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Vascular Remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353241/inhibition-of-endothelial-notch-signaling-impairs-fatty-acid-transport-and-leads-to-metabolic-and-vascular-remodeling-of-the-adult-heart
#1
Markus Jabs, Adam J Rose, Lorenz H Lehmann, Jacqueline Taylor, Iris Moll, Tjeerd P Sijmonsma, Stefanie E Herberich, Sven W Sauer, Gernot Poschet, Giuseppina Federico, Carolin Mogler, Eva-Maria Weis, Hellmut G Augustin, Minhong Yan, Norbert Gretz, Roland M Schmid, Ralf H Adams, Hermann-Joseph Gröne, Rüdiger Hell, Jürgen G Okun, Johannes Backs, Peter P Nawroth, Stephan Herzig, Andreas Fischer
Background -Nutrients are transported through endothelial cells before being metabolized in muscle cells. However, little is known about the regulation of endothelial transport processes. Notch signaling is a critical regulator of metabolism and angiogenesis during development. Here, we studied how genetic and pharmacological manipulation of endothelial Notch signaling in adult mice affects endothelial fatty acid transport, cardiac angiogenesis, and heart function. Methods -Endothelial-specific Notch inhibition was achieved by conditional genetic inactivation of Rbp-jκ in adult mice to analyze fatty acid metabolism and heart function...
January 20, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352588/pulmonary-reinterventions-after-complete-unifocalization-and-repair-in-infants-and-young-children-with-tetralogy-of-fallot-with-major-aortopulmonary-collaterals
#2
Holly Bauser-Heaton, Alejandro Borquez, Ritu Asija, Lisa Wise-Faberowski, Yulin Zhang, Laura Downey, Stanton B Perry, Andrew Koth, Lynn F Peng, Claudia A Algaze, Frank L Hanley, Doff B McElhinney
BACKGROUND: Our institutional approach to tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with major aortopulmonary collaterals (MAPCAs) emphasizes unifocalization and augmentation of the reconstructed pulmonary arterial (PA) circulation and complete intracardiac repair in infancy, usually in a single procedure. This approach yields a high rate of complete repair with excellent survival and low right ventricular (RV) pressure. However, little is known about remodeling of the unifocalized and reconstructed pulmonary circulation or about reinterventions on the reconstructed PAs or the RV outflow tract conduit...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351435/effects-of-cigarette-smoke-on-pulmonary-endothelial-cells
#3
Qing Lu, Eric Gottlieb, Sharon Rounds
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the US. Cardiovascular co-morbidities associated with both active and secondhand cigarette smoking indicate the vascular toxicity of smoke exposure. Growing evidence supports the injurious effect of cigarette smoke on pulmonary endothelial cells and the roles of endothelial cell injury in development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), emphysema, and pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes results from studies of humans, preclinical animal models, and cultured endothelial cells that document toxicities of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary endothelial cell functions, including barrier dysfunction, endothelial activation and inflammation, apoptosis, and vasoactive mediator production...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351410/hypoxia-selectively-upregulates-cation-channels-and-increases-cytosolic-ca2-in-pulmonary-but-not-coronary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#4
Xi He, Shanshan Song, Ramon J Ayon, Angela Balisterieri, Stephen M Black, Ayako Makino, W Gil Wier, Wei-Jin Zang, Jason X-J Yuan
Ca2+ signaling, particularly the mechanism via store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and receptor-operated Ca2+ entry (ROCE), plays a critical role in the development of acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia differentially regulates the expression of proteins that mediate SOCE and ROCE (STIM, Orai, and TRPC6) in pulmonary (PASMC) and coronary (CASMC) artery smooth muscle cells. The resting cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]cyt) and the stored [Ca2+] in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were not different in CASMC and PASMC...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348663/enhancer-associated-long-non-coding-rna-leene-regulates-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-endothelial-function
#5
Yifei Miao, Nassim E Ajami, Tse-Shun Huang, Feng-Mao Lin, Chih-Hong Lou, Yun-Ting Wang, Shuai Li, Jian Kang, Hannah Munkacsi, Mano R Maurya, Shakti Gupta, Shu Chien, Shankar Subramaniam, Zhen Chen
The optimal expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the hallmark of endothelial homeostasis, is vital to vascular function. Dynamically regulated by various stimuli, eNOS expression is modulated at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels. However, epigenetic modulations of eNOS, particularly through long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and chromatin remodeling, remain to be explored. Here we identify an enhancer-associated lncRNA that enhances eNOS expression (LEENE)...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348253/multifunctional-role-of-chymase-in-acute-and-chronic-tissue-injury-and-remodeling
#6
REVIEW
Louis J Dell'Italia, James F Collawn, Carlos M Ferrario
Chymase is the most efficient Ang II (angiotensin II)-forming enzyme in the human body and has been implicated in a wide variety of human diseases that also implicate its many other protease actions. Largely thought to be the product of mast cells, the identification of other cellular sources including cardiac fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells demonstrates a more widely dispersed production and distribution system in various tissues. Furthermore, newly emerging evidence for its intracellular presence in cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells opens an entirely new compartment of chymase-mediated actions that were previously thought to be limited to the extracellular space...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348119/cigarette-smoke-initiates-oxidative-stress-induced-cellular-phenotypic-modulation-leading-to-cerebral-aneurysm-pathogenesis
#7
Robert M Starke, John W Thompson, Muhammad S Ali, Crissey L Pascale, Alejandra Martinez Lege, Dale Ding, Nohra Chalouhi, David M Hasan, Pascal Jabbour, Gary K Owens, Michal Toborek, Joshua M Hare, Aaron S Dumont
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) is a risk factor for cerebral aneurysm (CA) formation, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. Although CSE is known to contribute to excess reactive oxygen species generation, the role of oxidative stress on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic modulation and pathogenesis of CAs is unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate whether CSE activates a NOX (NAPDH oxidase)-dependent pathway leading to VSMC phenotypic modulation and CA formation and rupture...
January 18, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345195/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-pulmonary-hypertension-cause-effect-or-both
#8
Jeffrey D Marshall, Isabel Bazan, Yi Zhang, Wassim H Fares, Patty J Lee
Pulmonary hypertension describes a heterogeneous disease defined by increased pulmonary artery pressures, and progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance due to pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature involving pulmonary endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells.  This process occurs under various conditions, and though these populations vary, the clinical manifestations are the same: progressive dyspnea, increases in right ventricular (RV) afterload and dysfunction, RV-pulmonary artery uncoupling, and right-sided heart failure with systemic circulatory collapse...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345193/serotonin-2a-receptor-inhibition-protects-against-the-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-neonatal-mice
#9
Cassidy Delaney, Laurie Sherlock, Susan Fisher, Joanne K Maltzahn, Clyde J Wright, Eva Nozik-Grayck
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) worsens clinical outcomes in former preterm infants. Increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling plays a prominent role in PH pathogenesis and progression in adults. We hypothesized that increased 5-HT signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of neonatal PH complicating BPD and neonatal lung injury. Thus, we interrogated 5-HT signaling in neonatal mice exposed to bleomycin, previously demonstrated to induce PH and alveolar simplification...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344309/adult-stem-cells-in-vascular-remodeling
#10
REVIEW
Dong Wang, LeeAnn K Li, Tiffany Dai, Aijun Wang, Song Li
Understanding the contribution of vascular cells to blood vessel remodeling is critical for the development of new therapeutic approaches to cure cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and regenerate blood vessels. Recent findings suggest that neointimal formation and atherosclerotic lesions involve not only inflammatory cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells, but also several types of stem cells or progenitors in arterial walls and the circulation. Some of these stem cells also participate in the remodeling of vascular grafts, microvessel regeneration, and formation of fibrotic tissue around biomaterial implants...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344293/ligand-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-by-ligustrazine-suppresses-pericyte-functions-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-via-smrt-mediated-transrepression-of-hif-1%C3%AE
#11
Feng Zhang, Shuai Lu, Jianlin He, Huanhuan Jin, Feixia Wang, Li Wu, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Shizhong Zheng
Rationale: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are liver-specific pericytes regulating vascular remodeling during hepatic fibrosis. Here, we investigated how ligustrazine affects HSC pericyte functions. Methods: Rat HSC-T6 and human HSC-LX2 cells were cultured, and multiple molecular experiments including real-time PCR, Western blot, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and co-immunoprecipitation were used to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Molecular simulation and site-directed mutagenesis were performed to uncover the target molecule of ligustrazine...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344235/metronomic-chemotherapy-remodel-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-to-decrease-chemoresistance-of-gastric-cancer-in-nude-mice
#12
Chao Wang, Wenqi Xi, Jinling Jiang, Jun Ji, Yingyan Yu, Zhenggang Zhu, Jun Zhang
The present study aimed to evaluate whether capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) chemotherapy with the metronomic pattern may cause significant chemoresistance compared with the traditional pattern, and whether CAFs are involved in drug resistance. SGC-7901 cells were subcutaneously injected into the nude mice, and the mice were divided into five groups: The control group, intraperitoneally injected with normal saline; the 5-Fu conventional dose group [5-Fu maximum tolerated dose (MTD) group], intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg, twice per week for 2 weeks, with an 1-week discontinuation for 6 weeks; the capecitabine conventional dose group (capecitabine MTD group), intragastric 500 mg/kg, twice per week for 2 weeks, with a 1-week discontinuation for 6 weeks; the 5-Fu metronomic group [5-Fu low-dose metronomic (LDM) group], intraperitoneally injected with 15 mg/kg, twice a week for 6 weeks; and the capecitabine metronomic group (capecitabine LDM group), intragastric administration at 200 mg/kg, twice a week for 6 weeks...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343714/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-overexpressing-human-early-outgrowth-cells-inhibit-coronary-artery-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-through-paracrine-functions
#13
Sergio Guber, Talin Ebrahimian, Maryam Heidari, Nicoletta Eliopoulos, Stephanie Lehoux
Cells mobilized from the bone marrow can contribute to endothelial regeneration and repair. Nevertheless, cardiovascular diseases are associated with diminished numbers and function of these cells, attenuating their healing potential. Gene transfer of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) can restore the activity of circulating cells. Furthermore, estrogen accelerates the reendothelialization capacity of early outgrowth cells (EOCs). We hypothesized that overexpressing eNOS alone or in combination with estrogen stimulation in EOCs would potentiate the beneficial effects of these cells in regulating smooth muscle cell (SMC) function...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342503/the-molecular-basis-for-dysregulated-activation-of-nkx2-5-in-vascular-remodelling-of-systemic-sclerosis
#14
Athina Dritsoula, Ioannis Papaioannou, Sandra G Guerra, Carmen Fonseca, Javier Martin, Ariane L Herrick, David J Abraham, Christopher P Denton, Markella Ponticos
OBJECTIVE: NKX2-5 is a homeobox transcription factor required for the formation of the heart and vessels during development, with significant postnatal downregulation and reactivation in disease states characterised by vascular remodelling. In this study, we sought to investigate mechanisms that activate NKX2-5 expression in diseased vessels, such as scleroderma associated pulmonary hypertension (SSc-PH), and identify genetic variability that potentially underlies susceptibility to specific vascular complications...
January 17, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342012/diffuse-chorioretinopathy-without-serous-detachment-associated-with-cardiac-transplantation
#15
Michael F Marmor
PURPOSE: To analyze an unusual case of widespread chorioretinopathy after cardiac transplantation for its potential etiology and clinical significance. METHODS: Clinical examinations included widefield and macular color and fundus autofluorescence photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography, full-field electroretinography, and Goldmann visual fields. PATIENT: A 44-year-old Hispanic woman was referred to rule out retinitis pigmentosa...
January 16, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341889/adventitial-activation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-injury-induced-arterial-remodeling-potential-implications-in-transplant-vasculopathy
#16
REVIEW
Jianli Wang, Yuan Wang, Jingjing Wang, Xiaosun Guo, Elsa C Chan, Fan Jiang
Transplant vasculopathy is one of the major causes of chronic rejection following solid organ transplantation. The pathogenic mechanisms of transplant vasculopathy are still poorly understood. Here we summarize current evidence suggesting that activation of the tunica adventitia may be involved in the pathogenesis of transplant vasculopathy. Adventitia is an early responder to various vascular injuries and plays an integral role in eliciting vascular inflammation and remodeling. Accumulation of macrophages in the adventitia promotes the development of vascular remodeling by releasing a variety of paracrine factors that have profound impacts on vascular mural cells...
January 13, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340931/vascutrainer-a-mobile-and-disposable-bioreactor-system-for-the-conditioning-of-tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts
#17
Frederic Wolf, Diana M Rojas González, Ulrich Steinseifer, Markus Obdenbusch, Werner Herfs, Christian Brecher, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Thomas Schmitz-Rode
In vitro tissue engineering of vascular grafts requires dynamic conditioning in a bioreactor system for in vitro tissue maturation and remodeling to receive a mechanically adequate and hemocompatible implant. The goal of the current work was to develop a bioreactor system for the conditioning of vascular grafts which is (i) able to create a wide range of flow, pressure and frequency conditions, including physiological ones; (ii) compact and easy to assemble; (iii) transportable; (iv) disposable. The system is driven by a small centrifugal pump controlled via a custom-made control unit, which can also be operated on batteries to allow for autonomous transportation...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340081/pcpa-protects-against-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-remodeling-in-rats-potential-roles-of-connective-tissue-growth-factor
#18
Yang Bai, Zhong-Xia Li, Yue-Tong Zhao, Mo Liu, Yun Wang, Guo-Chao Lian, Qi Zhao, Huai-Liang Wang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) and determine whether 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine (PCPA) could inhibit pulmonary arterial remodeling associated with connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and downstream signal pathway. MCT was administered to forty Sprague Dawley rats to establish the PAH model. PCPA was administered at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg once daily for 3 weeks via intraperitoneal injection. On day 22, the pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVI) and pulmonary artery morphology were assessed and the serotonin receptor-1B (SR-1B), CTGF, p-ERK/ERK were measured by western blot or immunohistochemistry...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337379/interleukin-17a-and-vascular-remodeling-in-severe-asthma-lack-of-evidence-for-a-direct-role
#19
Alice Panariti, Carolyn J Baglole, Veronica Sanchez, David H Eidelman, Sabah Hussain, Ron Olivenstein, James G Martin, Qutayba Hamid
BACKGROUND: Bronchial vascular remodeling may contribute to the severity of airway narrowing through mucosal congestion. Interleukin (IL)-17A is associated with the most severe asthmatic phenotype but whether it might contribute to vascular remodeling is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To assess vascular remodeling in severe asthma and whether IL-17A directly or indirectly may cause endothelial cell activation and angiogenesis. METHODS: Bronchial vascularization was quantified in asthmatic subjects, COPD and healthy subjects together with the number of IL-17A+ cells as well as the concentration of angiogenic factors in the sputum...
January 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335616/roles-of-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-in-mice-with-fetal-growth-restriction
#20
Toshifumi Yamauchi, Masaki Mogi, Harumi Kan-No, Bao-Shuai Shan, Akinori Higaki, Li-Juan Min, Takashi Higaki, Jun Iwanami, Ei-Ichi Ishii, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Our previous report indicated that vascular injury enhances vascular remodeling in fetal growth restriction (FGR) mice. The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) is relatively highly expressed in fetal mice. Therefore, we investigated the roles of AT2R in FGR-induced cardiovascular disease using AT2R knockout (AT2KO) mice. Dams (wild-type and AT2KO mice) were fed an isocaloric diet containing 20% protein (NP) or 8% protein (LP) until delivery. Arterial blood pressure, body weight, and histological changes in organs were investigated in offspring...
January 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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