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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932504/effects-of-intracameral-cefuroxime-on-corneal-endothelial-cell-counts-and-its-morphology-after-cataract-surgery
#1
Kourosh Shahraki, Mohammad Naeim Amini Fard, Farkhondeh Shahri, Rama Pourmatin, Tafgeh Mohammadi, Paria Ghasemi Boroumand, Kianoush Shahraki
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis is one of the most important complications after cataract surgery and in case event can cause many symptoms, such as severe decrease in eyesight and/or even the loss of vision. Employing methods to reduce this problem is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intracameral cefuroxime after cataract surgery on corneal endothelial cell counts and its morphology. METHODS: In this study, 32 eyes of 30 patients underwent endothelial cell count and morphology assessment by ConfoScan III device before and 1 month after cataract surgery...
June 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919603/current-trends-of-using-antimicrobials-at-obstetrics-and-gynaecology-department-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#2
M M Islam, S K Saha, S Saha, U A Wahid, R R Gomes, K S Ahmed, A N Naushad, S E Suchi, C Saha, D Mondal
This cross-sectional descriptive study was done to analyse the current trends of using antimicrobials in various surgical procedures at Obstetrics and Gynaecology department in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. Among 300 postoperative obstetrics and gynaecological surgery cases, samples were selected as non-random purposive selection method where pattern of using antimicrobials were analysed by SPSS method 20.1 versions. The incidence of antimicrobial resistance is on continued rise with a threat to return to the pre-antibiotic era...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914846/-analysis-of-the-efficiency-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-clinical-practice
#3
O V Zhukova, O V Ruina, S V Kononova, T M Konyshkina
AIM: To analyze actual drug consumption based on the defined daily dose (DDD analysis) and to analyze the utilization of drugs based on their proportion of the total defined daily doses (DU90% analysis) for the antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in clinical practice at a hospital in Russia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation materials were the data of 117 case histories of male (51.3%) and female (48.7%) patients hospitalized with CAP at Nizhny Novgorod City Clinical Hospital Five in 2015...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899468/-pathogen-distribution-and-bacterial-resistance-in-children-with-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
Yun-Yun Lu, Rong Luo, Zhou Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of pathogens and bacterial resistance in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: A total of 522 children with severe CAP who were hospitalized in 2016 were enrolled as study subjects. According to their age, they were divided into infant group (402 infants aged 28 days to 1 year), young children group (73 children aged 1 to 3 years), preschool children group (35 children aged 3 to 6 years), and school-aged children group (12 children aged ≥6 years)...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889027/re-evaluating-the-presumed-superiority-of-amorphous-nanoparticles-over-amorphous-microscale-solid-dispersion-in-solubility-enhancement-of-poorly-soluble-drugs
#5
Li Ming Lim, The-Thien Tran, Wean Sin Cheow, Kunn Hadinoto
The solubility enhancement afforded by amorphous drug nanoparticles was demonstrated in several studies to be superior to the traditional amorphization approach by microscale amorphous solid dispersion (or micro ASD in short). A closer look at these studies, however, revealed that they were performed using a very limited number of poorly-soluble drug models (i.e. itraconazole and cefuroxime). Herein we aimed to re-examine the solubility enhancement and physical stability of amorphous nanoparticles relative to that of the micro ASD using a different poorly-soluble drug model, i...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879715/bacteremia-caused-by-campylobacter-fetus-in-a-patient-with-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-complicated-with-alcoholic-liver-cirrhosis
#6
Yili Chen, Kang Liao, Han Huang, Penghao Guo, Zhongwen Wu
Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) bacteremia is rarely reported. In this article, a 51-year-old Chinese woman with severe hepatitis B virus infection complicated with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted with a 3-month history of fatigue, jaundice, and edema of lower extremity, as well as presenting a high fever. Blood cultures were positive for Campylobacter fetus. The patient was started on treatment with cefuroxime, which was switched after 3 days to meropenem for an additional 2 weeks. The patient was successfully treated with the 3-week course of intravenous antibiotic therapy...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878761/effect-of-different-antibiotic-chemotherapies-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-vitro-of-primary-human-corneal-fibroblast-cells
#7
Maria Del Mar Cendra, Myron Christodoulides, Parwez Hossain
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of bacterial keratitis (BK) worldwide. Inappropriate or non-optimal antibiotic chemotherapy can lead to corneal perforation and rapid sight loss. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 invades primary human corneal fibroblasts (hCFs) in vitro and persists intracellularly, despite chemotherapy with antibiotics used commonly to treat BK. In rank order, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and polymyxin B showed the highest activity against planktonic PAO1 growth (100% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤1 μg/mL), followed by gentamicin and ofloxacin (100% inhibitory concentration ≤50 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859448/master-a-model-to-improve-and-standardize-clinical-breakpoints-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-using-forecast-probabilities
#8
Nicolas Blöchliger, Peter M Keller, Erik C Böttger, Michael Hombach
Objectives: The procedure for setting clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial susceptibility has been poorly standardized with respect to population data, pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcome. Tools to standardize CBP setting could result in improved antibiogram forecast probabilities. We propose a model to estimate probabilities for methodological categorization errors and defined zones of methodological uncertainty (ZMUs), i.e. ranges of zone diameters that cannot reliably be classified...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855823/microbiological-and-molecular-identification-of-bacterial-species-isolated-from-nasal-and-oropharyngeal-mucosa-of-fuel-workers-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#9
Suaad S AlWakeel
This study aimed to determine the bacterial species colonizing the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a microbiological and molecular level. Throat and nasal swab samples were obtained from 29 fuel station attendants in the period of time extending from March to May 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Microbiological identification techniques were utilized to identify the bacterial species isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was assessed for each of the bacterial isolates...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831244/antibiotic-use-for-pneumonia-among-children-under-five-at-a-pediatric-hospital-in-dhaka-city-bangladesh
#10
Md Mahbubur Rashid, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Dilruba Akter, Malabika Sarkar, Fahmida Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia has been the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 for more than 3 decades, particularly in low-income countries like Bangladesh. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed a pneumonia case management strategy which included the use of antibiotics for both primary and hospital-based care. This study aims to describe antibiotic usage for treating pneumonia in children in a private pediatric teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted this cross-sectional study among children <5 years old who were admitted to a private pediatric hospital in Dhaka with a diagnosis of pneumonia in November 2012...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828882/medication-equipment-and-supply-costs-for-common-interventions-providing-extended-post-surgical-analgesia-following-total-knee-arthroplasty-in-us-hospitals
#11
Shelby Corman, Nishant Shah, Simon Dagenais
AIMS: To estimate the cost to hospitals of materials (i.e. medications, equipment, and supplies) required to administer common interventions for post-surgical analgesia after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), including single-injection peripheral nerve block (sPNB), continuous peripheral nerve block (cPNB), periarticular infiltration of multi-drug cocktails, continuous epidural analgesia, intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA), and local infiltration of bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension (BLIS)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818575/beta-lactam-resistance-among-haemophilus-influenzae-isolates-in-poland
#12
Marlena Kiedrowska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Żabicka, Izabela Waśko, Patrycja Ronkiewicz, Katarzyna Wasiak, Katarzyna Bojarska, Waleria Hryniewicz, Anna Skoczyńska
OBJECTIVES: Haemophilus influenzae is a human-specific Gram-negative coccobacillus responsible for a significant number of respiratory tract infections and severe invasive infections such as meningitis and sepsis. The purpose of the study was to characterize the mechanisms of β-lactam resistance among Polish H. influenzae isolates and to evaluate the methods applied. METHODS: The study was conducted on 117 Polish H. influenzae isolates collected in 2012. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were assessed by the broth microdilution method...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812812/a-cost-analysis-of-the-jan-aushadhi-scheme-in-india
#13
Kanchan Mukherjee
Medicines constitute a substantial proportion of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses in Indian households. In order to address this issue, the Government of India launched the Jan Aushadhi (Medicine for the Masses) Scheme (JAS) to provide cheap generic medicines to the patients (http://janaushadhi.gov.in/about_jan_aushadhi.html). These medicines are provided through the Jan Aushadhi stores established across the country. The objective of this study was to do a quick assessment for policy-makers regarding the objective of the JAS...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761777/antimicrobial-activities-of-widely-consumed-herbal-teas-alone-or-in-combination-with-antibiotics-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Mayram Hacioglu, Sibel Dosler, Ayse Seher Birteksoz Tan, Gulten Otuk
BACKGROUND: Because of increasing antibiotic resistance, herbal teas are the most popular natural alternatives for the treatment of infectious diseases, and are currently gaining more importance. We examined the antimicrobial activities of 31 herbal teas both alone and in combination with antibiotics or antifungals against some standard and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin susceptible/resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758816/the-interactions-of-cephalosporins-on-polyol-pathway-enzymes-from-sheep-kidney
#15
Bülent Şengül, Şükrü Beydemir
CONTEXT: Cephalosporins are derived from the fungus Acremonium. Due to their strong bactericidal ability, these drugs have to a wide usage in medicine. OBJECTIVE: An investigation of the effects on sheep renal aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) of cefoperazone, cefazolin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone as cephalosporin drugs was carried out in the present study. METHODS: AR and SDH were purified from sheep kidney by ion exchange, gel filtration and affinity methods with approximately 219- and 484-fold, respectively...
July 31, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742000/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-children-with-and-without-diarrhoea-and-their-susceptibility-to-the-antibacterial-activity-of-extracts-fractions-of-fruits-native-to-mexico
#16
Magdalena de Jesús Uribe-Beltrán, Yesmi Patricia Ahumada-Santos, Sylvia Páz Díaz-Camacho, Carlos Alberto Eslava-Campos, Jesús Ernesto Reyes-Valenzuela, María Elena Báez-Flores, Ignacio Osuna-Ramírez, Francisco Delgado-Vargas
PURPOSE: This paper aims to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Esherichia coli isolates from children under 5 years old, with and without diarrhoea, who were hospital outpatients in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. It also looks at the antimicrobial activity of fruit extracts against selected multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli strains. METHODOLOGY: A total of 205 E. coli isolates from stool samples were collected from 94 children under 5 years old who were outpatients from two hospitals in the city of Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, during the autumn/winter of 2003/04; their resistance profiles to 19 commercial antimicrobials were investigated using the Kirby-Bauer method...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739781/structural-insights-into-the-tla-3-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-its-inhibition-by-avibactam-and-op0595
#17
Wanchun Jin, Jun-Ichi Wachino, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Kouji Kimura, Anupriya Kumar, Mototsugu Yamada, Akihiro Morinaka, Yoshiaki Sakamaki, Minoru Yonezawa, Hiromasa Kurosaki, Yoshichika Arakawa
Development of effective inhibitors that block extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and restore the action of β-lactams represents an effective strategy against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae We evaluated the inhibitory effect of the diazabicyclooctanes avibactam and OP0595 against TLA-3, an ESBL we identified previously. Avibactam and OP0595 inhibited TLA-3 with apparent Ki app of 1.71 ± 0.10 and 1.49 ± 0.05 μM, respectively, and could restore susceptibility to cephalosporins in TLA-3-producing Escherichia coli The acylation rate constant [k2/K, (3...
July 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732619/endophthalmitis-prophylaxis-by-intracameral-antibiotics-in%C3%A2-vitro-model%C3%A2-comparing-vancomycin-cefuroxime-%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-moxifloxacin
#18
Peter E Libre, Sean Mathews
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of intracameral vancomycin, cefuroxime, and moxifloxacin on postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis rates. SETTING: Norwalk Hospital, Norwalk, Connecticut, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Bacteria and intraocular lenses (IOLs) were incubated with vancomycin, cefuroxime, moxifloxacin, or combinations. Antibiotic concentrations were high, corresponding to clinical maximum intracameral doses (1...
June 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713083/regional-features-of-the-microbial-landscape-of-urine-and-comparative-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-therapy-in-children-with-cystitis
#19
Tetyana O Kryuchko, Vira P Kharshman, Inna M Nesina, Nataliia V Kuzmenko, Jaroslava M Oleksiienko
INTRODUCTION: Growing resistance of pathogens to antibiotics, including cross-resistance to other antimicrobial classes that are used in the treatment of recurrent infections of the lower urinary system in children demands constant control of issues of regional antibiotic resistance. In the present days, in the empirical treatment of such patients physicians still choose medications with preserved activity in relation to E. coli. The aim of our study was to investigate the regional features of microbial landscape of urine in children with cystitis and study the efficacy of 7-day administration of Furamag medicinal drug for the treatment of recurrent episodes of this disease in children...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711438/citrobacter-freundii-bacteremia-risk-factors-of-mortality-and-prevalence-of-resistance-genes
#20
Li-Hsiang Liu, Nai-Yu Wang, Alice Ying-Jung Wu, Chih-Chen Lin, Chun-Ming Lee, Chang-Pan Liu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Multidrug-resistant strains of Citrobacter have emerged, which carry Amp-C β-lactamase (Amp-C), broad-spectrum β-lactamase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and other resistance mechanisms. These strains are associated with a higher rate of in-hospital mortality. The object of this study is to determine the mortality risk factors, susceptibility pattern to antibiotics, and prevalence of resistance genes in patients with Citrobacter freundii bacteremia. METHODS: From January 2009 to December 2014, blood isolates of C...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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