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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660468/ethyl-acetate-fraction-of-trichilia-catigua-protects-against-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#1
Jacqueline Godinho, Anacharis Babeto de Sa-Nakanishi, Lucas Stafuza Moreira, Rúbia Maria Weffort de Oliveira, Claudia Hitomi Huzita, João Carlos P Mello, André Oliveira Fernandes da Silva, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Isolde Santos Previdelli, Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro, Humberto Milani
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Trichilia catigua A. Juss (Meliaceae) preparations have been used in folk medicine to alleviate fatigue, stress, and improve memory. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and in vitro neuroprotective effects have been observed in animals. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) leads to severe neuropsychological deficits that are largely associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and neurodegeneration. We reported previously that an ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of T...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656335/role-of-microglia-under-cardiac-and-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-i-r-injury
#2
REVIEW
Poomarin Surinkaew, Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Both cerebral and cardiac ischemia causes loss of cerebral blood flow, which may lead to neuronal cell damage, neurocognitive impairment, learning and memory difficulties, neurological deficits, and brain death. Although reperfusion is required immediately to restore the blood supply to the brain, it could lead to several detrimental effects on the brain. Several studies demonstrate that microglia activity increases following cerebral and cardiac ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the effects of microglial activation in the brain following I/R remains unclear...
April 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614316/lacosamide-protects-striatal-and-hippocampal-neurons-from-in-vitro-ischemia-without-altering-physiological-synaptic-plasticity
#3
Petra Mazzocchetti, Michela Tantucci, Guendalina Bastioli, Valeria Calabrese, Massimiliano Di Filippo, Alessandro Tozzi, Paolo Calabresi, Cinzia Costa
Lacosamide ([(R)-2-acetamido-N-benzyl-3-methoxypropanamide], LCM), is an antiepileptic that exerts anticonvulsant activity by selectively enhancing slow sodium channel inactivation. By inhibiting seizures and neuronal excitability it might therefore be a good candidate to stabilize neurons and protect them from energetic insults. Using electrophysiological analyses, we have investigated in mice the possible neuroprotective effect of LCM against in vitro ischemia obtained by oxygen and glucose deprivation (ODG), in striatal and hippocampal tissues, two brain structures particularly susceptible to ischemic injury and of pivotal importance for different form of learning and memory...
March 31, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599834/improvement-of-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-attention-network-function-of-patients-with-ischemic-cerebrovascular-disease-via-dexmedetomidine
#4
Jingchao Zhang, Guoliang Wang, Fangxiang Zhang, Qian Zhao
The protective effect of dexmedetomidine on cognitive dysfunction and decreased attention network function of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease after stenting was investigated. Fifty-eight patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease undergoing stenting in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital were selected and randomly divided into control group (n=29) and dexmedetomidine group (n=29). The dexmedetomidine group was treated with dexmedetomidine before induced anesthesia, while the control group was given the same dose of normal saline; and the normal volunteers of the same age were selected as the normal group (n=29)...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574226/role-of-asic1a-in-a%C3%AE-induced-synaptic-alterations-in-the-hippocampus
#5
D Mango, R Nisticò
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system where they play a key role in synaptic transmission and in specific forms of memory. On the other hand, ASICs can be persistently active under pathological conditions contributing to neuronal damage in ischemic stroke, brain trauma, epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. However, to date no experimental evidence has linked ASICs to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim of the present work was to investigate, in CA1 pyramidal neurons, the possible involvement of ASIC1a in the Aβ-mediated effect on metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor dependent transmission...
March 21, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572520/altered-insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-signaling-in-a-comorbid-rat-model-of-ischemia-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-toxicity
#6
Zareen Amtul, David J Hill, Edith J Arany, David F Cechetto
Ischemic stroke and diabetes are vascular risk factors for the development of impaired memory such as dementia and/or Alzheimer's disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that minor striatal ischemic lesions in combination with β-amyloid (Aβ) load are critical in generating cognitive deficits. These cognitive deficits are likely to be associated with impaired insulin signaling. In this study, we examined the histological presence of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) in anatomically distinct brain circuits compared with morphological brain damage in a co-morbid rat model of striatal ischemia (ET1) and Aβ toxicity...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569040/recurrent-hypoglycemia-exacerbates-cerebral-ischemic-damage-in-diabetic-rats-via-enhanced-post-ischemic-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#7
Vibha Shukla, Perry Fuchs, Allen Liu, Charles H Cohan, Chuanhui Dong, Clinton B Wright, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon, Kunjan R Dave
Diabetes significantly increases the risk of stroke and post-stroke mortality. Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) is common among diabetes patients owing to glucose-lowering therapies. Earlier, we showed that RH in a rat model of insulin-dependent diabetes exacerbates cerebral ischemic damage. Impaired mitochondrial function has been implicated as a central player in the development of cerebral ischemic damage. Hypoglycemia is also known to affect mitochondrial functioning. The present study tested the hypothesis that prior exposure of insulin-treated diabetic (ITD) rats to RH exacerbates brain damage via enhanced post-ischemic mitochondrial dysfunction...
March 22, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562536/update-on-vascular-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-subcortical-small-vessel-disease
#8
Anders Wallin, Gustavo C Román, Margaret Esiri, Petronella Kettunen, Johan Svensson, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder well characterized from the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological viewpoints. SSVD is considered the most prevalent ischemic brain disorder, increasing in frequency with age. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, elevated homocysteine, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ischemic white matter lesions are the hallmark of SSVD; other pathological lesions include arteriolosclerosis, dilatation of perivascular spaces, venous collagenosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microbleeds, microinfarcts, lacunes, and large infarcts...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551690/acute-and-long-term-ncx-activation-reduces-brain-injury-and-restores-behavioral-functions-in-mice-subjected-to-neonatal-brain-ischemia
#9
Pierpaolo Cerullo, Paola Brancaccio, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonio Vinciguerra, Ornella Cuomo, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Paola Di Vaio, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O2 ...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546690/improvement-of-memory-and-neurological-deficit-with-ocimum-basilicum-l-extract-after-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-cerebral-injury-in-mice
#10
Varinder Singh, Pawan Krishan, Richa Shri
Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. Strategies using antioxidants to improve neurological functions after stroke have, thus, gained significant attention. Ocimum basilicum L. is used traditionally to treat CNS disorders. Its antioxidant capacity is well established. Our laboratory has reported protective effects of pre-treatment with O. basilicum in experimental stroke, but its curative (post-treatment) effects in ischemic stroke have not been documented. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of O...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534734/vitamin-a-bio-modulates-apoptosis-via-the-mitochondrial-pathway-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#11
Wei Jiang, Min Guo, Min Gong, Li Chen, Yang Bi, Yun Zhang, Yuan Shi, Ping Qu, Youxue Liu, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
Our previous studies demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can impair the postnatal cognitive function of rats by damaging the hippocampus. The present study examined the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on apoptosis induced by hypoxic-ischemic damage in vivo and in vitro, and investigated the possible signaling pathway involved in the neuroprotective anti-apoptotic effects of RA. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining and behavioral tests were used to evaluate the neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects of RA...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533310/phenotyping-cardiac-arrest-bench-and-bedside-characterization-of-brain-and-heart-injury-based-on-etiology
#12
Thomas Uray, Andrew Lamade, Jonathan Elmer, Tomas Drabek, Jason P Stezoski, Amalea Missé, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Robert H Garman, Niel Chen, Patrick M Kochanek, Cameron Dezfulian
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac arrest etiology may be an important source of between-patient heterogeneity, but the impact of etiology on organ injury is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that asphyxial cardiac arrest results in greater neurologic injury than cardiac etiology cardiac arrest (ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest), whereas ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest results in greater cardiovascular dysfunction after return of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN: Prospective observational human and randomized animal study...
March 10, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530758/tert-butylhydroquinone-post-treatment-attenuates-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage-in-rats
#13
Juan Zhang, Lorelei Donovan Tucker, DongYan, Yujiao Lu, Luodan Yang, Chongyun Wu, Yong Li, Quanguang Zhang
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy is a leading cause of dire mortality and morbidity in neonates. Unfortunately, no effective therapies have been developed as of yet. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in pathogenesis and progression of neonatal HI. Previously, as a Nrf2 activator, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotection on brain trauma and ischemic stroke models, as well as oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. It is, however, still unknown whether TBHQ administration can protect against oxidative stress in neonatal HI brain injury...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512719/neuroprotective-effect-of-berberine-agonist-against-impairment-of-learning-and-memory-skills-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-via-sirt1-p38-mapk-expression
#14
Jianping Wang, Yamin Zhang
Berberine has multiple clinical applications, including the treatment of tumors, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, bacterial and viral infections, cerebral ischemic injuries, mental diseases, Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of berberine agonist rescue learning and memory in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the possible mechanism underlying these observations was explored. The protective effect of berberine agonist significantly recovered learning and memory skills, attenuated brain edema and inhibited matrix metalloproteinase‑3 and ‑9 protein expression in mice with severe TBI...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506051/gsk-3%C3%AE-mtorc1-couples-synaptogenesis-and-axonal-repair-to-reduce-hypoxia-ischemia-mediated-brain-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#15
Tao Xiong, Yi Qu, Huiqin Wang, Hongju Chen, Jianghu Zhu, Fengyan Zhao, Rong Zou, Li Zhang, Dezhi Mu
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) plays an important role in neurological outcomes after brain injury. However, its roles and mechanisms in hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are unclear. Activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) has been proven to induce the synthesis of proteins associated with regeneration. We hypothesized that GSK-3β inhibition could activate the mTORC1 signaling pathway, which may reduce axonal injury and induce synaptic protein synthesis and functional recovery of synapses after HI. By analyzing a P7 rat model of cerebral HI and an in vitro ischemic (oxygen glucose deprivation) model, we found that GSK-3β inhibitors (GSK-3β siRNA or lithium chloride) activated mTORC1 signaling, leading to increased expression of synaptic proteins, including synapsin 1, PSD95, and GluR1, and the microtubule-associated protein Tau and decreased expression of the axonal injury-associated protein amyloid precursor protein...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505952/reduced-substantia-innominata-volume-mediates-contributions-of-microvascular-and-macrovascular-disease-to-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Gurpreet Jaswal, Walter Swardfager, Fu-Qiang Gao, Sean M Nestor, Anoop Ganda, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Demetrios J Sahlas, Donald T Stuss, Alan Moody, Sandra E Black
The relationships between cholinergic system damage and cerebrovascular disease are not entirely understood. Here, we investigate associations between atrophy of the substantia innominata (SI; the origin of cortical cholinergic projections) and measures of large and small vessel disease; specifically, elongation of the juxtaposed internal carotid artery termination and Cholinergic Pathways Hyperintensity scores (CHIPS). The study (n = 105) consisted of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and/or subcortical ischemic vasculopathy, and elderly controls...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502291/nkcc1-inhibition-attenuates-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-induced-white-matter-lesions-by-enhancing-progenitor-cells-of-oligodendrocyte-proliferation
#17
Ying Yu, Peicai Fu, Zhiyuan Yu, Minjie Xie, Wei Wang, Xiang Luo
Cerebral white matter is vulnerable to ischemic condition. However, no effective treatment to alleviate or restore the myelin damage caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been found. Na+ -K+ -Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1), a Na+ -K+ -Cl- cotransporter widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), involves in regulation of cell swelling, EAA release, cell apoptosis, and proliferation. Nevertheless, the role of NKCC1 in chronic hypoperfusion-induced white matter lesions (WMLs) has not been explored...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476789/behavioral-and-neuroanatomical-outcomes-in-a-rat-model-of-preterm-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-effects-of-caffeine-and-hypothermia
#18
Molly Potter, Ted Rosenkrantz, R Holly Fitch
The current study investigated behavioral and post mortem neuroanatomical outcomes in Wistar rats with a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury induced on postnatal day 6 (P6; Rice-Vannucci HI method; Rice et al., 1981). This preparation models brain injury seen in premature infants (gestational age (GA) 32-35 weeks) based on shared neurodevelopmental markers at time of insult, coupled with similar neuropathologic sequelae (Rice et al., 1981; Workman et al., 2013). Clinically, HI insult during this window is associated with poor outcomes that include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), motor coordination deficits, spatial memory deficits, and language/learning disabilities...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475098/xq-1h-protects-against-ischemic-stroke-by-regulating-microglia-polarization-through-ppar%C3%AE-pathway-in-mice
#19
Rui Liu, Junjian Diao, Shucheng He, Binbin Li, Yuxiang Fei, Yunman Li, Weirong Fang
Cerebral ischemic and reperfusion injury often accompany with inflammation, and lead to severe neuronal damage, which further result in neurological disorders and memory disorders. In this study, we researched XQ-1H, a novel derivative of ginkgolide B, protecting against ischemic stroke in mice through regulation of microglia polarization. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/reperfusion in mice is applied to mimic ischemic stroke in vivo. Immediately after MCAO, mice are intragastric administrated with different dose (31 or 62 mg/kg) of XQ-1H for one or continuative three days...
February 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467328/allograft-dendritic-cell-p40-homodimers-activate-donor-reactive-memory-cd8-t-cells
#20
Hidetoshi Tsuda, Charles A Su, Toshiaki Tanaka, Katayoun Ayasoufi, Booki Min, Anna Valujskikh, Robert L Fairchild
Recipient endogenous memory T cells with donor reactivity pose an important barrier to successful transplantation and costimulatory blockade-induced graft tolerance. Longer ischemic storage times prior to organ transplantation increase early posttransplant inflammation and negatively impact early graft function and long-term graft outcome. Little is known about the mechanisms enhancing endogenous memory T cell activation to mediate tissue injury within the increased inflammatory environment of allografts subjected to prolonged cold ischemic storage (CIS)...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
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