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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141717/diagnostic-accuracy-of-global-pharma-health-fund-minilab%C3%A2-in-assessing-pharmacopoeial-quality-of-antimicrobials
#1
Hui Pan, William Ba-Thein
Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF) Minilab™, a semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-based commercially available test kit, is widely used in drug quality surveillance globally, but its diagnostic accuracy is unclear. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of minilab system for antimicrobials, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as reference standard. Following the Minilab protocols and the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China protocols, Minilab-TLC and HPLC were used to test five common antimicrobials (506 batches) for relative concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredients...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141384/-problems-deserving-attention-in-preventing-infection-in-cataract-surgery
#2
J Ye
Endophthalmitis is one of the most serious complications of cataract surgery. The surgeons try to reduce the incidence of endophthalmitis. In order to prevent postoperative infection, irrigation of the conjunctival sac with povidone iodine and injection of antibiotics into the anterior chamber before the end of the surgery are used. Although there are a lot of reports about the concentration, mode and duration of povidone iodine application, there is no consensus. There are many options for antibiotics, including cefuroxime, vancomycin and moxifloxacin...
November 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114903/occupational-generalized-urticaria-and-anaphylaxis-after-inhalation-of-cefuroxime-in-a-nurse
#3
Rolf Merget, Ingrid Sander, Manigé Fartasch, Vera van Kampen, Stefani Röseler, Hans Merk, Gerda Wurpts, Monika Raulf, Thomas Brüning
We present the case of a 53 years old nonatopic female nurse who experienced repeated anaphylactic reactions at work without involvement in drug-specific tasks such as crushing of tablets or preparation of injections. The causal allergen was not identified until a further severe anaphylactic reaction occurred after oral use of cefuroxime during a respiratory infection. Sensitization to cefuroxime was demonstrated by specific IgE, basophil activation test and skin prick test. An inhalation challenge with a dosimeter induced generalized urticaria after a cumulative dose of about 10 μg of the drug, but no asthmatic reaction...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099028/post-stroke-bacteriuria-a-longitudinal-study-among-stroke-outpatients-and-inpatients-at-the-korle-bu-teaching-hospital-in-ghana
#4
Eric S Donkor, Samuel Darkwah, Albert Akpalu
Infections of the urinary tract constitute an important post-stroke complication but in Africa, little is known about such infections in relation to stroke patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of bacteriuria among stroke patients at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in Ghana including the prevalence, incidence, risk factors and aetiological agents. This was a longitudinal study involving 55 outpatients and 16 inpatients of stroke from the physiotherapy clinic and stroke admission ward of KBTH respectively...
June 2, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095716/intracameral-antibiotics-during-cataract-surgery-evidence-and-barriers
#5
Aravind Haripriya, David F Chang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is continuing debate regarding the safety, efficacy, and necessity of intracameral antibiotics to prevent postoperative endophthalmitis. We summarize the most recent evidence-based publications that either support or caution against this practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Several additional large, international retrospective clinical studies found a significant reduction in endophthalmitis rates with intracameral antibiotic prophylaxis. Many surgeons are looking for alternatives to vancomycin for intracameral prophylaxis because of its association with the rare but sight-threatening complication of hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis...
October 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051310/adverse-reactions-to-two-intravenous-antibiotics-augmentin-and-zinacef-used-for-surgical-prophylaxis-in-dogs
#6
Mark James Gosling, Fernando Martínez-Taboada
Antibiotic prophylaxis in dogs undergoing surgical procedures frequently involves the administration of a product without a veterinary licence. Two drugs commonly used for this purpose are the clavulanate amoxicillin Augmentin and the cefuroxime Zinacef. This prospective observational study aims to compare the incidence of adverse events associated with these two antibiotics in a clinical setting. The authors hypothesised that a higher incidence of adverse effects would be observed with Augmentin. Sixty-five dogs were included in the study and adverse events were recorded using a modified scoring system...
October 19, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045813/antimicrobial-resistance-virulence-genes-and-genetic-relatedness-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-enteritidis-isolates-recovered-from-human-gastroenteritis-in-tehran-iran
#7
Fatemeh Fardsanei, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Masoumeh Douraghi, Hamed Memariani, Bita Bakhshi, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Farhad Nikkhahi
OBJECTIVES: Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major serotype associated with human salmonellosis. The main objective of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns and the presence of virulence-associated genes among S. Enteritidis strains isolated from patients with gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Over a period of 14 months between May 2015 to July 2016, 44S. Enteritidis isolates recovered from clinical sources were characterised for antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence genes...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045740/adding-vancomycin-to-perioperative-prophylaxis-decreases-deep-sternal-wound-infections-in-high-risk-cardiac-surgery-patients
#8
Sylvia Reineke, Thierry P Carrel, Verena Eigenmann, Brigitta Gahl, Urs Fuehrer, Christian Seidl, David Reineke, Eva Roost, Magi Bächli, Jonas Marschall, Lars Englberger
OBJECTIVES: Perioperative prophylaxis with cephalosporins reduces sternal wound infections (SWIs) after cardiac surgery. However, more than 50% of coagulase-negative staphylococci, an important pathogen, are cephalosporin resistant. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of adjunctive vancomycin on SWIs in high-risk patients. METHODS: We conducted a pre- and postintervention study in an academic hospital. Preintervention (2010-2011), all patients received prophylaxis with 1...
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993064/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-microorganisms-that-cause-urinary-tract-infections-in-pediatric-patients
#9
Jesús Rodríguez-Lozano, Ana de Malet, María Eliecer Cano, Luis de la Rubia, Reinhard Wallmann, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Jorge Calvo
INTRODUCTION: Cumulative susceptibility reports are a valuable tool for the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections, especially in the current context of increasing resistance rates. Our objective was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates in urine cultures of pediatric patients during a five-year period. METHODS: Retrospective study of urine cultures from 2011 to 2015. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the Vitek-2 system (BioMérieux(®)) and categorized according to EUCAST criteria...
October 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991759/the-importance-of-perioperative-prophylaxis-with-cefuroxime-or-ceftriaxone-in-the-surgical-site-infections-prevention-after-cranial-and-spinal-neurosurgical-procedures
#10
Aleksandra Dimovska-Gavrilovska, Aleksandar Chaparoski, Andreja Gavrilovski, Zvonko Milenkovikj
Introduction Surgical site infections pose a significant problem in the treatment of neurosurgical procedures, regardless of the application of perioperative prophylaxis with systemic antibiotics. The infection rate in these procedures ranges from less than 1% to above 15%. Different antibiotics and administration regimes have been used in the perioperative prophylaxis so far, and there are numerous comparative studies regarding their efficiency, however, it is generally indicated that the choice thereof should be based on information and local specifics connected to the most probable bacterial causers, which would possibly contaminate the surgical site and cause infection, and moreover, the mandatory compliance with the principles of providing adequate concentration of the drug at the time of the anticipated contamination...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984385/antibiotic-resistance-of-helicobacter-pylori-to-16-antibiotics-in-clinical-patients
#11
Yongfu Shao, Rongdan Lu, Yunben Yang, Qiancheng Xu, Bojun Wang, Guoliang Ye
BACKGROUND: Resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to antibiotics is increasing worldwide. To determine the status of H. pylori resistance and its patterns in clinical patients, an investigation utilizing susceptibility testing for commonly used antibiotics was needed. METHODS: Total of 2283 H. pylori strains were collected from 2013 to 2016. The resistance and its patterns of these strains were tested by agar dilution method. The resistance rate and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) in different gender groups were also analyzed...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971876/risk-factors-that-influence-the-empirical-treatment-of-patients-with-acute-pyelonephritis-a-cohort-study
#12
Pau Bosch-Nicolau, Vicenç Falcó, Belén Viñado, Antonia Andreu, Oscar Len, Benito Almirante, Carles Pigrau
Objectives. The aim of the current study is to compare community-acquired acute pyelonephritis (CA-APN) with healthcare-associated acute pyelonephritis (HCA-APN), describe outcomes and identify variables that could predict antimicrobial susceptibility.Methods. We conducted an observational study that included all consecutive episodes of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in adults during 2014 at a Spanish university-hospital. From each episode demographic data, co-morbidities, clinical presentation, microbiological data, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953009/borrelia-lymphocytoma-mimicking-butterfly-rash-in-a-pediatric-patient
#13
Mar Llamas-Velasco, Bruno Emilio Paredes
A 5-year-old girl presented with a facial butterfly rash that persisted for 5 months without arthralgia, fever, malaise, photosensitivity, or other symptoms. Lupus erythematosus was clinically suspected. All blood tests were negative or within normal values. Skin biopsy showed a dense nodular superficial and deep inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes that reaches subcutaneous tissue. The most striking histopathological finding was plasma cells with some perifollicular accentuation. Borrelia polymerase chain reaction assay of the tissue was positive, and we made the diagnoses of borrelia lymphocytoma mimicking butterfly rash of lupus erythematosus...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932504/effects-of-intracameral-cefuroxime-on-corneal-endothelial-cell-counts-and-its-morphology-after-cataract-surgery
#14
Kourosh Shahraki, Mohammad Naeim Amini Fard, Farkhondeh Shahri, Rama Pourmatin, Tafgeh Mohammadi, Paria Ghasemi Boroumand, Kianoush Shahraki
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis is one of the most important complications after cataract surgery and in case event can cause many symptoms, such as severe decrease in eyesight and/or even the loss of vision. Employing methods to reduce this problem is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intracameral cefuroxime after cataract surgery on corneal endothelial cell counts and its morphology. METHODS: In this study, 32 eyes of 30 patients underwent endothelial cell count and morphology assessment by ConfoScan III device before and 1 month after cataract surgery...
June 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919603/current-trends-of-using-antimicrobials-at-obstetrics-and-gynaecology-department-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#15
M M Islam, S K Saha, S Saha, U A Wahid, R R Gomes, K S Ahmed, A N Naushad, S E Suchi, C Saha, D Mondal
This cross-sectional descriptive study was done to analyse the current trends of using antimicrobials in various surgical procedures at Obstetrics and Gynaecology department in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. Among 300 postoperative obstetrics and gynaecological surgery cases, samples were selected as non-random purposive selection method where pattern of using antimicrobials were analysed by SPSS method 20.1 versions. The incidence of antimicrobial resistance is on continued rise with a threat to return to the pre-antibiotic era...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914846/-analysis-of-the-efficiency-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-clinical-practice
#16
O V Zhukova, O V Ruina, S V Kononova, T M Konyshkina
AIM: To analyze actual drug consumption based on the defined daily dose (DDD analysis) and to analyze the utilization of drugs based on their proportion of the total defined daily doses (DU90% analysis) for the antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in clinical practice at a hospital in Russia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation materials were the data of 117 case histories of male (51.3%) and female (48.7%) patients hospitalized with CAP at Nizhny Novgorod City Clinical Hospital Five in 2015...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899468/-pathogen-distribution-and-bacterial-resistance-in-children-with-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia
#17
Yun-Yun Lu, Rong Luo, Zhou Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of pathogens and bacterial resistance in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: A total of 522 children with severe CAP who were hospitalized in 2016 were enrolled as study subjects. According to their age, they were divided into infant group (402 infants aged 28 days to 1 year), young children group (73 children aged 1 to 3 years), preschool children group (35 children aged 3 to 6 years), and school-aged children group (12 children aged ≥6 years)...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889027/re-evaluating-the-presumed-superiority-of-amorphous-nanoparticles-over-amorphous-microscale-solid-dispersion-in-solubility-enhancement-of-poorly-soluble-drugs
#18
Li Ming Lim, The-Thien Tran, Wean Sin Cheow, Kunn Hadinoto
The solubility enhancement afforded by amorphous drug nanoparticles was demonstrated in several studies to be superior to the traditional amorphization approach by microscale amorphous solid dispersion (or micro ASD in short). A closer look at these studies, however, revealed that they were performed using a very limited number of poorly-soluble drug models (i.e. itraconazole and cefuroxime). Herein we aimed to re-examine the solubility enhancement and physical stability of amorphous nanoparticles relative to that of the micro ASD using a different poorly-soluble drug model, i...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879715/bacteremia-caused-by-campylobacter-fetus-in-a-patient-with-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-complicated-with-alcoholic-liver-cirrhosis
#19
Yili Chen, Kang Liao, Han Huang, Penghao Guo, Zhongwen Wu
Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) bacteremia is rarely reported. In this article, a 51-year-old Chinese woman with severe hepatitis B virus infection complicated with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted with a 3-month history of fatigue, jaundice, and edema of lower extremity, as well as presenting a high fever. Blood cultures were positive for Campylobacter fetus. The patient was started on treatment with cefuroxime, which was switched after 3 days to meropenem for an additional 2 weeks. The patient was successfully treated with the 3-week course of intravenous antibiotic therapy...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878761/effect-of-different-antibiotic-chemotherapies-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-vitro-of-primary-human-corneal-fibroblast-cells
#20
Maria Del Mar Cendra, Myron Christodoulides, Parwez Hossain
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of bacterial keratitis (BK) worldwide. Inappropriate or non-optimal antibiotic chemotherapy can lead to corneal perforation and rapid sight loss. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 invades primary human corneal fibroblasts (hCFs) in vitro and persists intracellularly, despite chemotherapy with antibiotics used commonly to treat BK. In rank order, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and polymyxin B showed the highest activity against planktonic PAO1 growth (100% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤1 μg/mL), followed by gentamicin and ofloxacin (100% inhibitory concentration ≤50 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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