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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782156/combining-high-throughput-sequencing-of-sedadna-and-traditional-palaeolimnological-techniques-to-infer-historical-trends-in-cyanobacterial-communities
#1
Timothy J Tse, Lorne E Doig, Song Tang, Xiaohui Zhang, Weimin Sun, Steve B Wiseman, Cindy Xin Feng, Hongling Liu, John P Giesy, Markus Hecker, Paul D Jones
Freshwaters worldwide are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic activities and changing climate. Unfortunately, many inland waters lack sufficient long-term monitoring to assess environmental trends. Analysis of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) is emerging as a means to reconstruct the past occurrence of microbial communities of inland waters. The purpose of this study was to assess a combination of high-throughput sequencing (16S rRNA) of sedaDNA and traditional palaeolimnological analyses to explore multidecadal relationships among cyanobacterial community composition, the potential for cyanotoxin production and palaeoenvironmental proxies...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780311/characteristics-of-rest-and-postural-tremors-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-analysis-of-motor-unit-firing-synchrony-and-patterns
#2
Orsalia M Agapaki, Constantinos N Christakos, Dimitrios Anastasopoulos
The neural mechanisms responsible for resting and postural tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been the object of considerable study, much of it focusing on supraspinal sites. Here, we adopted an alternative approach that emphasizes motor unit (MU) firing synchrony and patterns of discharge. To explore if these could account for known features of PD tremor, we recorded the instantaneous acceleration of the upper limb of 23 PD patients at rest or while they tried to hold a stable posture together with surface EMG and single MU discharges of upper limb muscles...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778488/the-2016-bernard-sachs-lecture-timing-in-morphogenesis-and-genetic-gradients-during-normal-development-and-in-malformations-of-the-nervous-system
#3
REVIEW
Harvey B Sarnat
Nervous system development is quadradimensional. Both normal ontogenesis and developmental malformations are explained in the context of the fourth dimension, timing. Timing of the onset of either the genetic expression of a mutation or an epigenetic event that may be teratogenic is primordial in determining morphogenesis and the forms of malformations with their functional consequences. Multiple genotypes may cause similar phenotypes or a single genotype with different degrees of retained normal genetic expression may result in variable phenotypes...
March 30, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776186/chemical-event-chain-model-of-coupled-genetic-oscillators
#4
David J Jörg, Luis G Morelli, Frank Jülicher
We introduce a stochastic model of coupled genetic oscillators in which chains of chemical events involved in gene regulation and expression are represented as sequences of Poisson processes. We characterize steady states by their frequency, their quality factor, and their synchrony by the oscillator cross correlation. The steady state is determined by coupling and exhibits stochastic transitions between different modes. The interplay of stochasticity and nonlinearity leads to isolated regions in parameter space in which the coupled system works best as a biological pacemaker...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773984/midfrontal-theta-and-posterior-parietal-alpha-band-oscillations-support-conflict-resolution-in-a-masked-affective-priming-task
#5
Jun Jiang, Kira Bailey, Xiao Xiao
Past attempts to characterize the neural mechanisms of affective priming have conceptualized it in terms of classic cognitive conflict, but have not examined the neural oscillatory mechanisms of subliminal affective priming. Using behavioral and electroencephalogram (EEG) time frequency (TF) analysis, the current study examines the oscillatory dynamics of unconsciously triggered conflict in an emotional facial expressions version of the masked affective priming task. The results demonstrate that the power dynamics of conflict are characterized by increased midfrontal theta activity and suppressed parieto-occipital alpha activity...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771952/analysis-of-multi-level-spatial-data-reveals-strong-synchrony-in-seasonal-influenza-epidemics-across-norway-sweden-and-denmark
#6
Sinead E Morris, Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio, Cécile Viboud, Amy Wesolowski, Ottar N Bjørnstad, Bryan T Grenfell
Population structure, spatial diffusion, and climatic conditions mediate the spatiotemporal spread of seasonal influenza in temperate regions. However, much of our knowledge of these dynamics stems from a few well-studied countries, such as the United States (US), and the extent to which this applies in different demographic and climatic environments is not fully understood. Using novel data from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, we applied wavelet analysis and non-parametric spatial statistics to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of influenza transmission at regional and international scales...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769792/social-and-ecological-drivers-of-reproductive-seasonality-in-geladas
#7
Elizabeth Tinsley Johnson, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Amy Lu, Thore J Bergman, Jacinta C Beehner
Many nonseasonally breeding mammals demonstrate some degree of synchrony in births, which is generally associated with ecological factors that mediate fecundity. However, disruptive social events, such as alpha male replacements, also have the potential to affect the timing of female reproduction. Here, we examined reproductive seasonality in a wild population of geladas ( Theropithecus gelada ) living at high altitudes in an afro-alpine ecosystem in Ethiopia. Using 9 years of demographic data (2006-2014), we determined that, while females gave birth year-round, a seasonal peak in births coincided with peak green grass availability (their staple food source)...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769630/locally-induced-neuronal-synchrony-precisely-propagates-to-specific-cortical-areas-without-rhythm-distortion
#8
Haruo Toda, Keisuke Kawasaki, Sho Sato, Masao Horie, Kiyoshi Nakahara, Asim K Bepari, Hirohito Sawahata, Takafumi Suzuki, Haruo Okado, Hirohide Takebayashi, Isao Hasegawa
Propagation of oscillatory spike firing activity at specific frequencies plays an important role in distributed cortical networks. However, there is limited evidence for how such frequency-specific signals are induced or how the signal spectra of the propagating signals are modulated during across-layer (radial) and inter-areal (tangential) neuronal interactions. To directly evaluate the direction specificity of spectral changes in a spiking cortical network, we selectively photostimulated infragranular excitatory neurons in the rat primary visual cortex (V1) at a supra-threshold level with various frequencies, and recorded local field potentials (LFPs) at the infragranular stimulation site, the cortical surface site immediately above the stimulation site in V1, and cortical surface sites outside V1...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769525/asynchronous-suppression-of-visual-cortex-during-absence-seizures-in-stargazer-mice
#9
Jochen Meyer, Atul Maheshwari, Jeffrey Noebels, Stelios Smirnakis
Absence epilepsy is a common childhood disorder featuring frequent cortical spike-wave seizures with a loss of awareness and behavior. Using the calcium indicator GCaMP6 with in vivo 2-photon cellular microscopy and simultaneous electrocorticography, we examined the collective activity profiles of individual neurons and surrounding neuropil across all layers in V1 during spike-wave seizure activity over prolonged periods in stargazer mice. We show that most (~80%) neurons in all cortical layers reduce their activity during seizures, whereas a smaller pool activates or remains neutral...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768189/neural-responses-to-perturbations-in-visual-and-auditory-metronomes-during-sensorimotor-synchronization
#10
Daniel C Comstock, Ramesh Balasubramaniam
Tapping in synchrony to an isochronous rhythm involves several key functions of the sensorimotor system including timing, prediction and error correction. While auditory sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) has been well studied, much less is known about mechanisms involved in visual SMS. By comparing error correction in auditory and visual SMS, it can be determined if the neural mechanisms for detection and correction of synchronization errors are generalized or domain specific. To study this problem, we measured EEG while subjects tapped in synchrony to separate visual and auditory metronomes that both contained small temporal perturbations to induce errors...
May 13, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767781/adolescent-condom-use-and-connectivity-in-the-social-planful-brain
#11
Justin D Caouette, Karen A Hudson, Angela D Bryan, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Objective: To reduce rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy among adolescents, it is critical to investigate brain connectivity that may underlie adolescents' sexual health decision-making in the context of intercourse. This study explored relationships between adolescent condom use frequency and the brain's resting-state functional connectivity, to identify differential patterns of social-affective processing among sexually active youth. Methods: In this study, N = 143 sexually active adolescents (68...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767350/inverse-relationship-between-changes-of-maximal-aerobic-capacity-and-changes-in-walking-economy-after-weight-loss
#12
Juliano H Borges, Stephen J Carter, Harshvardhan Singh, Gary R Hunter
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the relationships between maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max ) and walking economy during non-graded and graded walking among overweight women and (2) examine potential differences in [Formula: see text]O2max and walking economy before and after weight loss. METHODS: One-hundred and twenty-four premenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) between 27 and 30 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) diet only; (b) diet and aerobic exercise training; and (c) diet and resistance exercise training...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766458/cerebellar-stimulation-evoked-prefrontal-electrical-synchrony-is-modulated-by-gaba
#13
Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, Ann Summerfelt, Fow-Sen Choa, George F Wittenberg, Krista Wisner, Andrea Wijtenburg, Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong
Cerebellar-prefrontal connectivity has been recognized as important for behaviors ranging from motor coordination to cognition. Many of these behaviors are known to involve excitatory or inhibitory modulations from the prefrontal cortex. We used cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) to probe cerebellar-evoked electrical activity in prefrontal cortical areas and used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures of prefrontal GABA and glutamate levels to determine if they are correlated with those potentials...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765004/a-comparison-of-the-adjustable-ranges-of-inspiratory-pressurization-during-pressure-controlled-continuous-mandatory-ventilation-of-5-icu-ventilators
#14
Yukiko Koyama, Akinori Uchiyama, Junko Yoshida, Takeshi Yoshida, Tomonori Yamashita, Yuji Fujino
BACKGROUND: Faster inspiratory pressurization can improve patient-ventilator synchrony and reduce the patient's work of breathing during pressure controlled continuous mandatory (PC-CMV) ventilation. The characteristics of the pressurization ramp settings are not standardized across ventilators from different manufacturers. We performed a bench test of 5 models of ICU ventilators to examine the effects of pressurization ramp settings on the actual pressurization. METHODS: A twin-bellows lung model was used, in which one bellow simulates inspiratory muscle activity and the other simulates an adult normal lung model...
May 15, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763658/event-related-potential-analysis-techniques-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Priyalakshmi Sheela, Subha D Puthankattil
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) comprise all pervasive neurodevelopmental diseases marked by deficits in social and communication skills, delayed cognitive development, restricted and repetitive behaviors. The core symptoms begin in early childhood, may continue life-long resulting in poor performance in adult stage. Event-related potential (ERP) is basically a time-locked electroencephalogram signal elicited by various stimuli, related to sensory and cognitive processes. The various ERP based techniques used for the study of ASD are considered in this review...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763417/meta-analyses-of-individual-versus-group-interventions-for-pre-school-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#16
Yoshiyuki Tachibana, Celine Miyazaki, Masashi Mikami, Erika Ota, Rintaro Mori, Yeonhee Hwang, Akiko Terasaka, Eriko Kobayashi, Yoko Kamio
There is little evidence regarding the effects of individual and group intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on important outcomes. We performed meta-analyses using a random effects model to investigate the effectiveness of the individual and group intervention studies and to compare the effectiveness of these two types if possible. The main analysis which excluded studies at a high risk of bias (Analysis I) included 14 randomised controlled trials targeting children with ASD≤6 years of age (594 children)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762856/vitamin-d-a-steroid-hormone-with-progesterone-like-activity
#17
G Monastra, S De Grazia, L De Luca, S Vittorio, V Unfer
OBJECTIVE: This review is aimed at demonstrating the progesterone-like activity exerted by the active form of vitamin D, or calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D). To achieve this outcome, we compared the effects in vivo and in vitro exerted by progesterone and vitamin D, with a special focus on the female reproductive system and pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a literature review of the most important articles published in English on vitamin D as a hormone, mainly found by MEDLINE...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762841/assessment-of-left-ventricular-systolic-synchrony-and-cardiac-function-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-disease-by-echocardiography
#18
H-P Qu, P-S Dong, Y-J Song, H-M Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between left ventricular systolic synchrony and cardiac function in patients with ischemic heart diseases of different degrees by echocardiography. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 84 cases of patients with ischemic heart diseases were consecutively selected including 28 cases of asymptomatic heart failure, 40 cases of mild to moderate heart failure, and 16 cases of severe and refractory heart failure. Interventricular synchrony was evaluated by echocardiography, and the result was expressed by interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD)...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759684/how-aging-impacts-the-encoding-of-binaural-cues-and-the-perception-of-auditory-space
#19
REVIEW
Ann Clock Eddins, Erol J Ozmeral, David A Eddins
Over the years, the effect of aging on auditory function has been investigated in animal models and humans in an effort to characterize age-related changes in both perception and physiology. Here, we review how aging may impact neural encoding and processing of binaural and spatial cues in human listeners with a focus on recent work by the authors as well as others. Age-related declines in monaural temporal processing, as estimated from measures of gap detection and temporal fine structure discrimination, have been associated with poorer performance on binaural tasks that require precise temporal processing...
May 5, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758405/accelerometer-based-av-synchronous-pacing-with-a-ventricular-leadless-pacemaker-results-from-the-micra-av-feasibility-studies
#20
Larry Chinitz, Philippe Ritter, Surinder Kaur Khelae, Saverio Iacopino, Christophe Garweg, Maria Grazia-Bongiorni, Petr Neuzil, Jens Brock Johansen, Lluis Mont, Efrain Gonzalez, Venkata Sagi, Gabor Z Duray, Nicolas Clementy, Todd Sheldon, Vincent Splett, Kurt Stromberg, Nicole Wood, Clemens Steinwender
BACKGROUND: Micra is a leadless pacemaker that is implanted in the right ventricle and provides rate response via a 3-axis accelerometer (ACC). Custom software was developed to detect atrial contraction using the ACC enabling AV synchronous pacing. OBJECTIVE: To sense atrial contractions from the Micra ACC signal and provide AV synchronous pacing. METHODS: The MASS/MASS2 early feasibility studies showed intracardiac accelerations related to atrial contraction can be measured via ACC in the Micra leadless pacemaker...
May 8, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
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