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Vascular Remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538666/melatonin-attenuates-pulmonary-hypertension-in-chronically-hypoxic-rats
#1
Ming Wai Hung, Hang Mee Yeung, Chi Fai Lau, Angela Ming See Poon, George L Tipoe, Man Lung Fung
Chronic hypoxia induces pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling, which are clinically relevant to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with a decreased level of nitric oxide (NO). Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in the pathophysiological processes in COPD. We examined the hypothesis that daily administration of melatonin (10 mg/kg) mitigates the pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling in chronically hypoxic rats. The right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and the thickness of pulmonary arteriolar wall were measured from normoxic control, vehicle- and melatonin-treated hypoxic rats exposed to 10% O₂ for 14 days...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529460/wif1-prevents-wnt5a-mediated-limk-cfl-phosphorylation-and-adherens-junction-disruption-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#2
Tom Skaria, Esther Bachli, Gabriele Schoedon
BACKGROUND: Wnt5A is released by activated macrophages and elevated levels have been detected in sepsis patients with severe systemic inflammation. However, the signalling and functional effects of Wnt5A in the vascular endothelial cells (VEC) remained unclear. Recently, we showed that Wnt5A affects barrier function in human VEC through Ryk interaction. Wnt5A/Ryk signalling activates LIMK to inactivate the actin depolymerisation factor CFL by phosphorylation, promotes actin polymerisation and disrupts endothelial adherens junctions...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529319/therapeutic-targeting-of-the-angiopoietin-tie-pathway
#3
REVIEW
Pipsa Saharinen, Lauri Eklund, Kari Alitalo
The endothelial angiopoietin (ANG)-TIE growth factor receptor pathway regulates vascular permeability and pathological vascular remodelling during inflammation, tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. Drugs that target the ANG-TIE pathway are in clinical development for oncological and ophthalmological applications. The aim is to complement current vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-based anti-angiogenic therapies in cancer, wet age-related macular degeneration and macular oedema. The unique function of the ANG-TIE pathway in vascular stabilization also renders this pathway an attractive target in sepsis, organ transplantation, atherosclerosis and vascular complications of diabetes...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529153/model-of-vascular-desmoplastic-multispecies-tumor-growth
#4
Chin F Ng, Hermann B Frieboes
We present a three-dimensional nonlinear tumor growth model composed of heterogeneous cell types in a multicomponent-multispecies system, including viable, dead, healthy host, and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) tissue species. The model includes the capability for abnormal ECM dynamics noted in tumor development, as exemplified by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, including dense desmoplasia typically characterized by a significant increase of interstitial connective tissue. An elastic energy is implemented to provide elasticity to the connective tissue...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528743/-18-f-sodium-fluoride-positron-emission-tomography-for-molecular-imaging-of-coronary-atherosclerosis-based-on-computed-tomography-analysis
#5
Toshiro Kitagawa, Hideya Yamamoto, Shinya Toshimitsu, Ko Sasaki, Atsuhiro Senoo, Yumiko Kubo, Fuminari Tatsugami, Kazuo Awai, Yutaka Hirokawa, Yasuki Kihara
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed at evaluating the relation of (18)F-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) to coronary atherosclerosis detected and assessed by computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Thirty-two patients with one or more coronary atherosclerotic lesions detected on cardiac CT underwent (18)F-NaF PET/CT. Each coronary atherosclerotic lesion was evaluated on CT angiography for plaque types (calcified plaque [CP], non-calcified plaque [NCP], partially calcified plaque [PCP]), and the presence of CT-based high-risk features (minimum CT density <30 Hounsfield units and vascular remodeling index >1...
April 29, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527962/resolution-of-mitral-regurgitation-with-left-ventricular-assist-device-support
#6
Matthew Goodwin, Hassan W Nemeh, Jamil Borgi, Gaetano Paone, Jeffrey A Morgan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac valve disease is common in patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation (LVAD). The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative mitral regurgitation (MR) affects outcomes and hemodynamics in patients after LVAD implantation. METHODS: From March 2006 through May 2015, 238 consecutive patients underwent LVAD implantation. Patient cohorts included less than moderate to severe MR (< moderate-severe, n = 195) and greater than or equal to moderate to severe MR (≥ moderate-severe, n = 43)...
May 17, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527699/at1-receptor-signaling-pathways-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#7
REVIEW
Tatsuo Kawai, Steven J Forrester, Shannon O'Brien, Ariele Baggett, Victor Rizzo, Satoru Eguchi
The importance of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology has been well described whereas the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor) is one of the key players in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The AT1 receptor promotes various intracellular signaling pathways resulting in hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling and end organ damage. Accumulating evidence shows the complex picture of AT1 receptor-mediated signaling; AT1 receptor-mediated heterotrimeric G protein-dependent signaling, transactivation of growth factor receptors, NADPH oxidase and ROS signaling, G protein-independent signaling, including the β-arrestin signals and interaction with several AT1 receptor interacting proteins...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527110/a-review-of-the-hemodynamic-factors-believed-to-contribute-to-vascular-access-dysfunction
#8
Connor V Cunnane, Eoghan M Cunnane, Michael T Walsh
A vascular access (VA) is used to facilitate hemodialysis in patients that suffer from end-stage renal disease. However, they suffer from high failure rates due to non-maturation and venous stenosis, with intimal hyperplasia (IH) the underlying cause of both conditions. Abnormal hemodynamic profiles, which arise following VA creation, are believed to lead to the development of IH. However, the exact physiological response that initiates this process is unknown. This review evaluates the different hemodynamic parameters that are hypothesised to correlate with the development of IH...
May 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526936/fingerprint-of-long-non-coding-rna-regulated-by-cyclic-mechanical-stretch-in-human-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells-implications-for-hypertension
#9
Laura-Eve Mantella, Krishna K Singh, Paul Sandhu, Crystal Kantores, Azza Ramadan, Nadiya Khyzha, Adrian Quan, Mohammed Al-Omran, Jason E Fish, Robert P Jankov, Subodh Verma
Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a cellular hub coordinating various cellular processes that are critical in health and disease. Mechanical stress triggers changes in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that in turn contribute to pathophysiological changes within the vasculature. We sought to evaluate the role that lncRNAs play in mechanical stretch-induced alterations of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). RNA (lncRNA and mRNA) samples isolated from HASMCs that had been subjected to 10 or 20% elongation (1 Hz) for 24 h were profiled with the Arraystar Human LncRNA Microarray V3...
May 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524210/sulfur-dioxide-foe-or-friend-for-life
#10
REVIEW
Xin-Bao Wang, Hong Cui, Xiaohong Liu, Jun-Bao Du
Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a toxic gas and air pollutant. The toxic effects of SO₂ have been extensively studied. Oxidative damage due to SO2 can occur in multiple organs. Inhaled SO₂ can also cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and gene mutations in mammals. However, SO₂ can also be generated from the sulfur-containing amino acid, L-cysteine. Recent studies have shown that SO₂ has a vasorelaxant effect, and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. SO₂ can also reduce lung injury and myocardial injury in rats...
May 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522681/endothelial-nox1-oxidase-assembly-in-human-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-driver-of-gremlin1-mediated-proliferation
#11
Imad Al Ghouleh, Sanghamitra Sahoo, Daniel N Meijles, Jefferson H Amaral, Daniel S de Jesus, John Sembrat, Mauricio Rojas, Dmitry A Goncharov, Elena A Goncharova, Patrick J Pagano
Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rapidly degenerating and devastating disease of increased pulmonary vessel resistance leading to right heart failure. Palliative modalities remain limited despite recent endeavors to investigate the mechanisms underlying increased pulmonary vascular resistance, i.e. aberrant vascular remodeling and occlusion. However, little is known of the molecular mechanisms responsible for endothelial proliferation, a root cause of PAH-associated vascular remodeling...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521893/pulmonary-hypertension-in-infants-children-and-young-adults
#12
REVIEW
Georg Hansmann
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in neonates, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults is a complex condition that can be associated with several cardiac, pulmonary, and systemic diseases contributing to morbidity and mortality. The underlying pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease (PHVD) is characterized by inflammation, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and angio-obliteration leading to elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance, right ventricular dysfunction, left ventricular compression, and subsequent heart failure...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521513/astragalus-polysaccharides-attenuate-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-rats
#13
Lin-Bo Yuan, Chun-Yan Hua, Sheng Gao, Ya-Ling Yin, Mao Dai, Han-Yan Meng, Piao-Piao Li, Zhong-Xin Yang, Qing-Hua Hu
Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation functions in a number of diseases. However, their function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is still unknown. Rats received APS (200[Formula: see text]mg/kg once two days) for 2 weeks after being injected with monocrotaline (MCT; 60[Formula: see text]mg/kg). The pulmonary hemodynamic index, right ventricular hypertrophy, and lung morphological features of the rat models were examined, as well as the NO/eNOS ratio of wet lung and dry lung weight and MPO...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520916/a-comparison-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-abnormalities-following-balloon-remodeling-for-aneurysm-coil-embolization-in-the-ruptured-vs-unruptured-setting
#14
Stephen R Lowe, Tarun Bhalla, Holly Tillman, M Imran Chaudry, Aquilla S Turk, Raymond D Turner, Alejandro M Spiotta
BACKGROUND: The prothrombotic milieu seen in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) poses a unique challenge to neurovascular surgeons with regard to device use and microcatheter practice. OBJECTIVE: To determine how demographic factors and balloon practices impact diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities and outcomes in patients with SAH compared to those without (non-SAH). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 77 patients with SAH treated by balloon-assisted coiling in a single institution compared with 81 consecutive patients with unruptured aneurysms treated by balloon-assisted coiling at the same institution...
May 17, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516393/plasma-mmp2-timp4-ratio-at-follow-up-assessment-predicts-disease-progression-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#15
Veronika Wetzl, Svenja Lena Tiede, Lothar Faerber, Norbert Weissmann, Ralph Theo Schermuly, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Henning Gall
PURPOSE: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) are of particular interest in the remodeling processes of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate MMP/TIMP ratios of selected biomarkers (MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP4) at follow-up examination (V2) and their prognostic value in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from iPAH patients during right heart catheterization at diagnosis (V1, from 2003 to 2012) and first follow-up examination (V2)...
May 17, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515420/vascular-remodelling-relates-to-an-elevated-oscillatory-shear-index-and-relative-residence-time-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#16
Zhiyan Chen, Haiyi Yu, Yue Shi, Minjia Zhu, Yueshen Wang, Xi Hu, Youyi Zhang, Yu Chang, Ming Xu, Wei Gao
Haemodynamic disorders are common clinical findings in hypertension and lead to adverse cardiovascular events. However, the haemodynamic conditions in hypertension models are poorly understood. This study aimed to observe the characteristics of haemodynamics in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and antihypertensive-treated SHRs. Twenty-four adult male SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) were randomly divided into four groups and treated for 7 days as follows: WKY-CON (WKYs + saline), WKY-NIF (WKYs + nifedipine, 50 mg/kg/day), SHR-CON (SHRs + saline), and SHR-NIF (SHRs + nifedipine)...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512172/in-vivo-hemin-conditioning-targets-the-vascular-and-immunological-compartments-and-restrains-prostate-tumor-development
#17
Felipe M Jaworski, Lucas Gentilini, Geraldine Gueron, Roberto P Meiss, Emiliano G Ortiz, Paula M Berguer, Asif Ahmed, Nora M Navone, Gabriel A Rabinovich, Daniel Compagno, Diego J Laderach, Elba S Vazquez
Purpose: Conditioning strategies constitute a relatively unexplored and exciting opportunity to shape tumor fate by targeting the tumor microenvironment. In this study we assessed how hemin, a pharmacological inducer of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1), impacts upon prostate cancer (PCa) development in an in vivo conditioning model. <p>Experimental Design: The stroma of C57BL/6 mice was conditioned by subcutaneous administration of hemin prior to TRAMP-C1 tumor challenge. Complementary in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to evaluate hemin effect on both angiogenesis and the immune response...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510986/blood-pressure-normalization-via-pharmacotherapy-improves-cutaneous-microvascular-function-through-no-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#18
Daniel H Craighead, Caroline J Smith, Lacy M Alexander
Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling. OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of antihypertensive pharmacotherapy on eNOS and iNOS-dependent mechanisms and maximal vasodilator capacity in the cutaneous microvasculature METHODS: Intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in 15 normotensive (SBP 111±2 mmHg), 12 unmedicated hypertensive (SBP 142±2 mmHg), and 12 medicated hypertensive (SBP 120±2 mmHg) subjects. Treatments were control, iNOS-inhibited (1400w), and NOS-inhibited (L-NAME)...
May 16, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508565/menaquinone-4-enhances-osteogenic-potential-of-human-amniotic-fluid-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cultured-in-a-2d-and-3d-dynamic-culture-system
#19
Domitilla Mandatori, Letizia Penolazzi, Caterina Pipino, Pamela Di Tomo, Sara Di Silvestre, Natalia Di Pietro, Sara Trevisani, Marco Angelozzi, Mariangela Ucci, Roberta Piva, Assunta Pandolfi
Menaquinones, also known as Vitamin K2 family, regulate calcium homeostasis in a "bone-vascular cross talk" and recently received particular attention for their positive effect on bone formation. Since the correlation between menaquinones and bone metabolism to date is still unclear, the objective of our study was to investigate the possible role of menaquinone-4 (MK-4), an isoform of the menaquinones family, in the modulation of osteogenesis. For this reason we used a model of human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hAFMSCs) cultured both in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D, RCCS™bioreactor) in vitro culture systems...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506758/decreased-homodimerization-and-increased-timp-1-complexation-of-uteroplacental-and-uterine-arterial-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-during-hypertension-in-pregnancy
#20
Juanjuan Chen, Zongli Ren, Minglin Zhu, Raouf A Khalil
Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy manifested as hypertension-in-pregnancy (HTN-Preg) and often intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Placental ischemia could be an initiating event, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. To test the hypothesis that dimerization of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays a role in HTN-Preg and IUGR, the levels/activity of MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1), and their dimerization forms were measured in the placenta, uterus, and uterine artery of normal pregnant (Preg) rats and a rat model of reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP)...
May 12, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
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