Rui L Reis
UNLABELLED: Herein, for the first time, we combined poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) with a strontium borosilicate bioactive glass (BBG-Sr) using electrospinning to fabricate a composite bioactive PLLA membrane loaded with 10% (w/w) of BBG-Sr glass particles (PLLA-BBG-Sr). The composites were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μ-CT), and the results showed that we successfully fabricated smooth and uniform fibres (1-3μm in width) with a homogeneous distribution of BBG-Sr microparticles (<45μm)...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ashutosh Prakash Dubey, Santosh Kumar, Debashis Dutta, Mukti Nath Mishra, Bhupendra Narain Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi
: Carotenoids constitute an important component of the defense system against photooxidative stress in bacteria. In Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, a nonphotosynthetic rhizobacterium, carotenoid synthesis is controlled by a pair of extracytoplasmic function sigma factors (RpoEs) and their cognate zinc-binding anti-sigma factors (ChrRs). Its genome harbors two copies of the gene encoding geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (CrtE), the first critical step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in bacteria...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Christoph Klingelhöffer, Consuela Codrin, Tobias Ettl, Torsten Reichert, Christian Morsczeck
OBJECTIVE: Human dental follicle cells (DFCs) are genuine precursor cells of cementoblasts and alveolar bone osteoblasts. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of non-coding endogenous RNAs that silence gene expression post-transcriptionally. miRNA101 actively regulates the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the role of miRNA101 during the osteogenic differentiation in DFCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DFCs were isolated, cultivated and osteogenic differentiated in differentiation medium...
August 11, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Nobuaki Ozeki, Makio Mogi, Naoko Hase, Taiki Hiyama, Hideyuki Yamaguchi, Rie Kawai, Toru Matsumoto, Kazuhiko Nakata
We established a differentiation method for homogeneous α7 integrin-positive human skeletal muscle stem cell (α7(+)hSMSC)-derived osteoblast-like cells with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. To explore the early signaling cascade for osteoblastic differentiation, we examined the upregulation of autophagy-related gene (Atg) and wingless/int1 (Wnt) signaling during BMP-2-mediated human osteoblastic differentiation. In a screening experiment, BMP-2 increased the mRNA and protein levels of Atg7, Wnt16, and Lrp5/Fzd2 (a Wnt receptor), but not microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (LC3; a mammalian homolog of yeast Atg8), TFE3, Beclin1, Atg5, Atg12, Wnt3a, or Wnt5, together with the amounts of autophagosomes and autophagy fluxes...
September 10, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Thibault Vieira, Martine Antoine, Cécile Hamard, Vincent Fallet, Michael Duruisseaux, Nathalie Rabbe, Anita Rodenas, Jacques Cadranel, Marie Wislez
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas (SC) are rare tumors, associated with worse prognosis and resistant to platinum-based regimens. Therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway are an emerging treatment for lung cancer. By characterizing intra-tumoral immune infiltration and evaluating PD-L1 expression, it could be possible to predict the efficacy of these new treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2013, data from all patients with SC who underwent lung resection was collected...
August 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Venu G Varanasi, Tetsurou Odatsu, Timothy Bishop, Joyce Chang, Jeremy Owyoung, Peter M Loomer
Bioactive glasses release ions, those enhance osteoblast collagen matrix synthesis and osteogenic marker expression during bone healing. Collagen matrix density and osteogenic marker expression depend on osteogenic transcription factors, (e.g., Osterix (OSX)). We hypothesize that enhanced expression and formation of collagen by Si(4+) depends on enhanced expression of OSX transcription. Experimental bioactive glass (6P53-b) and commercial Bioglass(TM) (45S5) were dissolved in basal medium to make glass conditioned medium (GCM)...
October 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Angelo Signore, Francesco Serio, Pietro Santamaria
The adoption of closed soilless systems is useful in minimizing the environmental impact of the greenhouse crops. Instead, a significant problem in closed soilless systems is represented by the accumulation of ions in the recycled nutrient solution (NS), in particular the unabsorbed or poorly absorbed ones. To overcome such problem, we: (1) studied the effect of several values of the electrical conductivity (EC) of NS in a NFT (Nutrient Film Technique) system on a cherry type tomato crop, and (2) define a NS (called recovery solution), based on the concept of "uptake concentration" and transpiration-biomass ratio, that fits the real needs of the plant with respect to water and nutrients...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
H C Ball, F M Moussa, T Mbimba, R Orman, F F Safadi, L N Cooper
Osteoprogenitor cells contribute to the development and maintenance of skeletal tissues. Bats are unique model taxa whose cellular processes are poorly understood, especially in regards to skeletal biology. Forelimb bones of bats, unlike those of terrestrial mammals, bend during flight and function in controlled deformation. As a first step towards understanding the molecular processes governing deposition of this flexible bone matrix, we provide the first method for isolation and differentiation of cell populations derived from the bone marrow and cortical bone of bats, and compare results with those harvested from C57BL/6J mice...
July 2016: Stem Cell Research
Yu Jiang, Yilin Yan, Xiao Wang, Guoxing Zhu, You-Jia Xu
Iron overload, as a risk factor for osteoporosis, can result in the up-regulation of Hepcidin, and Hepcidin knockout mice display defects in their bone microarchitecture. However, the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying Hepcidin deficiency-derived bone loss remain unclear. Here, we show that hepcidin knockdown in zebrafish using morpholinos leads to iron overload. Furthermore, a mineralization delay is observed in osteoblast cells in hepcidin morphants, and these defects could be partially restored with microinjection of hepcidin mRNA...
May 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chuang Huang, Rui Ling, Fei-Jiang Li, Er-Cui Li, Qi-Ke Huang, Bao-Gang Liu, Yin Ding, Si-Wei You
Sphingosine-1-phosphate and its structural analog FTY720 (fingolimod) are important in the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, however, it remains unknown whether they enhance osteogenic differentiation of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM‑MSCs). The present study investigated the effect of FTY720 on the osteogenic differentiation of BM‑MSCs from the femurs of the ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Three different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 nM) of FTY720 were demonstrated to markedly upregulate mRNA expression levels of Runt‑related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Sp7 transcription factor (Sp7) at 2 weeks, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at 3 weeks...
July 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Dalia Ali, Rimi Hamam, Musaed Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Abdullah Aldahmash, Nehad M Alajez
UNLABELLED: : The epigenetic mechanisms promoting lineage-specific commitment of human skeletal (mesenchymal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs) into adipocytes or osteoblasts are still not fully understood. Herein, we performed an epigenetic library functional screen and identified several novel compounds, including abexinostat, which promoted adipocytic and osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs. Using gene expression microarrays, chromatin immunoprecipitation for H3K9Ac combined with high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq), and bioinformatics, we identified several key genes involved in regulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation that were targeted by abexinostat...
August 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Ernesto Canalis, Lauren Schilling, Stefano Zanotti
Osteocytes play a fundamental role in mechanotransduction and skeletal remodeling. Sex is a determinant of skeletal structure, and female C57BL/6J mice have increased osteoblast number in cancellous bone when compared to male mice. Activation of Notch in the skeleton causes profound cell-context dependent changes in skeletal physiology. To determine the impact of sex and of Notch signaling on the osteocyte cell pool, we analyzed cancellous and cortical bone of 1 to 6 month old C57BL/6J or 129SvJ/C57BL/6J mice and determined the osteocyte number/area...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
S A Alen'kina, V E Nikitina
The lectins of associative nitrogen-fixing strains Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Sp245 were shown to exerte a multidirectional effect on the activity of acidic (pH 3.5), neutral (6.8), and alkaline (pH 7.8) proteinases. The lectin of the epiphytic A. brasilense Sp7 decreased proteolytic activity at all pH values, whereas the lectin of the endophytic A. brasilense Sp245 activated neutral and alkaline proteinases, while not affecting the alkaline ones. Experiments with protease inhibitors made it possible to conclude that the lectins of the studied A...
September 2015: Mikrobiologiia
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