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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922105/interplay-of-coupling-and-common-noise-at-the-transition-to-synchrony-in-oscillator-populations
#1
Anastasiya V Pimenova, Denis S Goldobin, Michael Rosenblum, Arkady Pikovsky
There are two ways to synchronize oscillators: by coupling and by common forcing, which can be pure noise. By virtue of the Ott-Antonsen ansatz for sine-coupled phase oscillators, we obtain analytically tractable equations for the case where both coupling and common noise are present. While noise always tends to synchronize the phase oscillators, the repulsive coupling can act against synchrony, and we focus on this nontrivial situation. For identical oscillators, the fully synchronous state remains stable for small repulsive coupling; moreover it is an absorbing state which always wins over the asynchronous regime...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922101/social-determinants-of-eyeblinks-in-adult-male-macaques
#2
Sébastien Ballesta, Clayton P Mosher, Jeno Szep, Kate D Fischl, Katalin M Gothard
Videos with rich social and emotional content elicit natural social behaviors in primates. Indeed, while watching videos of conspecifics, monkeys engage in eye contact, gaze follow, and reciprocate facial expressions. We hypothesized that the frequency and timing of eyeblinks also depends on the social signals contained in videos. We monitored the eyeblinks of four male adult macaques while they watched videos of conspecifics displaying facial expressions with direct or averted gaze. The instantaneous blink rate of all four animals decreased during videos...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921090/the-effect-of-intrauterine-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-injection-before-embryo-transfer-on-the-implantation-and-pregnancy-rate-in-infertile-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Sima Janati, Mohammad Hossein Razi
BACKGROUND: Implantation is one of the essential steps for the success of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Their success depends on three main factors: embryo quality, endometrial receptivity (ER), and synchrony between embryo and endometrium. There are various factors that regulate the complex process of implantation. In this regard, one may refer to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the most important factor. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effect of intrauterine hCG injection before embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy outcome in infertile couples...
October 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914312/today-is-tomorrow-s-yesterday-children-s-acquisition-of-deictic-time-words
#4
Katharine A Tillman, Tyler Marghetis, David Barner, Mahesh Srinivasan
Deictic time words like "yesterday" and "tomorrow" pose a challenge to children not only because they are abstract, and label periods in time, but also because their denotations vary according to the time at which they are uttered: Monday's "tomorrow" is different than Thursday's. Although children produce these words as early as age 2 or 3, they do not use them in adult-like ways for several subsequent years. Here, we explored whether children have partial but systematic meanings for these words during the long delay before adult-like usage...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912025/population-dynamics-synchrony-and-environmental-quality-of-hokkaido-voles-lead-to-temporal-and-spatial-taylor-s-laws
#5
Joel E Cohen, Takashi Saitoh
Taylor's law (TL) asserts that the variance in a species' population density is a power-law function of its mean population density: log(variance) = a + b × log(mean). TL is widely verified. We show here that empirical time series of density of the Hokkaido gray-sided vole, Myodes rufocanus, sampled 1962-1992 at 85 locations, satisfied temporal and spatial forms of TL. The slopes (b ± standard error) of the temporal and spatial TL were estimated to be 1.613 ± 0.141 and 1.430 ± 0.132, respectively...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912012/coast-wide-recruitment-dynamics-of-olympia-oysters-reveal-limited-synchrony-and-multiple-predictors-of-failure
#6
Kerstin Wasson, Brent B Hughes, John S Berriman, Andrew L Chang, Anna K Deck, Paul A Dinnel, Charlie Endris, Michael Espinoza, Sarah Dudas, Matthew C Ferner, Edwin D Grosholz, David Kimbro, Jennifer L Ruesink, Alan C Trimble, Dick Vander Schaaf, Chela J Zabin, Danielle C Zacherl
Recruitment of new propagules into a population can be a critical determinant of adult density. We examined recruitment dynamics in the Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida), a species occurring almost entirely in estuaries. We investigated spatial scales of interannual synchrony across 37 sites in eight estuaries along 2,500 km of Pacific North American coastline, predicting that high vs. low recruitment years would coincide among neighboring estuaries due to shared exposure to regional oceanographic factors. Such synchrony in recruitment has been found for many marine species and some migratory estuarine species, but has never been examined across estuaries in a species that can complete its entire life cycle within the same estuary...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912001/individual-and-combined-effects-of-two-types-of-phenological-shifts-on-predator-prey-interactions
#7
Nick L Rasmussen, Volker H W Rudolf
Timing of phenological events varies among years with natural variation in environmental conditions and is also shifting in response to climate change. These phenological shifts likely have many effects on species interactions. Most research on the ecological consequences of phenological shifts has focused on variation in simple metrics such as phenological firsts. However, for a population, a phenological event exhibits a temporal distribution with many attributes that can vary (e.g., mean, variance, skewness), each of which likely has distinct effects on interactions...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910902/prior-knowledge-facilitates-mutual-gaze-convergence-and-head-nodding-synchrony-in-face-to-face-communication
#8
C Thepsoonthorn, T Yokozuka, S Miura, K Ogawa, Y Miyake
As prior knowledge is claimed to be an essential key to achieve effective education, we are interested in exploring whether prior knowledge enhances communication effectiveness. To demonstrate the effects of prior knowledge, mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony are observed as indicators of communication effectiveness. We conducted an experiment on lecture task between lecturer and student under 2 conditions: prior knowledge and non-prior knowledge. The students in prior knowledge condition were provided the basic information about the lecture content and were assessed their understanding by the experimenter before starting the lecture while the students in non-prior knowledge had none...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908016/bistable-gaits-and-wobbling-induced-by-pedestrian-bridge-interactions
#9
Igor V Belykh, Russell Jeter, Vladimir N Belykh
Several modern footbridges around the world have experienced large lateral vibrations during crowd loading events. The onset of large-amplitude bridge wobbling has generally been attributed to crowd synchrony; although, its role in the initiation of wobbling has been challenged. To study the contribution of a single pedestrian into overall, possibly unsynchronized, crowd dynamics, we use a bio-mechanically inspired inverted pendulum model of human balance and analyze its bi-directional interaction with a lively bridge...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908014/symmetry-effects-on-naturally-arising-chimera-states-in-mechanical-oscillator-networks
#10
Karen Blaha, Ryan J Burrus, Jorge L Orozco-Mora, Elvia Ruiz-Beltrán, Abu B Siddique, V D Hatamipour, Francesco Sorrentino
Coupled oscillators were believed to exclusively exist in a state of synchrony or disorder until Kuramoto theoretically proved that the two states could coexist, called a chimera state, when portions of the population had a spatial dependent coupling. Recent work has demonstrated the spontaneous emergence of chimera states in an experiment involving mechanical oscillators coupled through a two platform swing. We constructed an experimental apparatus with three platforms that each contains a population of mechanical oscillators in order investigate the effects of a network symmetry on naturally arising chimera states...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906973/detecting-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-using-resting-state-magnetoencephalographic-connectivity
#11
Vasily A Vakorin, Sam M Doesburg, Leodante da Costa, Rakesh Jetly, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor
Accurate means to detect mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective and quantitative measures remain elusive. Conventional imaging typically detects no abnormalities despite post-concussive symptoms. In the present study, we recorded resting state magnetoencephalograms (MEG) from adults with mTBI and controls. Atlas-guided reconstruction of resting state activity was performed for 90 cortical and subcortical regions, and calculation of inter-regional oscillatory phase synchrony at various frequencies was performed...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903720/oscillatory-dynamics-underlying-perceptual-narrowing-of-native-phoneme-mapping-from-6-to-12-months-of-age
#12
Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, April A Benasich
: During the first months of life, human infants process phonemic elements from all languages similarly. However, by 12 months of age, as language-specific phonemic maps are established, infants respond preferentially to their native language. This process, known as perceptual narrowing, supports neural representation and thus efficient processing of the distinctive phonemes within the sound environment. Although oscillatory mechanisms underlying processing of native and non-native phonemic contrasts were recently delineated in 6-month-old infants, the maturational trajectory of these mechanisms remained unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903638/techniques-to-identify-and-temporally-correlate-calcium-transients-between-multiple-regions-of-interest-in-vertebrate-neural-circuits
#13
Julian Sorrensen, Lukasz Wiklendt, Tim James Hibberd, Marcello C Costa, Nick J Spencer
Calcium imaging is commonly used to record dynamic changes in excitability from axons or cell bodies in the nervous system of vertebrates. These recordings often reveal discrete calcium transients which have variable amplitudes, durations, and rates-of-rise and decay, all of which can arise from an unstable, or "noisy" baseline. This often leads to considerable ambiguity about how to discriminate and quantify calcium transients. We describe an analytical methodology that objectively identifies multiple calcium transients from multiple recording sites and quantifies the degree of temporal synchrony between each event...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903055/local-landscape-effects-on-population-dynamics-of-ixodes-ricinus
#14
Naveed Asghar, Mona Petersson, Magnus Johansson, Patrik Dinnetz
Ixodes ricinus, a common tick in Europe, transmits severe tickborne pathogens (TBPs). In Sweden, both prevalence and incidence of tick-borne infections have increased during the last few decades, and a majority of the cases is reported from the area around Stockholm. Among ticks, transmission of TBPs involves co-feeding of susceptible larvae or nymphs with infected ticks on the same host. Seasonal synchrony of immature stages and total tick abundance are important factors for the probability of horizontal transmission of TBPs...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895820/sleep-circadian-dysrhythmia-obesity-and-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Gumpeny Ramachandra Sridhar, Narasimhadevara Santhi Nirmala Sanjana
Synchrony of biological processes with environmental cues developed over millennia to match growth, reproduction and senescence. This entails a complex interplay of genetic, metabolic, chemical, light, hormonal and hedonistic factors across life forms. Sleep is one of the most prominent rhythms where such a match is established. Over the past 100 years or so, it has been possible to disturb the synchrony between sleep-wake cycle and environmental cues. Development of electric lights, shift work and continual accessibility of the internet has disrupted this match...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893472/correspondence-between-physical-self-concept-and-participation-in-and-fitness-change-after-bi-weekly-body-conditioning-classes-in-sedentary-women
#16
Ulrika Aasa, Johan Paulin, Guy Madison
The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891506/synchronization-of-dairy-cows-does-not-limit-the-behavioral-response-to-treatment-in-mixed-treatment-experimental-designs
#17
Meagan T M King, Robin E Crossley, Trevor J DeVries
In many research studies, animals assigned to different treatments are housed adjacently or together in a group. One critique of these designs has been the potential role of behavioral facilitation and synchronization between animals on different treatments in mixed treatment groups (heterogeneous groups). To evaluate this, we compared the synchrony of feeding behavior between dairy cows housed in heterogeneous groups to cows exposed to the same treatment simultaneously (homogenous groups). Twenty-four cows were exposed to each of the two treatments over 21 days in a replicated cross-over design...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891080/enhanced-burst-suppression-and-disruption-of-local-field-potential-synchrony-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-exhibiting-spike-wave-seizures
#18
Anthony J Williams, Chen Zhou, Qian-Quan Sun
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888509/functional-properties-of-granule-cells-with-hilar-basal-dendrites-in-the-epileptic-dentate-gyrus
#19
Tony Kelly, Heinz Beck
OBJECTIVE: The maturation of adult-born granule cells and their functional integration into the network is thought to play a key role in the proper functioning of the dentate gyrus. In temporal lobe epilepsy, adult-born granule cells in the dentate gyrus develop abnormally and possess a hilar basal dendrite (HBD). Although morphological studies have shown that these HBDs have synapses, little is known about the functional properties of these HBDs or the intrinsic and network properties of the granule cells that possess these aberrant dendrites...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886924/how-to-improve-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-benefit-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients-pulmonary-vein-isolation-and-beyond
#20
REVIEW
Carola Gianni, Luigi Di Biase, Sanghamitra Mohanty, Yalçın Gökoğlan, Mahmut Fatih Güneş, Amin Al-Ahmad, J David Burkhardt, Andrea Natale
Although cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an important treatment of symptomatic heart failure patients in sinus rhythm with low left ventricular ejection fraction and ventricular dyssynchrony, its role is not well defined in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). CRT is not as effective in patients with AF because of inadequate biventricular capture and loss of atrioventricular synchrony. Both can be addressed with catheter ablation of AF. It is still unclear if these therapies offer additive benefits in patients with ventricular dyssynchrony...
January 2017: Heart Failure Clinics
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