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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092166/subchronic-metformin-pretreatment-enhances-novel-object-recognition-memory-task-in-forebrain-ischemia-behavioural-molecular-and-electrophysiological-studies
#1
Ghorbangol Ashabi, Alireza Sarkaki, Fariba Khodagholi, Shima Zareh Shahamati, Mahdi Goudarzvand, Yaghoob Farbood, Mohammad Badavi, Leila Khalaj
Metformin exerts its effect via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a key sensor for energy homeostasis that regulates different intracellular pathways. Metformin attenuates oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. In our experiment, rats were divided into 8 groups; some were pretreated with metformin (Met, 200 mg/kg) and (or) the AMPK inhibitor Compound C (CC) for 14 days. On day 14, rats underwent transient forebrain global ischemia. Data indicated that pretreatment of ischemic rats with metformin reduced working memory deficits in a novel object recognition test compared to group with ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) (P < 0...
November 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088063/verbal-and-musical-short-term-memory-variety-of-auditory-disorders-after-stroke
#2
Catherine Hirel, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yohana Lévêque, Salem Hannoun, Lesly Fornoni, Sébastien Daligault, Patrick Bouchet, Julien Jung, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin
Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077334/the-neuroprotective-compound-p7c3-a20-promotes-neurogenesis-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#3
Zachary B Loris, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062175/intranasal-c3a-treatment-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#4
Javier Morán, Anna Stokowska, Frederik R Walker, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg, Marcela Pekna
Perinatal asphyxia-induced brain injury is often associated with irreversible neurological complications such as intellectual disability and cerebral palsy but available therapies are limited. Novel neuroprotective therapies as well as approaches stimulating neural plasticity mechanism that can compensate for cell death after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are urgently needed. We previously reported that single i.c.v. injection of complement-derived peptide C3a 1h after HI induction prevented HI-induced cognitive impairment when mice were tested as adults...
January 3, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011393/astragaloside-iv-attenuates-cognitive-impairments-induced-by-transient-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-mice-via-anti-inflammatory-mechanisms
#5
Min Li, Hongyan Li, Fang Fang, Xueyang Deng, Shiping Ma
Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is the main active component isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Astragalus membranaceus. Studies have demonstrated that AS-IV has neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemic models. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of AS-IV on memory impairment induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in mice, as well as the associated signaling mechanisms. Severe memory deficits were induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice as indicated in the Morris water maze test in this study...
December 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001759/transcranial-low-level-laser-light-therapy-for-brain-injury
#6
Connor Thunshelle, Michael R Hamblin
BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) is a possible treatment for brain injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We review the fundamental mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level and the effects on the brain are discussed. There are several contributing processes that have been proposed to lead to the beneficial effects of PBM in treating TBI such as stimulation of neurogenesis, a decrease in inflammation, and neuroprotection...
December 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994360/the-clinical-significance-of-brain-microbleeds-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-preliminary-study
#7
Jae-Hyeok Heo, Dong-Gyu Im, Seung-Hyeon Lee, Jin-Young Ahn
BACKGROUND: Microbleeds (MBs) are observed frequently in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and suggested to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology, but their clinical significance remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study recruited 100 patients with AD who were diagnosed at the memory clinic in Seoul Medical Center in 2014. For each patient, baseline characteristics, neuropsychological tests, cerebrovascular risk factors, medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTLA), and severity of small vessel disease (SVD) according to the existence of MBs were evaluated...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984208/oral-administration-of-grape-seed-polyphenol-extract-restores-memory-deficits-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-rats
#8
Chen Chen, Yake Zheng, Tianwen Wu, Chuanjie Wu, Xuan Cheng
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been recognized as an important cause of both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the two most prominent neurodegenerative diseases causing memory impairment in the elderly. However, an effective therapy for CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been established. Grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) has powerful antioxidant properties and protects neurons and glia during ischemic injury, but its potential use in the prevention of CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been investigated...
December 14, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981535/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-provides-neuroprotection-impact-on-ketamine-induced-neuroapoptosis-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#9
W Ma, Y-Y Cao, S Qu, S-S Ma, J-Z Wang, L-Q Deng, W-J Yuan, J-H Meng
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated that the commonly used anesthetic ketamine can acutely increase apoptosis and have long-lasting detrimental effects on cognitive function as the animal matures. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been confirmed to have a cerebral protective role in animal models of brain damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RIPC can protect the developing brain from anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the protective properties of RIPC, 60 new-born Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly allocated into four groups: ketamine (20 mg/kg was diluted in saline, six times at an interval of 2 hours); RIPC (left hind row ischemia 5 min, reperfusion 5 min, a total of four cycles); ketamine + RIPC: RIPC was induced at postnatal day 5 and rats underwent the same treatment with the ketamine group after 48 hours; and saline (group vehicle)...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974998/assessment-of-cognitive-and-neurologic-recovery-in-ischemic-stroke-drug-trials-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#10
Franco Di Cesare, Jessica Mancuso, Brian Silver, Peter T Loudon
Objective. Ischemic stroke is a serious medical condition with limited therapeutic options. The evaluation of the therapeutic potential of novel pharmacological interventions is carried-out in Phase II trials. The study design, primarily intended to evaluate efficacy and safety, is a balance between utilizing as few patients as possible to minimize safety risk and enrolling sufficient patients to detect unambiguous efficacy signals. We sought to determine whether post-stroke recovery outcomes based on behavioral measures of cognitive and motor impairment yielded additional information beyond that of clinician-based methods...
September 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940085/learning-and-memory-improvement-and-neuroprotection-of-gardenia-jasminoides-fructus-gardenia-extract-on-ischemic-brain-injury-rats
#11
Haiyan Zhang, Qiong Lai, Yan Li, Yang Liu, Ming Yang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gardenia jasminoides Ellis is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that containing a variety of effective active ingredients and exhibits diverse pharmacological functions, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and nerve protection. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effect of Gardenia jasminoides extract (GJE) and Geniposide on learning and memory improvement and neuroprotection in a rat model with chronic cerebral ischemia, as well as explore the underlying mechanisms...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923417/mechanisms-of-memory-dysfunction-during-high-altitude-hypoxia-training-in-military-aircrew
#12
Daniel A Nation, Mark W Bondi, Ellis Gayles, Dean C Delis
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction from high altitude exposure is a major cause of civilian and military air disasters. Pilot training improves recognition of the early symptoms of altitude exposure so that countermeasures may be taken before loss of consciousness. Little is known regarding the nature of cognitive impairments manifesting within this critical window when life-saving measures may still be taken. Prior studies evaluating cognition during high altitude simulation have predominantly focused on measures of reaction time and other basic attention or motor processes...
January 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916623/multiple-beneficial-effects-of-melanocortin-mc4-receptor-agonists-in-experimental-neurodegenerative-disorders-therapeutic-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Daniela Giuliani, Alessandra Ottani, Laura Neri, Davide Zaffe, Paolo Grieco, Jerzy Jochem, Gian Maria Cavallini, Anna Catania, Salvatore Guarini
Melanocortin peptides induce neuroprotection in acute and chronic experimental neurodegenerative conditions. Melanocortins likewise counteract systemic responses to brain injuries. Furthermore, they promote neurogenesis by activating critical signaling pathways. Melanocortin-induced long-lasting improvement in synaptic activity and neurological performance, including learning and memory, sensory-motor orientation and coordinated limb use, has been consistently observed in experimental models of acute and chronic neurodegeneration...
December 1, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900211/in-vivo-expression-of-reprogramming-factors-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-chronic-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#14
Soohyun Wi, Ji Hea Yu, MinGi Kim, Sung-Rae Cho
Neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity can be stimulated in vivo in the brain. In this study, we hypothesized that in vivo expression of reprogramming factors such as Klf4, Sox2, Oct4, and c-Myc would facilitate endogenous neurogenesis and functional recovery. CD-1® mice were induced at 1 week of age by unilaterally carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia. At 6 weeks of age, mice were injected GFP only or both four reprogramming factors and GFP into lateral ventricle. Passive avoidance task and open field test were performed to evaluate neurobehavioral function...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889412/cannabidiol-reduces-neuroinflammation-and-promotes-neuroplasticity-and-functional-recovery-after-brain-ischemia
#15
Marco Aurélio Mori, Erika Meyer, Ligia Mendes Soares, Humberto Milani, Francisco Silveira Guimarães, Rúbia Maria Weffort de Oliveira
This study investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic phytochemical present in Cannabis sativa, on the cognitive and emotional impairments induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice. Using a multi-tiered behavioral testing battery during 21days, we found that BCCAO mice exhibited long-lasting functional deficits reflected by increase in anxiety-like behavior (day 9), memory impairments (days 12-18) and despair-like behavior (day 21). Short-term CBD 10mg/kg treatment prevented the cognitive and emotional impairments, attenuated hippocampal neurodegeneration and white matter (WM) injury, and reduced glial response that were induced by BCCAO...
November 23, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887996/effects-of-erythropoietin-on-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-injury-in-rat-model
#16
Qing Ren, Zhong-Hui Jiang, Xing-Fang Zhang, Qiao-Zhi Yang
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury to the developing brain remains a major cause of morbidity. To date, few therapeutic strategies could provide complete neuroprotection. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be beneficial in several models of neonatal HI. This study examines the effect of treatment with erythropoietin on postnatal day 2 (P2) rats introduced with HI injury. METHOD: Rats at P2 were randomized into four groups: sham, bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO), BCAO + early EPO, and BCAO + late EPO groups...
February 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874832/postictal-behavioural-impairments-are-due-to-a-severe-prolonged-hypoperfusion-hypoxia-event-that-is-cox-2-dependent
#17
Jordan S Farrell, Ismael Gaxiola-Valdez, Marshal D Wolff, Laurence S David, Haruna I Dika, Bryce L Geeraert, X Rachel Wang, Shaily Singh, Simon C Spanswick, Jeff F Dunn, Michael C Antle, Paolo Federico, G Campbell Teskey
Seizures are often followed by sensory, cognitive or motor impairments during the postictal phase that show striking similarity to transient hypoxic/ischemic attacks. Here we show that seizures result in a severe hypoxic attack confined to the postictal period. We measured brain oxygenation in localized areas from freely-moving rodents and discovered a severe hypoxic event (pO2 < 10 mmHg) after the termination of seizures. This event lasted over an hour, is mediated by hypoperfusion, generalizes to people with epilepsy, and is attenuated by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 or L-type calcium channels...
November 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858852/neural-injury-of-the-papez-circuit-following-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#18
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
INTRODUCTION: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI-BI), a result of oxygen deprivation of the brain, is accompanied by memory impairment. In this study, we report on a patient with neural injury of the Papez circuit following HI-BI, demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). CLINICAL FINDINGS/PATIENT CONCERNS: A 48-year-old male patient suffered spontaneous cardiopulmonary arrest and underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation for approximately 20 minutes with the concomitant oxygen deprivation leading to HI-BI...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857750/transplantation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-modified-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-promotes-the-recovery-of-neurological-function-following-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#19
Yue Yao, Xiang-Rong Zheng, Shan-Shan Zhang, Xia Wang, Xiao-He Yu, Jie-Lu Tan, Yu-Jia Yang
Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) transplantation has been shown to effectively improve neurological function in rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signaling protein that stimulates angiogenesis and improves neural regeneration. We hypothesized that transplantation of VEGF-transfected NSCs would alleviate hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats. We produced and transfected a recombinant lentiviral vector containing the VEGF165 gene into cultured NSCs...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845401/neuroprotection-mediated-through-glun2c-containing-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptors-following-ischemia
#20
Connie Chung, John D Marson, Quan-Guang Zhang, Jimok Kim, Wei-Hua Wu, Darrell W Brann, Bo-Shiun Chen
Post-ischemic activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) has been linked to NMDAR subunit-specific signaling that mediates pro-survival or pro-death activity. Although extensive studies have been performed to characterize the role of GluN2A and GluN2B following ischemia, there is less understanding regarding the regulation of GluN2C. Here, we show that GluN2C expression is increased in acute hippocampal slices in response to ischemia. Strikingly, GluN2C knockout mice, following global cerebral ischemia, exhibit greater neuronal death in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and reduced spatial working memory compared to wild-type mice...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
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