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Adaptive skills

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In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the fundamentals of PRM from a physiological perspective, looking at the human mechanisms both physical and behavioral which are at the base of PRM physicians' work. After a discussion on the development and evolution of PRM that leads to its unique and specific approach, the mechanisms considered include: - repairing processes (and potential of recovery evaluation): repairing processes are mainly related to the quantity and natural history of diseases and impairments, while potential of recovery is also linked to the individual and environmental factors; PRM physicians work on impairments to favor healing or recovery, and propose rehabilitation if there is a potential of recovery: this is related to the prognostic role of PRM physicians; - learning processes: PRM is the specialty of teaching new physical ways and behavioral approaches to make patients participate at best through improvement of impairments and modification of activities; in this perspective, during repair and rehabilitation processes, PRM physicians and the rehabilitation team are teachers of new motor and behavioral strategies; - compensatory processes (adaptation/habilitation/rehabilitation): PRM physicians teach patients how to adapt to the new (acquired) health condition using compensatory mechanisms based on other body structures/functions, behavioral changes and/or assistive devices (or technical aids) (prosthesis and orthosis); during growth PRM physicians aim at allowing a complete (and compensatory) development of the intact function, not to be impaired by the original disease; compensatory processes are related to activities; - management skills: PRM physicians are managers of people and resources; they manage patients and their caregivers, to teach and allow them to reach the best possible participation, also focusing on maintenance; they lead the team, with the aim to make it function at best for the sake of the patient; finally, they manage resource allocation for the functioning of patients and team; - communication skills: PRM physicians need to develop very good communication skills, so to teach, inform and educate patients and their caregivers: this will allow the proper behavioural changes and also the correct physical compensations...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Elizabeth I Pierpont, Erin McCoy, Kelly E King, Rich S Ziegler, Ryan Shanley, David Nascene, Gerald V Raymond, Rachel Phelan, Troy C Lund, Paul J Orchard, Weston P Miller
Objective: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only treatment known to slow or halt inflammatory demyelination among boys with the cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD), a devastating childhood condition affecting the central nervous system. HSCT can lead to a range of adverse outcomes including fatality. Previous studies have examined the potential predictors of post-HSCT survival and neurologic functioning. However, little is known about patients' daily-life adaptive functional outcomes (i...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Dawn Perez, Kath Peters, Lesley Wilkes, Gillian Murphy
BACKGROUND: Physical restraints (PRs) are commonly used in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide for the prevention of treatment interference. While PRs are fundamentally used to maintain patient safety, they can negatively impact the experiences of patients and their families and cause moral and ethical dilemmas for ICU nurses. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this integrative review was to explore the current literature on the use of PR in intensive care. METHODS: This article used an integrative review framework to explore the current literature available on the experiences of PR in ICU...
March 17, 2018: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Christina Strube, Katharina Raue, Elisabeth Janecek
One of the main goals in academia is, and has been, high quality education of students to provide theoretical and practical knowledge essential for professional life. Achieving this goal is highly dependent on teaching procedures and, consequently, on a constant adaptation of teaching styles to align to technical advances and cutting-edge topics. Technical advances can strongly influence teaching and learning in the complex subject area of veterinary parasitology. Today's students are provided with extensive, digital lecture notes, and e-learning offers including virtual microscope technology to independently obtain intensified theoretical knowledge and understanding...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Lianne Remijn, Lenie van den Engel-Hoek, Ton Satink, Bert J M de Swart, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden
OBJECTIVE: The impact of difficulties with eating and drinking in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy is unknown. The purpose of this study is to find out which difficulties adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy experience with eating and drinking in daily life and how they deal with these difficulties. The study also explores how they think about themselves with respect to eating and what does or does not help regarding social participation. METHOD: We collected the data from ten participants with spastic cerebral palsy (aged 15-23 years) living in the Netherlands...
March 21, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Alex Dubov, Frederick L Altice, Liana Fraenkel
Despite documented effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP uptake remains low among at-risk populations. The 2015 CDC report estimates that about 1.2 million people in the US have indications for PrEP. However, only 49,158 or 4% of the targeted population are currently using PrEP. Efforts to optimize uptake of PrEP may be facilitated by the development of a comprehensive theoretical framework which can be used to understand reasons for poor uptake and to develop interventions to maximize PrEP uptake and adherence...
March 20, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
A Minguez, M Milh
The objective of this study was to investigate the adaptive functioning of adults who had a slight to moderate intellectual deficiency, in regard of age and intellectual quotient (IQ). Cognitive and adaptive functioning were evaluated using the WAIS and VINELAND scales in 16 adults who accepted to participate in this study. We found a correlation between global IQ and each domain of the adaptive score, mostly communication skills. We also found that there was an age effect on socialization skills. Most skills were learned during infancy and adolescence, especially communication skills, which are highly stable at different ages and highly correlated with IQ...
March 15, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Allison T Meyer, Patrick S Powell, Nicole Butera, Mark R Klinger, Laura G Klinger
Research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significant difficulties with adaptive behavior skills including daily living and functional communication skills. Few studies have examined the developmental trajectory of adaptive behavior across childhood and adolescence. The present study examined longitudinal trajectories of adaptive behavior in a community-based clinic sample of 186 individuals with ASD. The overall pattern indicated an initial increase in adaptive behavior during early childhood followed by a plateau in skills during adolescence for individuals of all IQ groups...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Derek Wakeman, Max R Langham
The operating room (OR) is a special place wherein groups of highly skilled individuals must work in a coordinated and harmonious fashion to deliver optimal patient care. Team dynamics and human factors principles were initially studied by the aviation industry to better understand and prevent airline accidents. As a result, crew resource management (CRM) training was designed for all flight personnel to create a highly reliable industry with a commitment to a culture of safety. CRM has since been adapted to health care, resulting in care improvement and harm reduction across a wide variety of medical specialties...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Samine Khandan, Hedyeh Riazi, Sedigheh Amir Ali Akbari, Malihe Nasiri, Ali Montazeri
OBJECTIVE: To assess the correlation between adaptation to maternal role (AMR) and infant development. BACKGROUND: Maternal role is an important key in infant's care and development. Previous findings demonstrated an inconsistency in the effect of the mother's adaptation on each domain of infant's development. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 260 healthy mothers and healthy infants attending health centres affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran in 2016...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Debra A Field, Roslyn W Livingstone
AIM: To identify and critically appraise standardized measures of power mobility skill used with children (18y or younger) with mobility limitations and explore the measures' application for 'exploratory', 'operational', and 'functional' learners. METHOD: Five electronic databases were searched along with hand-searching for peer-reviewed articles published in English to July 2017 (updated 31st August 2017). Key terms included power(ed) mobility, power(ed) wheelchair, and database-specific terms...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Cristian V Francavilla, Francesco Sessa, Monica Salerno, Giuseppe D Albano, Ines Villano, Giovanni Messina, Fabio Triolo, Lorenzo Todaro, Maria Ruberto, Gabriella Marsala, Orazio Cascio, Maria P Mollica, Vincenzo Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Anna Valenzano, Christian Zammit, Marcellino Monda, Antonietta Messina
Background: After long-term intensive training, considerable morphological and functional heart changes occur in professional athletes. Such changes arise progressively and regress upon interruption of the physical activity. Morphological and functional alterations on heart are known as "Athlete's heart" condition. Objective: This study aims to compare echocardiographic parameters in two different groups of professional athletes. Furthermore, a prospective study is performed analyzing the echocardiographic changes occurring in 12 professional players in 3 years of follow-up...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Joseph El-Khoury, Rassil Ghazzaoui, Amanda Ahmad
The recognition of mental health needs in developing countries is growing in parallel with increased public awareness of and reduced stigma toward mental illness. With resources still limited in these countries, creating economically viable health care models is essential. These models are often adapted from already established and tested systems in industrialized nations. The Psychosis Recovery Outreach Program (PROP) at the American University of Beirut is an initiative that exemplifies the global transfer of knowledge, experience, and skills...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Melissa Milanovic, Emma Ayukawa, Aleksandra Usyatynsky, Katherine Holshausen, Christopher R Bowie
We investigated the discrepancy between competence and real-world performance in major depressive disorder (MDD) for adaptive and interpersonal behaviors, determining whether self-efficacy significantly predicts this discrepancy, after considering depressive symptoms. Forty-two participants (Mage = 37.64, 66.67% female) with MDD were recruited from mental health clinics. Competence, self-efficacy, and real-world functioning were evaluated in adaptive and interpersonal domains; depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory II...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Seung Hee Choi, Roxane R Chan, Rebecca H Lehto
BACKGROUND: While much research and practice resources have addressed smoking cessation among cancer patients, less emphasis has been placed on personal psychological and environment factors associated with smoking at the time of diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress, optimism, and perceptions of the health environment/illness experience based on smoking status in patients with current, former, and no smoking history with newly diagnosed suspected or actual lung cancer...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Nursing
Gaspar Epro, Andreas Mierau, Christopher McCrum, Michael Leyendecker, Gert-Peter Bruggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
The plantar flexors play a crucial role in recovery from sudden disturbances to gait. The objective of this study was to investigate whether medium (months) or long-term (years) exercise-induced enhancement of triceps surae (TS) neuromuscular capacities affects older adults' ability to retain improvements in reactive gait stability during perturbed walking acquired from perturbation training sessions. Thirty-four female adults (65{plus minus}7y) were recruited to a perturbation training group (n=13) or a group which additionally completed 14 weeks of TS neuromuscular exercise (n=21), 12 of whom continued with the exercise for 1...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Cristina Caciolo, Paolo Alfieri, Giorgia Piccini, Maria Cristina Digilio, Francesca Romana Lepri, Marco Tartaglia, Deny Menghini, Stefano Vicari
BACKGROUND: Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies affecting development and function of multiple systems. Over the years, researchers have attempted to characterize the neurobehavioral phenotype of KS in cohorts of patients enrolled on the basis of clinical assessment. The availability of molecular testing now allows for recruitment of patients with confirmed KS due to KMT2D and KDM6A. METHODS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the neuropsychological and behavioral profiles of individuals with molecularly confirmed diagnosis of KS, and determine the extent of heterogeneity occurring in these profiles between individuals with clinical diagnosis of KS with and without mutations in KMT2D...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Stacey L Bradbury, Eric F Dubow, Sarah E Domoff
Recently, cyber-victimization has become an ever increasing concern for adolescents. Given the negative consequences of cyber-victimization, it is important to understand how adolescents learn strategies to cope (i.e., "coping socialization") with cyber-victimization. The purpose of this study is to understand common coping strategies reported by adolescents, identify from whom youth learn cyber-victimization coping strategies (coaching), and explore how coaching is associated with adolescents' self-reported use of coping...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Dragana Milutinović, Robert Lovrić, Dragana Simin
BACKGROUND: There is an implicit expectation for medical sciences students to work together effectively as members of health-care team, and interprofessional education is therefore widely accepted. Students' attitudes, which are affected by various factors, have been recognized as the most important predictors of successful implementation of interprofessional education with the aim of developing collaborative practice. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale has often been used in studies to measure these perspectives...
March 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
A Amer, A Kakooza-Mwesige, G Jarl, J K Tumwine, H Forssberg, A-C Eliasson, L Hermansson
BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) has been recommended as a gold standard in paediatric rehabilitation. A Ugandan version of PEDI (PEDI-UG) has been developed by culturally adapting and translating the original PEDI. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the PEDI-UG in Ugandan children by testing the instrument's rating scale functioning, internal structure, and test-retest reliability. METHODS: Two hundred forty-nine Ugandan children (125 girls) aged 6 months to 7...
March 13, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
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