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fat embolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863899/ct-angiography-post-processed-contrast-enhancement-for-improved-detection-of-pulmonary-embolism
#1
Daniela Muenzel, Alexander A Fingerle, Tina Zahel, Andreas Sauter, Alain Vlassenbroek, Martin Dobritz, Ernst J Rummeny, Peter B Noël
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to improve the detection of pulmonary embolism via an iodine contrast enhancement tool in patients who underwent suboptimal enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the CT examinations of 41 patients who underwent CTA for evaluation of the pulmonary arteries which suffered from suboptimal contrast enhancement. The contrast enhancement of the reconstructed images was increased via a post-processing tool (vContrast)...
November 15, 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833712/partially-thrombosed-internal-maxillary-pseudoaneurysm-after-gunshot-wound
#2
Menachem Gold
A 29-year-old man arrived in our emergency department after being shot on the face. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple facial bone fractures along the bullet trajectory. On day 10 of admission, CT angiogram of the neck revealed a partially thrombosed pseudoaneurysm in the parapharyngeal fat pad. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated with coil embolization. This report discusses diagnosis and treatment of a partially thrombosed internal maxillary artery pseudoaneurysm. Although digital subtraction angiography is the gold standard for pseudoaneurysm diagnosis, CT angiography may provide complimentary information, as seen in this case...
November 2016: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783380/common-pitfalls-in-point-of-care-ultrasound-a-practical-guide-for-emergency-and-critical-care-physicians
#3
REVIEW
Pablo Blanco, Giovanni Volpicelli
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is a widely used tool in emergency and critical care settings, useful in the decision-making process as well as in interventional guidance. While having an impressive diagnostic accuracy in the hands of highly skilled operators, inexperienced practitioners must be aware of some common misinterpretations that may lead to wrong decisions at the bedside. OBJECTIVES: This article provides a revision list of common POCUS misdiagnoses usually found in practice and offers useful tips to recognize and avoid them...
December 2016: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779587/the-renin-inhibitor-aliskiren-protects-rat-lungs-from-the-histopathological-effects-of-fat-embolism
#4
Amanda N Fletcher, Agostino Molteni, Rakesh Ponnapureddy, Chirag Patel, Mark Pluym, Alan M Poisner
BACKGROUND: Fat embolism (FE) and the consequent fat embolism syndrome (FES) occurring after trauma or surgery can lead to serious pulmonary injury, including ARDS and death. Current treatment of FES is limited to supportive therapy. We have shown in a rat model that the renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of FE since drugs interfering with the RAS, captopril and losartan, reduce the histopathologic pulmonary damage. The purpose of the current study was to determine if inhibition of renin by aliskiren, an FDA-approved drug for treating hypertension, would produce effective protection in the same model...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772594/cerebral-fat-embolism-after-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery
#5
Maenia Scarpino, Giovanni Lanzo, Francesco Cappelli, Marco Moretti, Gianni Misuri, Luca Voltolini, Massimo Pistolesi, Aldo Amantini, Antonello Grippo
Cerebral fat embolism (CFE) is an uncommon disease occurring mainly after traumatic lower limb long bone fractures. A 64-year-old woman with pneumonia and bilateral pleural effusion underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). After 3 days, the patient had an acute decrease in consciousness level followed by the onset of seizures and right hemiparesis. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed findings suggestive of CFE. CFE occurring after an uncommon nontraumatic cause of fat embolism, such as VATS, is a rare clinical event whose diagnosis could be challenging...
November 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763945/paracentral-acute-middle-maculopathy-associated-with-retinal-artery-occlusion-after-cosmetic-filler-injection
#6
Jayanth Sridhar, Abtin Shahlaee, Wen-Shi Shieh, Ehsan Rahimy
PURPOSE: To report a single case of paracentral acute middle maculopathy in association with retinal artery occlusion in the setting of ipsilateral facial cosmetic filler injection. METHODS: Case report. PATIENT: A 35-year-old woman presenting with sudden vision loss to finger count vision immediately after left nasal fat pad cosmetic filler injection. RESULTS: Dilated funduscopic examination revealed a swollen optic disc with multiple branch arterial occlusions with visible embolic material...
October 19, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757364/microcirculatory-response-in-vivo-on-local-intraarterial-infusion-of-autogenic-adipose-derived-stem-cells-or-stromal-vascular-fraction
#7
Wei Z Wang
: Both adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) have been demonstrated to have regenerative properties with therapeutic potential for numerous diseases through local or topical applications. However, it is unclear whether ASC or SVF can be delivered systemically through an intra-arterial infusion. The purpose of this study was to examine the microcirculatory response in vivo on local intraarterial infusion of autogenic ASCs or SVF in a vascular pedicle isolated rat cremaster microcirculation model...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728952/the-reamer-irrigator-aspirator-system-a-review
#8
Damien Billow, Anton Khlopas, Morad Chughtai, Anas Saleh, Marcelo B Siqueira, Patrick Marinello, Michael A Mont
The reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA) system has been recently developed to decrease the incidence of osseous thermal necrosis and fat embolism associated with intramedullary reaming of long bones in trauma cases. This is achieved by continuous irrigation and suction. Recently, the use of RIA has been expanded to harvest bone graft and debride the medullary canal of long bones in cases of osteomyelitis and intramedullary tumors. Additionally, the collection system of this device has been utilized for its ability to capture bone graft and marrow aspirate...
October 26, 2016: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722116/early-and-late-intramedullary-nailing-of-femur-fracture-a-single-center-experience
#9
Ahmad S Alobaidi, Ammar Al-Hassani, Ayman El-Menyar, Husham Abdelrahman, Mazin Tuma, Hassan Al-Thani, Mohammed A Aldosari
BACKGROUND: Femur fracture (FF) is a common injury, and intramedullary nailing (IMN) is the standard surgical fixation. However, the time of intervention remains controversial. We aimed to describe the reamed IMN (rIMN) timing and hospital outcomes in trauma patients presenting with FF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients admitted with FF and they underwent fixation at level 1 trauma unit between January 2010 and January 2012...
July 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708535/r2-map-by-ideal-iq-for-acute-cerebral-infarction-compared-with-susceptibility-vessel-sign-on-t2-weighted-imaging
#10
Yuki Shinohara, Ayumi Kato, Eijiro Yamashita, Toshihide Ogawa
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the detectability of arterial acute thrombus on R2* map by iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) IQ compared with T2*-weighted imaging (T2*WI). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with acute cerebral infarction who underwent R2* map and T2*WI were reviewed. We performed visual assessment of each sequence regarding the visibility of susceptibility effect reflecting acute thrombus and quantitative evaluation of the thrombus on R2* map...
September 2016: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704159/current-state-of-the-art-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-computer-navigation
#11
Frederic Picard, Kamal Deep, Jean Yves Jenny
PURPOSE: Computer-assisted surgery in orthopaedics is passing through the initial adapter phase of technology adoption. It started more than 20 years ago, but the uptake of technology is still not widespread. The purpose of this article is to introduce the reader to the basic technology and familiarize with the terminology used in the computer navigation. METHODS: During this time, the technology has matured and we have the evidence to prove its benefits for patients...
October 4, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648654/evaluation-of-repairing-facial-depression-deformities-secondary-to-lupus-erythematosus-panniculitis-with-autologous-fat-grafting
#12
Hua Lei, Gui-E Ma, Zhenjun Liu
BACKGROUND: A facial depression deformity secondary to lupus erythematosus panniculitis results from fat necrosis, which seriously alters the patients' appearance and thus affects their psychological health. Few studies have discussed the repair of depression deformities. The authors repaired depression deformities due to atrophic lesions by using autologous fat grafting to obtain volumetric restoration of the facial skin, and the authors report our outcomes. METHODS: In this series, 30 depression deformities in 18 patients were repaired...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624445/spinal-cord-infarction-as-a-rare-complication-of-fat-embolism-syndrome-following-bilateral-intramedullary-nailing-of-femur-fractures
#13
RoseMarie Kearsley, John Galbraith, David Dalton, Catherine Motherway
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare and potentially fatal complication occurring most often after long bone or pelvic fractures and orthopaedic procedures. It can consist of pulmonary, central nervous system and cutaneous manifestations. The exact pathophysiology of emboli reaching the arterial circulation is poorly understood.1 It is suggested that this may occur by either 'paradoxical' embolism or microembolism.2 3 Its true incidence is unknown but increases in the presence of multiple closed fractures...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598359/fat-embolism-syndrome-secondary-to-bone-marrow-necrosis-in-patients-with-hemoglobinopathies
#14
Radhika Gangaraju, Vishnu V B Reddy, Marisa B Marques
Bone marrow necrosis with subsequent embolization of the fat and necrotic tissues into the systemic circulation causing fat embolism syndrome and multiorgan failure is a rare complication of patients with hemoglobinopathies. The exact etiology of this condition is not known. Because it occurs more often in patients with compound heterozygous conditions than in sickle cell disease, some patients are unaware of their predisposition. The initial symptoms are nonspecific, such as back and/or abdominal pain, fever, and fatigue, which may rapidly progress to respiratory failure and severe neurologic compromise...
September 2016: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595520/recurrent-fat-embolic-strokes-in-a-patient-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-with-long-bone-fractures-and-a-patent-foramen-ovale
#15
Christopher J Bugnitz, Linda H Cripe, Warren D Lo, Kevin M Flanigan
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy have an increased risk of long bone fractures. Such fractures are sometimes associated with brain dysfunction due to fat embolism syndrome, although this syndrome has seldom been documented in muscular dystrophy patients. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who developed fat embolism syndrome with neurological dysfunction following multiple long bone fractures. He experienced recurrent cerebral infarctions that probably resulted from embolization through a patent foramen ovale...
October 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556618/fat-grafting-for-gluteal-augmentation-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-meta-analysis
#16
Alexandra Condé-Green, Vasanth Kotamarti, Kevin T Nini, Philip D Wey, Naveen K Ahuja, Mark S Granick, Edward S Lee
BACKGROUND: With the increasing demand for gluteal fat augmentation, reports of fatal complications have surfaced. Therefore, the authors proposed to analyze the published techniques and compare different protocols, to identify those of potential concern. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed with a search of 21 terms on the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Scientific Electronic Library Online databases. Nineteen articles meeting our predetermined criteria were analyzed, and data from the different steps of the procedure were classified, allowing evaluation and comparison of techniques...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524390/why-are-some-patients-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-dying-young-an-analysis-of-causes-of-death-in-north-east-england
#17
H J A Van Ruiten, C Marini Bettolo, T Cheetham, M Eagle, H Lochmuller, V Straub, K Bushby, M Guglieri
INTRODUCTION: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited muscle disease in children. Recent years have seen an increase in age of survival into adulthood following the introduction of proactive standards of care. We reviewed mortality in DMD in our population in order to identify potential underlying risk factors for premature death and improve clinical care. METHOD: A retrospective case note review of all deaths in the DMD population over the last 10 years in North East England...
December 0: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522275/sporadic-versus-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-associated-angiomyolipomas-predictors-for-long-term-outcomes-following-transcatheter-embolization
#18
Rahul A Sheth, Adam S Feldman, Elahna Paul, Elizabeth A Thiele, T Gregory Walker
PURPOSE: To evaluate risk factors for long-term outcomes following embolization of sporadic versus tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated angiomyolipomas (AMLs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive transcatheter embolizations of renal AMLs between 2002 and 2014 was performed. Tumor volumetrics including density analysis were obtained. Treatment outcomes were assessed at 1 year after embolization using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510627/detection-of-pulmonary-fat-embolism-with-dual-energy-ct-an-experimental-study-in-rabbits
#19
Chun Xiang Tang, Chang Sheng Zhou, Yan E Zhao, U Joseph Schoepf, Stefanie Mangold, B Devon Ball, Zong Hong Han, Li Qi, Long Jiang Zhang, Guang Ming Lu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of dual-energy CT imaging of the lung perfused blood volume (PBV) for the detection of pulmonary fat embolism (PFE). METHODS: Dual-energy CT was performed in 24 rabbits before and 1 hour, 1 day, 4 days and 7 days after artificial induction of PFE via the right ear vein. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lung PBV images were evaluated by two radiologists, who recorded the presence, number, and location of PFE on a per-lobe basis...
August 10, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455237/the-effects-of-aquaporin-1-in-pulmonary-edema-induced-by-fat-embolism-syndrome
#20
Yiwei Zhang, Kun Tian, Yan Wang, Rong Zhang, Jiawei Shang, Wei Jiang, Aizhong Wang
This study was designed to investigate the role of aquaporin1 (AQP1) in the pathologic process of pulmonary edema induced by fat embolism syndrome (FES) and the effects of a free fatty acid (FFA) mixture on AQP1 expression in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). In vivo, edema was more serious in FES mice compared with the control group. The expression of AQP1 and the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio (W/D) in the FES group were significantly increased compared with the control group. At the same time, inhibition of AQP1 decreased the pathological damage resulting from pulmonary edema...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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