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MAOA gene

Kyung Min Kim, Jaeho Lim, Jae Jung Lee, Byung-Serk Hurh, Inhyung Lee
Initially, we screened 18 A. sojae-like strains from Aspergillus spp. isolated from meju (Korean traditional fermented soybean bricks) according to their morphological characteristics. Because members of Aspergillus section Flavi are often incorrectly identified because of their phylogenetic similarity, we re-identified these strains at morphological and molecular genetic levels. Fourteen strains were finally identified as A. sojae. The isolates produced protease and α-amylase with ranges of 2.66-10.64 and 21...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
M S Golub, C E Hogrefe, A M Bulleri
Juvenile male rhesus macaques received therapeutic doses of fluoxetine daily from one to three years of age and were compared to vehicle-treated controls (N=16/group). Genotyping for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) polymorphisms was used to form subgroups (N=8) with high and low expression of the gene. Behavioral responses were scored during 30-second exposures to pictures differing in affective content. As expected from its therapeutic effect, fluoxetine decreased the behavioral response to emotionally evocative pictures...
November 13, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
N W McGregor, S M J Hemmings, L Erdman, I Calmarza-Font, D J Stein, C Lochner
The monoamine oxidases (MAOA/B) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzymes break down regulatory components within serotonin and dopamine pathways, and polymorphisms within these genes are candidates for OCD susceptibility. Childhood trauma has been linked OCD psychopathology, but little attention has been paid to the interactions between genes and environment in OCD aetiology. This pilot study investigated gene-by-environment interactions between childhood trauma and polymorphisms in the MAOA, MAOB and COMT genes in OCD...
October 24, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Rabia R Chhangur, Joyce Weeland, Geertjan Overbeek, Walter Matthys, Bram Orobio de Castro, Danielle van der Giessen, Jay Belsky
This study investigated whether children scoring higher on a polygenic plasticity index based on five dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, MAOA, and COMT) benefited the most from the Incredible Years (IY) parent program. Data were used from a randomized controlled trial including 341 Dutch families with 4- to 8-year-old children (55.7% boys) showing moderate to high levels of problem behavior. IY proved to be most effective in decreasing parent-reported (but not observed) externalizing behavior in boys (but not girls) carrying more rather than fewer dopaminergic plasticity alleles; this Gene × Intervention effect was most pronounced in the case of boys whose parents' manifested the most positive change in parenting in response to the intervention...
September 15, 2016: Child Development
Szilvia Fiatal, Réka Tóth, Ágota Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Zsigmond Kósa, János Sándor, Martin McKee, Róza Ádány
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of smoking in Romani of both genders is significantly higher than in the general population. Our aim was to determine whether a genetic susceptibility contributes to the high prevalence of smoking among Roma in a study based on data collected from cross-sectional surveys. METHODS: Twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms known to be closely related to smoking behavior were investigated in DNA samples of Hungarian Roma (N = 1273) and general (N = 2388) populations...
December 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Rebecca A Lundwall, Claudia G Rasmussen
Attention is vital to success in all aspects of life (Meck and Benson, 2002; Erickson et al., 2015), hence it is important to identify biomarkers of later attentional problems early enough to intervene. Our objective was to determine if any of 11 genes (APOE, BDNF, HTR4, CHRNA4, COMT, DRD4, IGF2, MAOA, SLC5A7, SLC6A3, and SNAP25) predicted the trajectory of attentional development within the same group of children between infancy and childhood. We recruited follow up participants from children who participated as infants in visual attention studies and used a similar task at both time points...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nathalie E Holz, Katrin Zohsel, Manfred Laucht, Tobias Banaschewski, Sarah Hohmann, Daniel Brandeis
Conduct disorder (CD) causes high financial and social costs, not only in affected families but across society, with only moderately effective treatments so far. There is consensus that CD is likely caused by the convergence of many different factors, including genetic and adverse environmental factors. There is ample evidence of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of CD on a behavioral level regarding genetically sensitive designs and candidate gene-driven approaches, most prominently and consistently represented by MAOA...
August 18, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Renata A N Pertile, Xiaoying Cui, Darryl W Eyles
Vitamin D regulates multiple factors including those involved in the ontogeny of dopaminergic systems. It has been shown that in neonatal rats maternally deprived of vitamin D, dopamine (DA) turnover is decreased with associated reductions in one catabolic enzyme, catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT). To directly examine this signaling relationship, in the present study we have over-expressed the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in order to examine the mechanisms by which the active vitamin D hormone, 1,25(OH)2D3, via its receptor VDR, affects DA production and turnover...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Diana R Samek, Jennifer Bailey, Karl G Hill, Sylia Wilson, Susanne Lee, Margaret A Keyes, Marina Epstein, Andrew Smolen, Michael Miller, Ken C Winters, J David Hawkins, Richard F Catalano, William G Iacono, Matt McGue
This study presents results from a collaboration across five longitudinal studies seeking to test and replicate models of gene-environment interplay in the development of substance use and externalizing disorders (SUDs, EXT). We describe an overview of our conceptual models, plan for gene-environment interplay analyses, and present main effects results evaluating six candidate genes potentially relevant to SUDs and EXT (MAOA, 5-HTTLPR, COMT, DRD2, DAT1, and DRD4). All samples included rich longitudinal and phenotypic measurements from childhood/adolescence (ages 5-13) through early adulthood (ages 25-33); sample sizes ranged from 3487 in the test sample, to ~600-1000 in the replication samples...
September 2016: Behavior Genetics
Barnali Chakraborti, Deepak Verma, Arijit Karmakar, Preeti Jaiswal, Aritrika Sanyal, Debarshi Paul, Swagata Sinha, Asem Surindro Singh, Subhrangshu Guhathakurta, Anirban Roychowdhury, Chinmoy Kumar Panda, Saurabh Ghosh, Kochupurackal P Mohanakumar, Kanchan Mukhophadhyay, Usha Rajamma
Serotonergic system participates in various developmental processes and modulation of behaviour. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by a range of behavioral symptoms scaling from mild to severe. Abnormal 5-HT synthesis and signalling, platelet hyperserotonemia and amelioration of repetitive behaviours by SSRI are some of the key findings, which reinforced the hypothesis that serotonergic genes might act as ASD susceptible genes. Therefore, genes encoding monoamine oxidases A/B (MAOA/MAOB) received special attention as these genes are located on the X-chromosome and the gene products are responsible for 5-HT degradation...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Jessica E Salvatore, Danielle M Dick
Conduct disorder (CD) is a moderately heritable psychiatric disorder of childhood and adolescence characterized by aggression toward people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules. Genome-wide scans using linkage and association methods have identified a number of suggestive genomic regions that are pending replication. A small number of candidate genes (e.g., GABRA2, MAOA, SLC6A4, AVPR1A) are associated with CD related phenotypes across independent studies; however, failures to replicate also exist...
June 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Arijit Karmakar, Subhamita Maitra, Barnali Chakraborti, Deepak Verma, Swagata Sinha, Kochupurackal P Mohanakumar, Usha Rajamma, Kanchan Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, excessive motor activity and impulsivity detected mostly during childhood. These traits are known to be controlled by monoamine neurotransmitters, chiefly dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and B (MAOB), two isoenzymes bound to the outer membrane of mitochondria, are involved in the degradation of monoamines and were explored for association with ADHD in different ethnic groups...
2016: BMC Genetics
Sarah Hohmann, Katrin Zohsel, Arlette F Buchmann, Dorothea Blomeyer, Nathalie Holz, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Christine Jennen-Steinmetz, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt, Martin H Schmidt, Günter Esser, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Erika Hohm, Manfred Laucht
Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Hsiao-Huei Wu, Sera Choi, Pat Levitt
INTRODUCTION: Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuromodulator, but recently has been shown to be involved in neurodevelopment. Although previous studies have demonstrated that the placenta is a major source of forebrain 5-HT during early forebrain development, the processes of how 5-HT production, metabolism, and transport from placenta to fetus are regulated are unknown. As an initial step in determining the mechanisms involved, we investigated the expression patterns of genes critical for 5-HT system function in mouse extraembryonic tissues...
June 2016: Placenta
C Bonvicini, S V Faraone, C Scassellati
The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug...
July 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Walid Tajeddinn, Torbjörn Persson, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Mohammed Seed Ahmed, Silvia Maioli, Swetha Vijayaraghavan, Mehmet Selim Kazokoglu, Cristina Parrado-Fernández, Takashi Yoshitake, Jan Kehr, Paul Francis, Bengt Winblad, Kina Höglund, Angel Cedazo-Minguez, Dag Aarsland
Serotonin (5-HT) plays a central role in the integrity of different brain functions. The 5-HT homeostasis is regulated by many factors, including serotonin transporter (SERT), monoamine oxidase enzyme (MAO), and several 5-HT receptors, including the 5-HT1B. There is little knowledge how the dynamics of this system is affected by the amyloid-β (Aβ) burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells transfected with the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene containing the Swedish mutations causing familial AD (APPswe), were used as a model to explore the effect of Aβ pathology on 5-HT1B and related molecules including the receptor adaptor protein (p11), SERT and MAOA gene expression, and MAOA activity after treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (sertraline), and a 5-HT1B receptor antagonist...
May 7, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Yi-Fen Lu, Scott Menard
Evidence concerning the ability of genetic risk factors to moderate the effects of environments has continued to accumulate over the last decade or so. For the behavioral sciences, this means that genetic risk factors might interact with environmental triggers to influence various human outcomes, including antisocial and aggressive behaviors. The current study seeks to further expand this line of inquiry by examining data drawn from the National Youth Survey Family Study. More specifically, we examined whether a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene might condition the influence of exposure to deviant peer groups in the prediction of criminogenic behavior...
May 9, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
C S Reigstad, D R Linden, J H Szurszewski, J L Sonnenburg, G Farrugia, P C Kashyap
The production and handling of serotonin (5-HT) is an important determinant of colonic motility and has been reported to be altered in gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recent studies suggest that the intestinal microbiota and sex of the host can influence expression of genes involved in 5-HT biosynthesis and signaling. While expression of genes in serotonergic pathways has been shown to be variable, it remains unclear whether genes within this pathway are coregulated. As a first step in that direction, we investigated potential correlations in relative mRNA expression of serotonergic genes, in the proximal colon isolated from male and female mice in different states of microbial association: germ-free (GF), humanized (ex-germ-free colonized with human gut microbiota, HM), and conventionally raised (CR) mice...
September 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Lindsay N Douglas, Austen B McGuire, Ann M Manzardo, Merlin G Butler
Bipolar disorder (BPD) is genetically heterogeneous with a growing list of BPD associated genes reported in recent years resulting from increased genetic testing using advanced genetic technology, expanded genomic databases, and better awareness of the disorder. We compiled a master list of recognized susceptibility and genes associated with BPD identified from peer-reviewed medical literature sources using PubMed and by searching online databases, such as OMIM. Searched keywords were related to bipolar disorder and genetics...
July 15, 2016: Gene
C Ziegler, J Richter, M Mahr, A Gajewska, M A Schiele, A Gehrmann, B Schmidt, K-P Lesch, T Lang, S Helbig-Lang, P Pauli, T Kircher, A Reif, W Rief, A N Vossbeck-Elsebusch, V Arolt, H-U Wittchen, A O Hamm, J Deckert, K Domschke
Epigenetic signatures such as methylation of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene have been found to be altered in panic disorder (PD). Hypothesizing temporal plasticity of epigenetic processes as a mechanism of successful fear extinction, the present psychotherapy-epigenetic study for we believe the first time investigated MAOA methylation changes during the course of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in PD. MAOA methylation was compared between N=28 female Caucasian PD patients (discovery sample) and N=28 age- and sex-matched healthy controls via direct sequencing of sodium bisulfite-treated DNA extracted from blood cells...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
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