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Hyun-Jong Cho, Jun-Pil Jee, Ji-Ye Kang, Dong-Yeop Shin, Han-Gon Choi, Han-Joo Maeng, Kwan Hyung Cho
The aim of this work was to develop cefdinir solid dispersions (CSDs) prepared using hydrophilic polymers with enhanced dissolution/solubility and in vivo oral bioavailability. CSDs were prepared with hydrophilic polymers such as hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC; CSD1), carboxymethylcellulose-Na (CMC-Na; CSD2), polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30; CSD3) at the weight ratio of 1:1 (drug:polymer) using a spray-drying method. The prepared CSDs were characterized by aqueous solubility, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), aqueous viscosity, and dissolution test in various media...
February 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
David A Talan, Darin J Saltzman, William R Mower, Anusha Krishnadasan, Cecilia M Jude, Ricky Amii, Daniel A DeUgarte, James X Wu, Kavitha Pathmarajah, Ashkan Morim, Gregory J Moran
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Randomized trials suggest that nonoperative treatment of uncomplicated appendicitis with antibiotics-first is safe. No trial has evaluated outpatient treatment and no US randomized trial has been conducted, to our knowledge. This pilot study assessed feasibility of a multicenter US study comparing antibiotics-first, including outpatient management, with appendectomy. METHODS: Patients aged 5 years or older with uncomplicated appendicitis at 1 US hospital were randomized to appendectomy or intravenous ertapenem greater than or equal to 48 hours and oral cefdinir and metronidazole...
December 11, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Benjamin N Riedle, Linnea A Polgreen, Joseph E Cavanaugh, Mary C Schroeder, Philip M Polgreen
OBJECTIVE To investigate the scale of antimicrobial prescribing without a corresponding visit, and to compare the attributes of patients who received antimicrobials with a corresponding visit with those who did not have a visit. DESIGN Retrospective cohort. METHODS We followed up 185,010 Medicare patients for 1 year after an acute myocardial infarction. For each antimicrobial prescribed, we determined whether the patient had an inpatient, outpatient, or provider claim in the 7 days prior to the antimicrobial prescription being filled...
December 13, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Xiaoya Zhao, Zhenzuo Jiang, Fan Yang, Yan Wang, Xiumei Gao, Yuefei Wang, Xin Chai, Guixiang Pan, Yan Zhu
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by anaerobic fermentation of mainly indigestible dietary carbohydrates by gut microbiota, have a profound influence on intestinal function and host energy metabolism. Antibiotics may seriously disturb the balance of fecal SCFAs. To evaluate the impacts of antibiotics on fecal SCFAs produced by gut microbiota, a simple, reproducible and accurate gas chromatography (GC) method, which can simultaneously analyze seven SCFAs in fecal samples, was developed and validated...
2016: PloS One
Indi Trehan, Hayley S Goldbach, Lacey N LaGrone, Guthrie J Meuli, Richard J Wang, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition contributes to 1 million deaths among children annually. Adding routine antibiotic agents to nutritional therapy may increase recovery rates and decrease mortality among children with severe acute malnutrition treated in the community. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned Malawian children, 6 to 59 months of age, with severe acute malnutrition to receive amoxicillin, cefdinir, or placebo for 7 days in addition to ready-to-use therapeutic food for the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Hans Bradshaw, Michael J Mitchell, Christopher J Edwards, Uwe Stolz, Oday Naser, Amanda Peck, Asad E Patanwala
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine if physicians would alter their prescribing preferences after sampling liquid formulations of medications for common pediatric diagnoses. METHODS: This was a prospective interventional before/after study conducted at an academic medical center in the United States. The participants of interest included emergency, family medicine, and pediatric physicians. Participants initially completed a brief survey for their primary oral liquid medication of choice for the treatment of selected disease states...
November 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Malvika Kaul, Lilly Mark, Ajit K Parhi, Edmond J LaVoie, Daniel S Pilch
Combination therapy of bacterial infections with synergistic drug partners offers distinct advantages over monotherapy. Among these advantages are (i) a reduction of the drug dose required for efficacy, (ii) a reduced potential for drug-induced toxicity, and (iii) a reduced potential for the emergence of resistance. Here, we describe the synergistic actions of the third-generation oral cephalosporin cefdinir and TXA709, a new, FtsZ-targeting prodrug that we have developed with improved pharmacokinetics and enhanced in vivo efficacy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) relative to earlier agents...
July 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Joshua R Watson, Pablo J Sánchez, John David Spencer, Daniel M Cohen, David S Hains
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess empiric antibiotic use for presumed urinary tract infection (UTI) in the emergency department (ED) and to determine how often urine culture results subsequently do not confirm the diagnosis. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study of patients aged 21 years or younger in the Nationwide Children's Hospital ED from May 1, 2012, to October 31, 2012, who had a urinalysis and urine culture performed and were discharged home with empiric antibiotic therapy for presumed UTI...
February 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Debasis Das, Papiya Sikdar, Moumita Bairagi
The 2-aminothiazole (2-AT) core is an active pharmacophore and used in medicinal chemistry and drug discovery research. A number of drugs with 2-AT core are in the market, e.g. Famotidine, Cefdinir, Meloxcam etc. Recently, 2-AT core has been explored for many more important therapeutic areas and identified new 2-aminothiazoles with anticancer, antitumor, antidiebatic and anticonvulsant activity. In this review, we discuss the newly identified and developed 2-aminothiazoles in recent years and their use in medicinal chemistry and pharmacology...
February 15, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sanguansak Thanaviratananich, Supinda Chusakul, Greetha Moungthong, Thongchai Luxameechanporn, Pongsakorn Tantilipikorn, Supranee Fooanant, Songklot Aeumjaturapat, Pipat Sribenjalux, Nadtaya Makachen, Seksun Chainansamit, Saisawat Chaiyasate, Chaweewan Bunnag
OBJECTIVE: To examine: 1) types of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity of commonly used antibiotics for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) in Thailand, 2) the effectiveness of using antibiotics according to antimicrobial sensitivity, and 3) the effectiveness of using antibiotics according to the Thai clinical practice guidelines (CPG) of ABRS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Descriptive & experimental studies were conducted in seven tertiary hospitals in Thailand. The specimens from maxillary sinuses were taken for bacterial cultures either by maxillary sinus tap or endoscopically directed middle meatus swabs in patients with clinically diagnosed ABRS...
August 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Tori Funatsu, Shingo Mizunaga, Yoshiko Fukuda, Nobuhiko Nomura, Hikonori Hashido, Junichi Mitsuyama, Masakazu Hatano, Kazukiyo Yamaoka, Kunitomo Watanabe, Yuko Asano, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Haruki Sawamura, Yoko Matsukawa, Hirotoshi Ohta, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo, Shigenori Matsubara, Naohiro Shibata
We investigated the susceptibility to antibacterial agents, genotype of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes and macrolide resistant genes, and the serotypes against 270 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from medical facilities in Gifu and Aichi prefectures between October 2011 and April 2012. These results were compared with those against S. pneumoniae isolated in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011. The number of gPSSP with 3 normal PBP genes, gPISP with 1 or 2 normal PBP genes and gPRSP with 3 abnormal genes isolated in 2011-2012 was 15 (5...
August 2015: Japanese Journal of Antibiotics
Zhao Chen, Xiaoli Bi, Ji Li, Yuanjun Tang, Guorong Fan, Dongmei Sun
In this study, an organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic capillary column was applied and optimized for the determination of cefdinir in plasma, and the electro-osmotic flow that usually hinders migration in reverse polarity became a driving force. The Sample used for pharmacokinetic research was collected by microdialysis using phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) as perfusate, and a volume of 60 μL fluid was mixed with 140 μL of acetonitrile. By using a silica-allyldimethyldodecylammonium monolithic column (100 μm inner diameter, 21 cm effective length and 31...
January 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Krutika K Sawant, Mitali H Patel, Krishna Patel
Cefdinir (Cef) is an orally active Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class IV drug with incomplete absorption and low bioavailability (16-21%). The aim of this investigation was to develop nanosuspensions (NS) of Cef to improve its oral bioavailability. Cef NS were prepared by the media milling technique using zirconium oxide beads as the milling media. Cef NS were characterized by particle size, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, X-Ray Diffraction pattern and evaluated for saturation solubility, in vitro release studies, ex vivo permeability studies and in vivo bioavailability studies...
2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Noura Hemdan Abou-Taleb, Dalia Rashad El-Wasseef, Dina Tawfik El-Sherbiny, Saadia Mohamed El-Ashry
The aim of this work is to optimize a spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of cefdinir (CFN) using the Taguchi method. The proposed method is based on the oxidative coupling reaction of CFN and cerium(IV) sulfate. The quenching effect of CFN on the fluorescence of the produced cerous ions is measured at an emission wavelength (λ(em)) of 358 nm after excitation (λ(ex)) at 301 nm. The Taguchi orthogonal array L9 (3(4)) was designed to determine the optimum reaction conditions. The results were analyzed using the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA)...
May 2016: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Li Liu, Feixiang Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To explore the interaction between cefdinir (CE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry.
 METHODS: Under the optimal conditions, the interaction between CE and BSA was investigated by fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry.
 RESULTS: CE could quench (static quenching) the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA by forming the CE-BSA complex. The main binding forces were considered as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces based on the calculated values of the thermodynamic parameter...
September 2015: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Philip R Cohen
BACKGROUND: Impetigo can result from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Wolf's isotopic response is the occurrence of a new cutaneous disorder at the site of a previously healed disease. A cutaneous immunocompromised district is an area of skin that is more vulnerable than the rest of the individual's body. PURPOSE: To describe a man with impetigo localized to a unilateral dermatome and review the clinical features of other patients with zosteriform Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous infection...
July 2015: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
Hecheng Wang, Haiwei Huang, Jin Cao, Dehua Chui, Shengyuan Xiao
High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS) has been widely used for β-lactam antibiotics determination. However, its application to identify impurities of these frequently used drugs is not sufficient at present. In this job, characteristic profiles of the collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra of both β-lactams and ring-opened β-lactams were extracted from the MS data of six β-lactam antibiotics and their forty-five impurities, and were confirmed by the MS data reported in the literature...
2015: BioMed Research International
A Selvi, Devlina Das, Nilanjana Das
A new yeast strain isolated from the pharmaceutical wastewater was capable of utilizing cefdinir as a sole carbon source for their growth in mineral medium. The yeast was identified and named as Candida sp. SMN04 based on morphology and 18S-ITS-D1/D2/D3 rRNA sequence analysis. The interaction between factors pH (3.0-9.0), inoculum dosage (1-7%), time (1-11 day) and cefdinir concentration (50-450 mg/L) was studied using a Box-Behnken design. The factors were studied as a result of their effect on cell dry weight (R1; g/L), extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) assay (R2; mm), P450 activity (R3; U/mL) and degradation (R4; %)...
2015: Environmental Technology
Michael J Persky, Scott A Roof, Yixin Fang, Daniel Jethanamest, Max M April
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study investigated the differences between the standard guidelines and the practice patterns of otolaryngologists in managing "penicillin-allergic" patients. A major goal was to identify factors influencing an otolaryngologist's choice of antibiotic. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Four hundred seventy members of the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngologists (ASPO) and 150 general otolaryngologists from the Florida Society of Otolaryngology (FSO) were surveyed...
August 2015: Laryngoscope
Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Somporn Srifeungfung, Tanittha Chatsuwan, Pongpun Nunthapisud, Vipa Treerauthaweeraphong, Pimpha Rungnobhakhun, Sirintip Sricharoenchai, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
To describe the trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. pneumoniae causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) we tested 238 pneumococci isolates from normally sterile sites between 2009 and 2012 and compared these findings with previous data collected within our network. Serotyping was performed for 15 serotypes contained in the 7-,10-, 13-, and experimental 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). The most common serotypes found were 6B (13.9%), 19A (12.6%), 14 (8.0%), 18C (5...
2014: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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