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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331093/sensitivity-to-audio-visual-synchrony-and-its-relation-to-language-abilities-in-children-with-and-without-asd
#1
Giulia Righi, Elena J Tenenbaum, Carolyn McCormick, Megan Blossom, Dima Amso, Stephen J Sheinkopf
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by deficits in speech and language processing. Speech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to examine whether young children with ASD show reduced sensitivity to temporal asynchronies in a speech processing task when compared to typically developing controls, and to examine how this sensitivity might relate to language proficiency...
January 13, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330551/autapses-promote-synchronization-in-neuronal-networks
#2
Huawei Fan, Yafeng Wang, Hengtong Wang, Ying-Cheng Lai, Xingang Wang
Neurological disorders such as epileptic seizures are believed to be caused by neuronal synchrony. However, to ascertain the causal role of neuronal synchronization in such diseases through the traditional approach of electrophysiological data analysis remains a controversial, challenging, and outstanding problem. We offer an alternative principle to assess the physiological role of neuronal synchrony based on identifying structural anomalies in the underlying network and studying their impacts on the collective dynamics...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329997/clinical-log-data-analysis-for-assessing-the-accuracy-of-the-cyberknife-fiducial-free-lung-tumor-tracking-system
#3
Masao Nakayama, Hideki Nishimura, Hiroshi Mayahara, Masaki Nakamura, Kazuyuki Uehara, Shinji Tsudou, Aya Harada, Hiroaki Akasaka, Ryohei Sasaki
PURPOSE: The CyberKnife Xsight Lung Tracking (XLT) and 1-View tracking systems can synchronize beam targeting to a visible lung tumor with respiratory motion during irradiation without requiring internal fiducial markers. The systems use a correlation model that relates external marker positions to tumor positions as well as a prediction model that predicts the target's future position. In this study, the correlation and prediction model uncertainties related to the CyberKnife fiducial-free tumor tracking system were evaluated using clinical log data...
November 4, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327424/the-choreography-of-group-affiliation
#4
Jorina von Zimmermann, Staci Vicary, Matthias Sperling, Guido Orgs, Daniel C Richardson
When two people move in synchrony, they become more social. Yet it is not clear how this effect scales up to larger numbers of people. Does a group need to move in unison to affiliate, in what we term unitary synchrony; or does affiliation arise from distributed coordination, patterns of coupled movements between individual members of a group? We developed choreographic tasks that manipulated movement synchrony without explicitly instructing groups to move in unison. Wrist accelerometers measured group movement dynamics and we applied cross-recurrence analysis to distinguish the temporal features of emergent unitary synchrony (simultaneous movement) and distributed coordination (coupled movement)...
January 12, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322244/metacontrol-and-body-ownership-divergent-thinking-increases-the-virtual-hand-illusion
#5
Ke Ma, Bernhard Hommel
The virtual hand illusion (VHI) paradigm demonstrates that people tend to perceive agency and bodily ownership for a virtual hand that moves in synchrony with their own movements. Given that this kind of effect can be taken to reflect self-other integration (i.e., the integration of some external, novel event into the representation of oneself), and given that self-other integration has been previously shown to be affected by metacontrol states (biases of information processing towards persistence/selectivity or flexibility/integration), we tested whether the VHI varies in size depending on the metacontrol bias...
January 10, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321240/pigment-dispersing-factor-expressing-neurons-convey-circadian-information-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#6
Katharina Beer, Esther Kolbe, Noa B Kahana, Nadav Yayon, Ron Weiss, Pamela Menegazzi, Guy Bloch, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia)...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317675/synchrony-and-physiological-arousal-increase-cohesion-and-cooperation-in-large-naturalistic-groups
#7
Joshua Conrad Jackson, Jonathan Jong, David Bilkey, Harvey Whitehouse, Stefanie Zollmann, Craig McNaughton, Jamin Halberstadt
Separate research streams have identified synchrony and arousal as two factors that might contribute to the effects of human rituals on social cohesion and cooperation. But no research has manipulated these variables in the field to investigate their causal - and potentially interactive - effects on prosocial behaviour. Across four experimental sessions involving large samples of strangers, we manipulated the synchronous and physiologically arousing affordances of a group marching task within a sports stadium...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317601/common-basis-for-orofacial-clefting-and-cortical-interneuronopathy
#8
Lydia J Ansen-Wilson, Joshua L Everson, Dustin M Fink, Henry W Kietzman, Ruth Sullivan, Robert J Lipinski
Orofacial clefts (OFCs) of the lip and/or palate are among the most common human birth defects. Current treatment strategies focus on functional and cosmetic repair but even when this care is available, individuals born with OFCs are at high risk for persistent neurobehavioral problems. In addition to learning disabilities and reduced academic achievement, recent evidence associates OFCs with elevated risk for a constellation of psychiatric outcomes including anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317600/altered-avalanche-dynamics-in-a-developmental-nmdar-hypofunction-model-of-cognitive-impairment
#9
Saurav Seshadri, Andreas Klaus, Daniel E Winkowski, Patrick O Kanold, Dietmar Plenz
Disturbed activity patterns in cortical networks contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Several lines of evidence implicate NMDA receptor hypofunction in SZ, and blocking NMDA receptor signaling during early neurodevelopment produces cognitive deficits in rodent models that resemble those seen in schizophrenic patients. However, the altered network dynamics underlying these cognitive impairments largely remain to be characterized, especially at the cellular level. Here, we use in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to describe pathological dynamics, occurring in parallel with cognitive dysfunction, in a developmental NMDA receptor hypofunction model...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309685/long-range-alpha-beta-and-short-range-gamma-eeg-synchronization-distinguishes-phasic-and-tonic-rem-periods
#10
Péter Simor, Ferenc Gombos, Borbála Blaskovich, Róbert Bódizs
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is characterized by the alternation of two markedly different microstates, phasic and tonic REM. These periods differ in awakening and arousal thresholds, sensory processing, and spontaneous cortical oscillations. Previous studies indicate that whereas in phasic REM, cortical activity is independent of the external environment, attentional functions and sensory processing are partially maintained during tonic periods. Large-scale synchronization of oscillatory activity, especially in the alpha and beta frequency ranges can accurately distinguish different states of vigilance and cognitive processes of enhanced alertness and attention...
December 23, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308985/transitory-inhibition-of-the-left-anterior-intraparietal-sulcus-impairs-joint-actions-a-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-study
#11
Lucia M Sacheli, Gaetano Tieri, Salvatore M Aglioti, Matteo Candidi
Although temporal coordination is a hallmark of motor interactions, joint action (JA) partners do not simply synchronize; they rather dynamically adapt to each other to achieve a joint goal. We created a novel paradigm to tease apart the processes underlying synchronization and JA and tested the causal contribution of the left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) in these behaviors. Participants had to synchronize their congruent or incongruent movements with a virtual partner in two conditions: (i) being instructed on what specific action to perform, independently from what action the partner performed (synchronization), and (ii) being instructed to adapt online to the partner's action (JA)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308656/nrem-sleep-and-antiepileptic-medications-modulate-epileptiform-activity-by-altering-cortical-synchrony
#12
Chetan S Nayak, N Mariyappa, Kaushik K Majumdar, G S Ravi, Pradeep D Prasad, Madhu Nagappa, Thennarasu Kandavel, Arun B Taly, Sanjib Sinha
INTRODUCTION: The activating role of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep on epileptic cortex and conversely, the seizure remission brought about by antiepileptic medications, has been attributed to their effects on neuronal synchrony. This study aims to understand the role of neural synchrony of NREM sleep in promoting interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in patients with epilepsy (PWE) by assessing the peri-IED phase synchrony during awake and sleep states. It also studies the role played by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on EEG desynchronization in the above cohort...
December 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308229/quantifying-team-cooperation-through-intrinsic-multi-scale-measures-respiratory-and-cardiac-synchronization-in-choir-singers-and-surgical-teams
#13
Apit Hemakom, Katarzyna Powezka, Valentin Goverdovsky, Usman Jaffer, Danilo P Mandic
A highly localized data-association measure, termed intrinsic synchrosqueezing transform (ISC), is proposed for the analysis of coupled nonlinear and non-stationary multivariate signals. This is achieved based on a combination of noise-assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition and short-time Fourier transform-based univariate and multivariate synchrosqueezing transforms. It is shown that the ISC outperforms six other combinations of algorithms in estimating degrees of synchrony in synthetic linear and nonlinear bivariate signals...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307314/shift-work-is-time-of-eating-determining-metabolic-health-evidence-from-animal-models
#14
Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
The circadian disruption in shift-workers is suggested to be a risk factor to develop overweight and metabolic dysfunction. The conflicting time signals given by shifted activity, shifted food intake and exposure to light at night occurring in the shift-worker are proposed to be the cause for the loss of internal synchrony and the consequent adverse effects on body weight and metabolism. Because food elicited signals have proven to be potent entraining signals for peripheral oscillations, here we review the findings from experimental models of shift-work and verify whether they provide evidence about the causal association between shifted feeding schedules, circadian disruption and altered metabolism...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304059/space-use-by-4-strains-of-laying-hens-to-perch-wing-flap-dust-bathe-stand-and-lie-down
#15
Elizabeth R Riddle, Ahmed B A Ali, Dana L M Campbell, Janice M Siegford
The laying hen industry is implementing aviary systems intended to improve welfare by providing hens with more space and resources to perform species-specific behaviors. To date, limited research has examined spatial requirements of various strains of laying hens for performing key behaviors and none has been conducted within an alternative housing system. This study investigated the amount of space used by 4 strains of laying hens (Hy-Line Brown [HB], Bovans Brown [BB], DeKalb White [DW], and Hy-Line W36) to perform 5 different behaviors in the litter area of a commercial-style aviary...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300822/spatio-temporal-arrangement-of-chamaerops-humilis-inflorescences-and-occupancy-patterns-by-its-nursery-pollinator-derelomus-chamaeropsis
#16
M E Jácome-Flores, Miguel Delibes, Thorsten Wiegand, José M Fedriani
Background and Aims: Nursery pollination is a highly specialized interaction in which pollinators breed inside plant reproductive structures. Pollinator occupancy of host plants often depends on plant location, flowering synchrony and sex. The nursery pollination system between the dioecious dwarf palm Chamaerops humilis (Arecaceae) and the host-specific palm flower weevil Derelomus chamaeropsis was investigated. For the first time, sex, flowering synchrony and spatial distribution of plants was related to the occupancy probability and the abundance of D...
January 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299382/an-interspecies-comparative-study-of-invasive-electrophysiological-functional-connectivity
#17
Kaitlyn Casimo, Lila H Levinson, Stavros Zanos, C Alexis Gkogkidis, Tonio Ball, Eberhard Fetz, Kurt E Weaver, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Introduction: Resting-state connectivity patterns have been observed in humans and other mammal species, and can be recorded using a variety of different technologies. Functional connectivity has been previously compared between species using resting-state fMRI, but not in electrophysiological studies. Methods: We compared connectivity with implanted electrodes in humans (electrocorticography) to macaques and sheep (microelectrocorticography), which are capable of recording neural data at high frequencies with spatial precision...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298868/auditory-somatosensory-bimodal-stimulation-desynchronizes-brain-circuitry-to-reduce-tinnitus-in-guinea-pigs-and-humans
#18
Kendra L Marks, David T Martel, Calvin Wu, Gregory J Basura, Larry E Roberts, Kara C Schvartz-Leyzac, Susan E Shore
The dorsal cochlear nucleus is the first site of multisensory convergence in mammalian auditory pathways. Principal output neurons, the fusiform cells, integrate auditory nerve inputs from the cochlea with somatosensory inputs from the head and neck. In previous work, we developed a guinea pig model of tinnitus induced by noise exposure and showed that the fusiform cells in these animals exhibited increased spontaneous activity and cross-unit synchrony, which are physiological correlates of tinnitus. We delivered repeated bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation to the dorsal cochlear nucleus of guinea pigs with tinnitus, choosing a stimulus interval known to induce long-term depression (LTD)...
January 3, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298414/reconstituting-corticostriatal-network-on-a-chip-reveals-the-contribution-of-the-presynaptic-compartment-to-huntington-s-disease
#19
Amandine Virlogeux, Eve Moutaux, Wilhelm Christaller, Aurélie Genoux, Julie Bruyère, Elodie Fino, Benoit Charlot, Maxime Cazorla, Frédéric Saudou
Huntington's disease (HD), a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, strongly affects the corticostriatal network, but the contribution of pre- and postsynaptic neurons in the first phases of disease is unclear due to difficulties performing early subcellular investigations in vivo. Here, we have developed an on-a-chip approach to reconstitute an HD corticostriatal network in vitro, using microfluidic devices compatible with subcellular resolution. We observed major defects in the different compartments of the corticostriatal circuit, from presynaptic dynamics to synaptic structure and transmission and to postsynaptic traffic and signaling, that correlate with altered global synchrony of the network...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296679/foot-force-models-of-crowd-dynamics-on-a-wobbly-bridge
#20
Igor Belykh, Russell Jeter, Vladimir Belykh
Modern pedestrian and suspension bridges are designed using industry standard packages, yet disastrous resonant vibrations are observed, necessitating multimillion dollar repairs. Recent examples include pedestrian-induced vibrations during the opening of the Solférino Bridge in Paris in 1999 and the increased bouncing of the Squibb Park Bridge in Brooklyn in 2014. The most prominent example of an unstable lively bridge is the London Millennium Bridge, which started wobbling as a result of pedestrian-bridge interactions...
November 2017: Science Advances
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