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Vascular Remodeling

Nobutaka Noto, Akiko Komori, Mamoru Ayusawa, Shori Takahashi
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis with a predilection for damage to the coronary arteries. In the acute phase, clinical decision making for KD relies on the measurements of the coronary z-score obtained by 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE). In the convalescent phase, KD patients with coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) eventually show arteriosclerotic vascular remodeling characterized by marked intimal proliferation and neoangiogenesis after KD vasculitis, which often induces myocardial ischemia...
February 2018: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Laurie G Sherlock, Ashley Trumpie, Laura Hernandez-Lagunas, Sarah McKenna, Susan Fisher, Russell Bowler, Clyde J Wright, Cassidy Delaney, Eva Nozik-Grayck
BACKGROUND: A naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), (R213 G), in extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3), decreases SOD3 matrix binding affinity. Humans and mature mice expressing the R213 G SNP exhibit increased cardiovascular disease but decreased lung disease. The impact of this SNP on the neonatal lung at baseline or with injury is unknown. METHODS: Wild type and homozygous R213 G mice were injected with intraperitoneal bleomycin or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) three times weekly for three weeks and tissue harvested at 22 days of life...
March 14, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Marc Sorel, Jacques-Christian Beatrix, Blanche Locko, Catherine Armessen, Anne-Marie Domec, Otilia Lecompte, Sofiane Boucheneb, Benoit Harache, Jacques Robert, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of ketamine in relieving complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) lacks predictive factors. The value of three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) was assessed or this purpose. METHODS: TPBS was performed in 105 patients with unilateral, focal CRPS of type 1 before 5 days of ketamine infusions. Tracer uptake was measured in the region of interest concerned by CRPS and the contralateral homologous region. For the three scintigraphic phases (vascular, tissular, and bone phases), an asymmetry ratio of fixation was calculated between the affected and the unaffected sides (VPr, TPr, and BPr)...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Liya Pi, Chunhua Fu, Yuanquing Lu, Junmei Zhou, Marda Jorgensen, Vinayak Shenoy, Kenneth E Lipson, Edward W Scott, Andrew J Bryant
Chronic hypoxia frequently complicates the care of patients with interstitial lung disease, contributing to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH), and premature death. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a matricellular protein of the Cyr61/CTGF/Nov (CCN) family, is known to exacerbate vascular remodeling within the lung. We have previously demonstrated that vascular endothelial-cell specific down-regulation of CTGF is associated with protection against the development of PH associated with hypoxia, though the mechanism for this effect is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Monica Currò, Tiziana Russo, Nadia Ferlazzo, Daniela Caccamo, Pietro Antonuccio, Salvatore Arena, Saveria Parisi, Patrizia Perrone, Riccardo Ientile, Carmelo Romeo, Pietro Impellizzeri
Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, considered the male genital variant of lichen sclerosus. Anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in BXO. We evaluated the effects of an innovative formulation of ozonated olive oil with vitamin E acetate (OZOILE® ) on the inflammatory status and tissue remodeling in male children with BXO. The mRNA transcripts of proteins involved either in inflammation or in dynamics of tissue regeneration were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, in foreskins affected by BXO removed from patients untreated or treated with OZOILE® cream for 7 days before circumcision...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fabian Plank, Christoph Beyer, Guy Friedrich, Markus Stühlinger, Florian Hintringer, Wolfgang Dichtl, Matthias Wildauer, Gudrun Feuchtner
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are associated with increased vascular calcification which may lead to an elevated cardiovascular risk. If the direct anticoagulants (DOACs) have similar negative vascular effects is unknown. We evaluated the influence of different anticoagulation strategies on coronary artery disease (CAD) using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: Overall 702 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent CTA for AF ablation planning were enrolled and stratified according to their anticoagulation into VKA, DOAC (all agents) and a control group without oral anticoagulation...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Tamara Roitbak
Stroke-induced endothelial cell injury leads to destruction of cerebral microvasculature and significant damage to the brain tissue. A subacute phase of cerebral ischemia is associated with regeneration involving the activation of vascular remodeling, neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation processes. Effective restoration and improvement of blood supply to the damaged brain tissue offers a potential therapy for stroke. microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently identified small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and significantly influence the essential cellular processes associated with brain repair following stroke...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Hakan Ömeroğlu
This review aims to summarize the basic treatment principles of fractures according to their types and general management principles of special conditions including physeal fractures, multiple fractures, open fractures, and pathologic fractures in children. Definition of the fracture is needed for better understanding the injury mechanism, planning a proper treatment strategy, and estimating the prognosis. As the healing process is less complicated, remodeling capacity is higher and non-union is rare, the fractures in children are commonly treated by non-surgical methods...
April 2018: Eklem Hastalıkları Ve Cerrahisi, Joint Diseases & related Surgery
Tu di Li, Zhi Huan Zeng
Restenosis is a pathologic re-narrowing of a coronary artery lesion after mechanical injury. Its pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated at present, but are thought to include inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, and matrix remodeling, beginning with insufficient endothelium healing. Restenosis presents with angina symptoms or acute coronary syndromes and lead to a revascularization, either with coronary artery bypass or repeat percutaneous coronary intervention...
March 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jean Amiral, Maxime Laroche, Jerard Seghatchian
For many years, the importance of fibrinolysis has been recognized, first for its intravascular antithrombotic action, and more recently for its many extravascular activities, associated with matrix degradation and tissue remodeling. In the blood circulation system, fibrinolysis prevents thrombosis, and is associated with various biological and clinical situations: risk factors for cardio-vascular diseases in high risk clinical situations (type II diabetes, hypertension, triglycerides, high BMI, elevated glucose, etc...
February 20, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Jingwen Liao, Yanyan Zhang, Ying Wu, Fanxing Zeng, Lijun Shi
AIMS: This study investigated whether long-term exercise can influence vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) phenotypic switching in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats, with a focus on the modulation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling by microRNA-145 (miR-145). MAIN METHODS: In the exercise intervention experiment, mesenteric arteries from 3-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were isolated for histological observation, phenotypic marker analysis, Akt phosphorylation quantification, and miR-145 evaluation after being subjected to moderate-intensity treadmill training (E) or being sedentary (C) for 8 weeks...
March 6, 2018: Life Sciences
Christian L Lino Cardenas, Chase W Kessinger, Yisha Cheng, Carolyn MacDonald, Thomas MacGillivray, Brian Ghoshhajra, Luai Huleihel, Saifar Nuri, Ashish S Yeri, Farouc A Jaffer, Naftali Kaminski, Patrick Ellinor, Neal L Weintraub, Rajeev Malhotra, Eric M Isselbacher, Mark E Lindsay
Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) has been associated with mutations affecting members of the TGF-β signaling pathway, or components and regulators of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) actomyosin cytoskeleton. Although both clinical groups present similar phenotypes, the existence of potential common mechanisms of pathogenesis remain obscure. Here we show that mutations affecting TGF-β signaling and VSMC cytoskeleton both lead to the formation of a ternary complex comprising the histone deacetylase HDAC9, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme BRG1, and the long noncoding RNA MALAT1...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Di Tang, Siyuan Chen, Ding Hou, Jingchen Gao, Li Jiang, Jie Shi, Qinge Liang, Deling Kong, Shufang Wang
As an effective clinic treatment for cardiovascular disease, vascular transplantation gains much acceptance recently. However, due to the acute thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia, long-term failure of synthetic grafts after implanted in small diameter blood vessel decelerates its commercial use. The continued acute inflammation and delayed endothelialization have been considered as fundamental reasons. To enhance the adhesion and organization of endothelial cells (ECs) and improve the vascular remodeling process, we have constructed a vascular graft based on electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix, on which organoselenium-immobilized polyethyleneimine (SePEI) for in situ nitric oxide (NO) generation and hyaluronic acid (HA) grafted with poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (YIGSR) for antifouling and EC adhesion were deposited through electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Fei Xiao, Chuandong Wang, Chenglong Wang, Yuan Gao, Xiaoling Zhang, Xiaodong Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: During bone repair and remodeling, osteogenesis is coupled with angiogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists are important modulators of BMP signaling and bone homeostasis. Several investigations have demonstrated that one 'BMP antagonist', BMP-binding endothelial cell precursor-derived regulator (BMPER), participates in the regulation of BMP signaling. In this study, we examined the role of BMPER in the osteogenesis-angiogenesis coupling process. METHODS: Human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in this experiment...
March 2, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Milene R Malheiros-Lima, Washington Pires, Ivana A T Fonseca, Julliane V Joviano-Santos, Anderson J Ferreira, Cândido C Coimbra, Nilo R V Lima, Samuel P Wanner
This study aimed to investigate the chronic effects of caudal artery denervation on morphometric parameters of the tail vascular smooth muscle and on physical exercise-induced thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adjustments in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to caudal artery denervation or the sham procedure. Approximately 26-28 days after these procedures, their thermoregulatory and cardiovascular parameters were evaluated at rest and during or following a fatiguing treadmill run. At the end of the experiments, the rats were euthanized, and samples of their tails were removed to evaluate morphometric parameters of the vascular smooth muscle surrounding the caudal artery...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yanjiao Li, Li Li, Zhengjiang Qian, Boya Lin, Jidong Chen, Yixuan Luo, Junle Qu, J Usha Raj, Deming Gou
BACKGROUND: Platelet-derived growth factor BB, a potent mitogen of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), has been implicated in pulmonary arterial remodeling, which is a key pathogenic feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Previous microRNA profiling in platelet-derived growth factor BB-treated PASMCs found a significantly downregulated microRNA, miR-1281, but it has not been associated with any cellular function, and we investigated the possibility. METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay proved that downregulation of miR-1281 was a conserved phenomenon in human and rat PASMCs...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Qian Ding, Zhen Li, Bin Liu, Liping Ling, Xiangguo Tian, Chunqing Zhang
Propranolol is known to reduce portal pressure by decreasing blood flow to the splanchnic circulation and the liver. However, it is unknown if propranolol improves fibrogenesis and sinusoidal remodeling in the cirrhotic liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of propranolol on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver fibrosis in a mouse model and the intrinsic mechanisms underlying those effects. In this study, a hepatic cirrhosis mouse model was induced by CCl4 administration for 6weeks...
March 4, 2018: Human Pathology
Karolina Losenkova, Mariachiara Zuccarini, Mikko Helenius, Guillaume Jacquemet, Evgenia Gerasimovskaya, Camilla Tallgren, Sirpa Jalkanen, Gennady G Yegutkin
Intravascular ATP and adenosine have emerged as important regulators of endothelial barrier function, vascular remodeling and neovascularization at various pathological states, including hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress. By using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and bovine vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC) as representatives of macro- and microvessel phenotypes, this study was undertaken to evaluate cellular mechanisms contributing to physiological adaptation of vascular endothelium to hypoxia, with a particular emphasis on ectoenzymatic purine-converting activities and their link to intracellular ATP homeostasis and signaling pathways...
March 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Desheng Sun, Qinghai Li, Dandan Ding, Xiaochen Li, Min Xie, Yongjian Xu, Xiansheng Liu
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), leading to dysregulated vascular remodeling. Cigarette smoke (CS) is a common risk factor causing PH, and our previous study showed that CS extract (CSE) stimulated abnormal PASMC proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In systemic circulation, vascular remodeling in some diseases is associated with upregulation of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), which stimulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
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