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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231673/-changes-of-resistant-phenotype-and-crispr-cas-system-of-four-shigella-strains-passaged-for-90-times-without-antibiotics
#1
B Zhang, L J Hong, G C Duan, W J Liang, H Y Yang, Y L Xi
Objective: To explore the stability of resistant phenotypes and changes of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) gene system on four Shigella strains in the absence of antibiotics. Methods: Four clinical isolated Shigella strains that resistant to different antibiotics were consecutive passaged for 90 times without antibiotics. Agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of Shigella strains. After sequence analysis with PCR, CRISPR Finder and Clustal X 2...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229357/experimental-determination-and-theoretical-calculation-of-the-eutectic-composition-of-cefuroxime-axetil-diastereomers
#2
Namita Dalal, Ira S Buckner, Peter L D Wildfong
Cefuroxime axetil (CFA), an ester prodrug of cefuroxime exists as a pair of diastereoemers, namely isomer A and isomer B. To enable phase diagram construction, crystallization of the diastereomers of CFA from the commercially available amorphous drug substance was carried out. Isomer A was separated with a purity approaching 100% whereas the maximum purity of isomer B was 85% as confirmed by solution state proton NMR spectroscopy. The crystalline forms of isomer A and isomer B were confirmed as forms AI and BI, respectively, based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and powder X-ray diffraction...
February 22, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214101/endophthalmitis-reduction-with-intracameral-moxifloxacin-prophylaxis-analysis-of-600%C3%A2-000-surgeries
#3
Aravind Haripriya, David F Chang, Ravilla D Ravindran
PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative endophthalmitis rate before and after initiation of intracameral (IC) moxifloxacin prophylaxis for both phacoemulsification and sutureless, manual small-incision cataract surgery (M-SICS), as well as in patients with posterior capsular rupture (PCR). DESIGN: Retrospective, clinical registry. PARTICIPANTS: All cataract surgeries (617 453) performed during the 29-month period from January 2014 to May 2016 at the 10 regional Aravind eye hospitals were included...
February 14, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192644/perioperative-antibiotics-for-prevention-of-acute-endophthalmitis-after-cataract-surgery
#4
REVIEW
Emily W Gower, Kristina Lindsley, Samantha E Tulenko, Afshan A Nanji, Ilya Leyngold, Peter J McDonnell
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior or posterior (or both) chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery compared with no prophylaxis or other form of prophylaxis...
February 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178138/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-and-serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae-in-chilean-children-5-years-of-age
#5
Andres Rosenblut, Carla Napolitano, Angelica Pereira, Camilo Moreno, Devayani Kolhe, Alejandro Lepetic, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged <5 years in a public setting in Santiago, Chile.Children aged ≥3 months and <5 years referred to the physician for treatment of AOM episodes (with an onset of symptoms <72 h) were enrolled between September 2009 and September 2010...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144190/antibiotic-resistance-in-urinary-isolates-of-escherichia-coli
#6
Amila Abduzaimovic, Mufida Aljicevic, Velma Rebic, Sabina Mahmutovic Vranic, Kadrija Abduzaimovic, Sabina Sestic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antimicrobial resistance / susceptibility strains of Escherichia coli in inpatients and outpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective study carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Parasitology and Virology Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. In cooperation with the Microbiological laboratory of the Cantonal Hospital Zenica and the Microbiological laboratory of the General Hospital Tesanj, 3863 urine samples were processed in the period from March 1(st) to March 31(st) 2016...
December 2016: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124668/treatment-of-cefuroxime-induced-neurotoxicity-with-continuous-venovenous-haemofiltration
#7
D G H A van Dam, D M T Burgers, N Foudraine, P K C Janssen, C Neef, J L M L le Noble
A 61-year-old woman with decreased consciousness, myoclonus, tremors, nystagmus and bradypnoea, due to cefuroxime-induced neurotoxicity, was admitted to the intensive care unit. Continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) rapidly reduced plasma cefuroxime concentrations and improved neurological manifestations within the next few hours. Retrospective pharmacokinetic assessment showed a total cefuroxime clearance of 166 ml/min during the CVVH.
January 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121041/randomized-clinical-trial-of-extended-versus-single-dose-perioperative-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-acute-calculous-cholecystitis
#8
C S Loozen, K Kortram, V N N Kornmann, B van Ramshorst, B Vlaminckx, C A J Knibbe, J C Kelder, S C Donkervoort, G A P Nieuwenhuijzen, J E H Ponten, A A W van Geloven, P van Duijvendijk, W J W Bos, M G H Besselink, D J Gouma, H C van Santvoort, D Boerma
BACKGROUND: Many patients who have surgery for acute cholecystitis receive postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, with the intent to reduce infectious complications. There is, however, no evidence that extending antibiotics beyond a single perioperative dose is advantageous. This study aimed to determine the effect of extended antibiotic prophylaxis on infectious complications in patients with mild acute cholecystitis undergoing cholecystectomy. METHODS: For this randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, adult patients with mild acute calculous cholecystitis undergoing cholecystectomy at six major teaching hospitals in the Netherlands, between April 2012 and September 2014, were assessed for eligibility...
January 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097715/c-di-amp-modulates-listeria-monocytogenes-central-metabolism-to-regulate-growth-antibiotic-resistance-and-osmoregulation
#9
Aaron T Whiteley, Nicholas E Garelis, Bret N Peterson, Philip H Choi, Liang Tong, Joshua J Woodward, Daniel A Portnoy
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a conserved nucleotide second messenger critical for bacterial growth and resistance to cell wall-active antibiotics. In Listeria monocytogenes, the sole diadenylate cyclase, DacA, is essential in rich, but not synthetic media and ΔdacA mutants are highly sensitive to the β-lactam antibiotic cefuroxime. In this study, loss of function mutations in the oligopeptide importer (oppABCDF) and glycine betaine importer (gbuABC) allowed ΔdacA mutants to grow in rich medium...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053381/a-simple-method-for-fashioning-an-antibiotic-impregnated-cemented-rod-for-intramedullary-placement-in-infected-non-union-of-long-bones
#10
Ajay Bharti, Umesh Kumar Saroj, Vineet Kumar, Sanjay Kumar, Balram Ji Omar
The intramedullary insertion of antibiotic impregnated PMMA rods, beads or nails are widely used and accepted modality of treatment for chronic osteomyelitis of long bones. But at times it becomes difficult to insert and remove these antibiotic delivery systems owing to narrowed medullary canals. Here we present a technique for preparing PMMA rods with diameter ranging from 6 mm to 3 mm. These rods could easily be placed in narrow intramedullary canal of long bones with chronic osteomyelitis or infected non-union...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011210/synergistic-antibacterial-effect-of-bi2s3-nanospheres-combined-with-ineffective-antibiotic-gentamicin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Lulu Ma, Jie Wu, Shilei Wang, Hao Yang, Donghui Liang, Zhong Lu
In this paper, Bi2S3 nanospheres with size of 212nm were prepared by a simple hydrothermal process. The selectively enhanced antibacterial effects of Bi2S3 nanospheres with three classes of ineffective antibiotics, β-lactam (cefuroxime, CXM; cefotaxime, CTX and piperacillin, PIP), quinolone (ciprofloxacin, CIP) and aminoglycoside (gentamicin, GEN) against clinical isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were investigated for the first time. GEN shows significantly synergistic growth inhibition against MRSA when combined with Bi2S3 nanospheres, while CXM, CTX, PIP and CIP do not...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007722/physical-compatibility-of-isavuconazonium-sulfate-with-select-i-v-drugs-during-simulated-y-site-administration
#12
Wonhee So, Liz Kim, Abrar K Thabit, David P Nicolau, Joseph L Kuti
PURPOSE: The physical compatibility of isavuconazonium sulfate with 95 i.v. drugs during simulated Y-site administration was studied. METHODS: Isavuconazonium sulfate for injection and all other drugs were reconstituted according to the manufacturer's recommendation and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection to a final concentration (1.5 mg/mL for isavuconazonium sulfate and standard concentrations used clinically for other drugs)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003028/worsening-cholestasis-and-possible-cefuroxime-induced-liver-injury-following-successful-therapeutic-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-for-a-distal-common-bile-duct-stone-a-case-report
#13
Madunil Anuk Niriella, Ravindu Sujeewa Kumarasena, Anuradha Supun Dassanayake, Aloka Pathirana, Janaki de Silva Hewavisenthi, Hithanadura Janaka de Silva
BACKGROUND: Cefuroxime very rarely causes drug-induced liver injury. We present a case of a patient with paradoxical worsening of jaundice caused by cefuroxime-induced cholestasis following therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for a distal common bile duct stone. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old, previously healthy Sri Lankan man presented to our hospital with obstructive jaundice caused by a distal common bile duct stone. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with stone extraction, common bile duct clearance, and stenting failed to improve the cholestasis, with paradoxical worsening of his jaundice...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981903/endophthalmitis-prophylaxis-in-cataract-surgery-overview-of-current-practice-patterns-around-the-world
#14
Andrzej Grzybowski, Stephen G Schwartz, Kazuki Matsuura, Stephan Ong Tone, Steve Arshinoff, Ng Q Jonathon, Jay J Meyer, Wu Liu, Soosan Jacob, Mark Packer, Rifna Lutfiamida, Sjakon Tahija, Paul Roux, Boris Malyugin, Julio A Urrets-Zavalia, Nicolas Crim, Evangelina Esposito, Pablo Daponte, Fernando Pellegrino, Enrique O Graue-Hernandez, Aida Jimenez-Corona, Jorge Valdez Garcia, Julio C Hernandez-Camarena, Nidhi Relhan, Harry W Flynn, Ravilla D Ravindran
BACKGROUND: Acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery remains a rare but important cause of visual loss. There is no global consensus regarding the optimal strategies for prophylaxis of endophthalmitis and practices vary substantially around the world, especially with respect to the use of intracameral antibiotics. The European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons in a randomized clinical trial (2007) reported an approximately 5-fold reduction in endophthalmitis rates associated with the use of intracameral cefuroxime...
16, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980380/prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-profiles-of-listeria-monocytogenes-contamination-of-chicken-flocks-and-meat-in-oyo-state-south-western-nigeria-public-health-implications
#15
REVIEW
O O Ishola, J I Mosugu, H K Adesokan
INTRODUCTION: Food contamination with Listeria monocytogenes is on the increase posing threats to public health with growing trends in food products recalls due to suspected Listeria contamination. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) among 71 randomly selected poultry farms in Oyo State, Nigeria. A total of 450 samples comprising cloacal swabs (426) and randomly selected dressed chicken meat (24) were cultured for Lm isolation using BrillianceTM Selective Listeria Agar with antibiotics and microbial load count with Nutrient Agar...
September 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977506/management-of-pediatric-acute-mastoiditis-in-israel-nationwide-survey-among-otorhinolaryngologists-and-emergency-pediatricians
#16
Sharon Tamir Ovnat, Tal Marom, David Rekhtman, Michal Luntz
INTRODUCTION: Acute mastoiditis (AM) is a medical emergency that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, its management often differs between otorhinolaryngologists (ORLs) and pediatricians (PEDs) working in emergency departments. We sought to characterize the similarities and differences between management protocols of these 2 disciplines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A voluntary electronic questionnaire, including 17 items pertaining to pediatric AM management, was sent to all the 20 otorhinolaryngology and their corresponding pediatric emergency departments nationwide...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966110/antibiotic-treatment-of-hospitalized-patients-with-pneumonia-complicated-by-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
K Zycinska, M Chmielewska, B Lenartowicz, M Hadzik-Blaszczyk, M Cieplak, Z Kur, R Krupa, K A Wardyn
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common gastrointestinal complication after antimicrobial treatment. It is estimated that CDI after pneumonia treatment is connected with a higher mortality than other causes of hospitalization. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the kind of antibiotic used for pneumonia treatment and mortality from post-pneumonia CDI. We addressed the issue by examining retrospectively the records of 217 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of CDI...
December 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956216/distribution-of-ctx-m-group-i-and-group-iii-%C3%AE-lactamases-produced-by-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-lahore-pakistan
#18
Samyyia Abrar, Ayesha Vajeeha, Noor Ul-Ain, Saba Riaz
Extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type is worrisome issue in many countries of the world from past decade. But little is known about CTX-M beta-lactamase producing bacteria in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the distribution of CTX-M beta-lactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using phenotypic and molecular techniques. A total of 638 E. coli and 338 Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from patients attending two hospitals and one diagnostic Centre in Pakistan during 2013-2015...
December 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917708/synthesis-spectroscopic-characterization-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-benzoxazolone-derivatives
#19
Nida Iqbal Siddiqui, Muhammad Ali Versiani, Khurshid Jawaid, Maryam Shafique, Abdul Hameed, Nida Ambreen, Aneela Karim, Khalid Mohammed Khan
: : Background: Pathogenic microbial diseases are now the key virulence in our daily life. Significant research has been carried out in order to trigger the bacterial infections. Amongst the organic molecules, oxazolone and derivatives were found to have excellent bioactivities including antimicrobial activities. METHODS: By keeping in mind the considerable antimicrobial activities of class benzoxazolones, a series of benzoxazolone derivatives 3-16 have been synthesized...
December 5, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906556/combination-effect-of-cefuroxime-and-levofloxacin-against-bacteria-isolated-from-the-healthy-conjunctival-sac-and-endophthalmitis-cases-using-a-fractional-inhibitory-concentration-index
#20
Takashi Suzuki, Toshihiro Yamamoto, Tomohiko Torikai, Yuichi Ohashi
PURPOSE: Intracameral cefuroxime (CXM) and antibiotic eye drops such as fluoroquinolone are widely used for preventing endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. However, few reports are available regarding their interactions. This study was conducted to examine the in vitro interaction of CXM and levofloxacin (LVFX) against bacterial isolates from the healthy conjunctival sac before cataract surgery and from endophthalmitis cases. METHODS: The activity of each drug was determined using a broth dilution method...
January 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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