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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640999/common-and-potentially-prebiotic-origin-for-precursors-of-nucleotide-synthesis-and-activation
#1
Albert C Fahrenbach, Constantin Giurgiu, Chun Pong Tam, Li Li, Yayoi Hongo, Masashi Aono, Jack W Szostak
We have recently shown that 2-aminoimidazole is a superior nucleotide activating group for nonenzymatic RNA copying. Here we describe a prebiotic synthesis of 2-aminoimidazole that shares a common mechanistic pathway with that of 2-aminooxazole, a previously described key intermediate in prebiotic nucleotide synthesis. In the presence of glycolaldehyde, cyanamide, phosphate and ammonium ion, both 2-aminoimidazole and 2-aminooxazole are produced, with higher concentrations of ammonium ion and acidic pH favoring the former...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636487/internalized-homonegativity-confucianism-and-self-esteem-at-the-emergence-of-an-lgbtq-identity-in-modern-vietnam
#2
Tam Nguyen, Holly Angelique
We examine the relationships between internalized homonegativity, Confucianism, and self-esteem among LGBTQ adults who grew up during the Open Door Policy, or Đổi Mới, in Vietnam. Participants were identified via activist networks and social media groups. They comopleted on-line survey focused on internalized homo/transphobia, self-estem and confucian values. The study revealed that more exposure to Confucian values in early life is related to higher levels of internalized homonegativity. Male-born participants also had higher level of internalized homonegativity than female-born particiapnts...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636208/a-phase-i-trial-of-prn1008-a-novel-reversible-covalent-inhibitor-of-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-in-healthy-volunteers
#3
Patrick F Smith, Janakan Krishnarajah, Philip A Nunn, Ron J Hill, Dane Karr, D Tam, Mohammad Masjedizadeh, Jens O Funk, Steve G Gourlay
AIM: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and PK/PD of PRN1008, a novel BTK inhibitor, in healthy volunteers, and thus determine the dose range for future clinical studies. METHODS: This was a two-part randomized, placebo controlled study in healthy volunteers using a liquid formulation. Part I was a single ascending dose design with dose levels of 50 to 1200 mg (n=6 active, 2 placebo per cohort); Part II was a multiple ascending dose design, with dose regimens ranging from 300 mg to 900 mg daily, either qd or bd for 10 days...
June 21, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635128/development-of-a-classification-model-for-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-using-confocal-raman-micro-spectroscopy
#4
Jie Yan, Yang Yu, Jeon Woong Kang, Zhi Yang Tam, Shuoyu Xu, Eliza Li Shan Fong, Surya Pratap Singh, Ziwei Song, Lisa Tucker-Kellogg, Peter T C So, Hanry Yu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in developed countries [1]. A subset of individuals with NAFLD progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced form of NAFLD which predisposes individuals to cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. The current gold standard for NASH diagnosis and staging is based on histological evaluation, which is largely semi-quantitative and subjective. To address the need for an automated and objective approach to NASH detection, we combined Raman micro-spectroscopy and machine learning techniques to develop a classification model based on a well-established NASH mouse model, using spectrum pre-processing, biochemical component analysis (BCA) and logistic regression...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634284/co-administration-of-rankl-and-ctla4-antibodies-enhances-lymphocyte-mediated-anti-tumor-immunity-in-mice
#5
Elizabeth Ahern, Heidi Harjunpaa, Deborah Barkauskas, Stacey Allen, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Hideo Yagita, David Wyld, William C Dougall, Michele W L Teng, Mark J Smyth
Purpose: Novel partners for established immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of cancer are needed to address the problems of primary and acquired resistance. The efficacy of combination RANKL and CTLA4 blockade in anti-tumor immunity has been suggested by recent case reports in melanoma. Here we provide a rationale for this combination in mouse models of cancer. <br />Experimental Design: The efficacy and mechanism of a combination of RANKL and CTLA4 blockade was examined by tumor infiltrating lymphocyte analysis, tumor growth and metastasis using a variety of neutralizing antibodies and gene-targeted mice...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633143/tumor-associated-macrophages-in-the-development-of-4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-a-mouse-model
#6
Kentaro Miki, Yorihisa Orita, Yuka Gion, Soshi Takao, Kyotaro Ohno, Mai Takeuchi, Toshihiro Ito, Akira Minoura, Tomoyasu Tachibana, Hidenori Marunaka, Takuma Makino, Akihiro Matsukawa, Kazunori Nishizaki, Tadashi Yoshino, Yasuharu Sato
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the distribution of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the development of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to elucidate the role of TAMs in the progression of tongue SCC. METHODS: The expression of the macrophage markers nitric oxide synthase, Retnla, and mannose receptor 1 in the development of tongue SCC was longitudinally observed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, an immunohistochemical study using an anti-mannose receptor (MR) antibody was performed...
June 21, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632401/motifsim-2-1-an-enhanced-software-platform-for-detecting-similarity-in-multiple-dna-motif-data-sets
#7
Ngoc Tam L Tran, Chun-Hsi Huang
Finding binding site motifs plays an important role in bioinformatics as it reveals the transcription factors that control the gene expression. The development for motif finders has flourished in the past years with many tools have been introduced to the research community. Although these tools possess exceptional features for detecting motifs, they report different results for an identical data set. Hence, using multiple tools is recommended because motifs reported by several tools are likely biologically significant...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632096/racial-ethnic-differences-in-life-course-heavy-drinking-from-adolescence-to-midlife
#8
Nina Mulia, Tammy W Tam, Jason Bond, Sarah E Zemore, Libo Li
Information on heavy drinking over the life course might help to explain racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems, morbidity, and mortality. Using data from the 2009-2010 U.S. National Alcohol Survey (n = 3,026), we analyzed retrospective decades-based measures of heavy drinking during respondents' teens, 20s, 30s, and 40s. Results indicate that Latino men and African American women have greater risk for persistent-high (vs. declining) heavy-drinking trajectories than Caucasian men and women, and that socioeconomic disadvantage partly accounts for this disparity in women...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630636/targeting-tumor-microenvironment-effects-of-chinese-herbal-formulae-on-macrophage-mediated-lung-cancer-in-mice
#9
Fei Xu, Wenqiang Cui, Zhengxiao Zhao, Weiyi Gong, Ying Wei, Jiaqi Liu, Mihui Li, Qiuping Li, Chen Yan, Jian Qiu, Baojun Liu, Jingcheng Dong
Our previous studies have shown that Qing-Re-Huo-Xue (QRHX) formulae had significant anti-inflammatory effects in chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. Here, we examined the effects of QRHX on lung cancer cell invasion and the potential associated mechanism(s), mainly polarization of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment. In vivo, QRHX both inhibited tumor growth and decreased the number of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in mice with lung cancer. Further study indicated that QRHX inhibited cancer-related inflammation in tumor by decreasing infiltration of TAMs and IL-6 and TNF-α production and meanwhile decreased arginase 1 (Arg-1) expression and increased inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629838/optimizing-cerebral-blood-flow-hitting-the-sweet-spot-on-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#10
EDITORIAL
Derrick Y Tam, Stephen E Fremes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629783/grp78-plays-an-integral-role-in-tumor-cell-inflammation-related-migration-induced-by-m2-macrophages
#11
Lichao Zhang, Zongwei Li, Guobin Ding, Xiaoqin La, Peng Yang, Zhuoyu Li
Macrophages are the main immune-competent cells that infiltrate in tumors. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), termed M2 macrophages, facilitate tumor progress and promote metastasis. However, M2 macrophages always display an immunosuppressive phenotype, which is not in accordance with the tumor inflammatory microenvironment and inflammation-related metastasis. In this study, we established a macrophage polarization model with human monocytes and found that the conditioned medium from M2 macrophages increased GRP78 expression in tumor cells and facilitated tumor cell migration...
June 16, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628105/identification-of-liver-specific-enhancer-promoter-activity-in-the-3-untranslated-region-of-the-wild-type-aav2-genome
#12
Grant J Logan, Allison P Dane, Claus V Hallwirth, Christine M Smyth, Emilie E Wilkie, Anais K Amaya, Erhua Zhu, Neeta Khandekar, Samantha L Ginn, Sophia H Y Liao, Sharon C Cunningham, Natsuki Sasaki, Martí Cabanes-Creus, Patrick P L Tam, David W Russell, Leszek Lisowski, Ian E Alexander
Vectors based on adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) are powerful tools for gene transfer and genome editing applications. The level of interest in this system has recently surged in response to reports of therapeutic efficacy in human clinical trials, most notably for those in patients with hemophilia B (ref. 3). Understandably, a recent report drawing an association between AAV2 integration events and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has generated controversy about the causal or incidental nature of this association and the implications for AAV vector safety...
June 19, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627792/%C3%AE-catenin-in-desmoid-type-fibromatosis-deep-insights-on-the-role-of-t41a-and-s45f-mutations-on-protein-structure-and-gene-expression
#13
C Colombo, A Belfiore, N Paielli, L De Cecco, S Canevari, E Laurini, M Fermeglia, S Pricl, P Verderio, S Bottelli, M Fiore, S Stacchiotti, E Palassini, A Gronchi, S Pilotti, F Perrone
Desmoid- type fibromatosis (DF) is a rare mesenchymal lesion with high risk of local recurrence. Specific β-catenin mutations (S45F) appeared to be related to this higher risk compared to T41A mutated or wild type (WT). We explored the influence of both mutations and WT on structure stability and affinity of β-catenin for α-catenin and the pattern of gene expression that may influence DF behavior. Using 33 surgically resected primary DFs harboring T41A (n=14), S45F (n=10) or WT (n=9), we performed a comparative molecular analysis by protein/protein interaction modeling, gene expression by DASL microarrays, human inflammation gene panel and assessment of immune system-based biomarkers by immunohistochemistry...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627414/role-of-akt-hyperactivation-and-the-potential-of-akt-targeted-therapy-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#14
Jinfen Wang, Zijun Y Xu-Monette, Kausar J Jabbar, Qi Shen, Ganiraju C Manyam, Alexandar Tzankov, Carlo Visco, Jing Wang, Santiago Montes-Moreno, Karen Dybkær, Wayne Tam, Govind Bhagat, Eric D Hsi, J Han van Krieken, Maurilio Ponzoni, Andrés J M Ferreri, Shi Wang, Michael B Møller, Miguel A Piris, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Yong Li, Lan V Pham, Ken H Young
AKT signaling is important for proliferation and survival of tumor cells. The clinical significance of AKT activation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is not well analyzed. Here, we assessed expression of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) in 522 DLBCL patients. We found high levels of p-AKT nuclear expression, observed in 24.3% of the study cohort, were associated with significantly worse progression-free survival and Myc and Bcl-2 overexpression. However, multivariate analysis indicated that AKT hyperactivation was not an independent factor...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625892/consumers-acceptance-of-medicinal-herbs-an-application-of-the-technology-acceptance-model-tam
#15
Nargesh Khatun Jokar, Seyyed Ali Noorhosseini, Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari, Christos A Damalas
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The shift in consumers' preferences from synthetic to 'natural' products has led to a resurgence of interest in medicinal plants, particularly in developing countries. However, research data about consumers' preferences for particular products is hard to find. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to contribute to the general understanding of consumers' intention for selecting medicinal herbs for consumption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Factors underpinning consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs were studied with the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Rasht City of Iran using a structured questionnaire...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624450/%C3%AE-elemene-inhibits-tumor-promoting-effect-of-m2-macrophages-in-lung-cancer
#16
Xiaomu Yu, Maoyi Xu, Na Li, Zongjuan Li, Hongye Li, Shujuan Shao, Kun Zou, Lijuan Zou
Macrophages in tumor are mostly M2-polarized and have been reported to promote tumorigenesis, which are also defined as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). β-elemene has therapeutic effects against several cancers, however, it remains unknown whether β-elemene could inhibit cancer by targeting TAMs. Herein, we examined the effect of β-elemene on macrophages to elucidate a novel mechanism of β-elemene in tumor therapy. We showed that the conditioned medium of M2 macrophages promoted lung cancer cells to migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition, which could be inhibited by β-elemene...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621419/tam-receptor-signaling-in-development
#17
Tal Burstyn-Cohen
TYRO3, AXL and MERTK comprise the TAM family of receptor protein tyrosine kinases. Activated by their ligands, protein S (PROS1) and growth-arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), they mediate numerous cellular functions throughout development and adulthood. Expressed by a myriad of cell types and tissues, they have been implicated in homeostatic regulation of the immune, nervous, vascular, bone and reproductive systems. The loss-of-function of TAM signaling in adult tissues culminates in the destruction of tissue homeostasis and diseased states, while TAM gain-of-function in various tumors promotes cancer phenotypes...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620826/individual-amino-acid-supplementation-can-improve-energy-metabolism-and-decrease-ros-production-in-neuronal-cells-overexpressing-alpha-synuclein
#18
Vedad Delic, Jeddidiah W D Griffin, Sandra Zivkovic, Yumeng Zhang, Tam-Anh Phan, Henry Gong, Dale Chaput, Christian Reynes, Vinh B Dinh, Josean Cruz, Eni Cvitkovic, Devon Placides, Ernide Frederic, Hamed Mirzaei, Stanley M Stevens, Umesh Jinwal, Daniel C Lee, Patrick C Bradshaw
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by alpha-synuclein accumulation and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. Increased levels of alpha-synuclein have been shown to result in loss of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. WT alpha-synuclein was stably overexpressed in human BE(2)-M17 neuroblastoma cells resulting in increased levels of an alpha-synuclein multimer, but no increase in alpha-synuclein monomer levels...
June 15, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619301/the-effects-of-gua-sha-on-symptoms-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-associated-with-chronic-low-back-pain-a-randomized-active-controlled-crossover-pilot-study-in-elderly
#19
John W M Yuen, William W N Tsang, Sonny H M Tse, Wings T Y Loo, Suk-Tak Chan, Diana L Y Wong, Hilary H Y Chung, Jacky K K Tam, Thomas K S Choi, Vico C L Chiang
OBJECTIVE: To address the challenges for trialing with elderly and the lacking of valid sham/placebo control, a randomized crossover pilot study is designed and its feasibility on elderly subjects is evaluated. DESIGN: A pilot randomized crossover study was conducted with hydrocollator-based hot pack therapy as active control. Pain intensity, physical disability, depression, general health status, and salivary biomarkers were assessed as outcome measures. RESULTS: Despite there was no significant difference observed between any outcome measures attained by the two interventions, several important differences were noted during the one-week follow-up period...
June 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619027/-health-is-my-capital-a-qualitative-study-of-access-to-healthcare-by-chinese-migrants-in-singapore
#20
Wai Jia Tam, Wei Leong Goh, Jeffrey Chua, Helena Legido-Quigley
BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, Singapore has turned into one of the major receiving countries of foreign workers in Southeast Asia. Over the years, challenges surrounding access to healthcare by Chinese migrant workers have surfaced globally. This study aims to explore the experiences of Chinese migrants accessing primary and secondary/tertiary healthcare in Singapore, and the opportunities for overcoming these barriers. METHODS: We conducted 25 in-depth interviews of 20 Chinese migrants and five staff from HealthServe, a non-governmental organization serving Chinese migrants in Singapore from October 2015 to January 2016...
June 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
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