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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642081/tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-impairs-encoding-but-not-retrieval-of-verbal-information
#1
Mohini Ranganathan, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Peter H Addy, Ashley Schnakenberg, Ashley Williams, Michelle Carbuto, Jacqueline Elander, Brian Pittman, R Andrew Sewell, Patrick D Skosnik, Deepak Cyril D'Souza
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis and agonists of the brain cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) produce acute memory impairments in humans. However, the extent to which cannabinoids impair encoding and retrieval in humans has not been established. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the administration of Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis, impairs encoding and/or retrieval of verbal information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy subjects were recruited from the community...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641264/a-single-channel-eog-based-speller
#2
Shenghong He, Yuanqing Li
Electrooculography (EOG) signals, which can be used to infer the intentions of a user based on eye movements, are widely used in human-computer interface (HCI) systems. Most existing EOG-based HCI systems incorporate a limited number of commands because they generally associate different commands with a few different types of eye movements, such as looking up, down, left, or right. This paper presents a novel single-channel EOG-based HCI that allows users to spell asynchronously by only blinking. Forty buttons corresponding to 40 characters displayed to the user via a graphical user interface (GUI) are intensified in a random order...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640508/intraglomerular-gap-junctions-enhance-interglomerular-synchrony-in-a-sparsely-connected-olfactory-bulb-network
#3
Frederic Pouille, Thomas S McTavish, Lawrence E Hunter, Diego Restrepo, Nathan E Schoppa
A dominant feature of the olfactory bulb response to odour is fast synchronized oscillations at beta (15-40 Hz) or gamma (40-90 Hz) frequencies, thought to be involved in integration of olfactory signals. Mechanistically, the bulb presents an interesting case study for understanding how beta/gamma oscillations arise. Fast oscillatory synchrony in the activity of output mitral cells (MCs) appears to result from interactions with GABAergic granule cells (GCs), yet the incidence of MC-GC connections is very low, around 4%...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634086/towards-building-a-more-complex-view-of-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-recent-advances-in-understanding-its-role
#4
REVIEW
Masoud Ghodrati, Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi, Sidney R Lehky
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has often been treated in the past as a linear filter that adds little to retinal processing of visual inputs. Here we review anatomical, neurophysiological, brain imaging, and modeling studies that have in recent years built up a much more complex view of LGN. These include effects related to nonlinear dendritic processing, cortical feedback, synchrony and oscillations across LGN populations, as well as involvement of LGN in higher level cognitive processing Although recent studies have provided valuable insights into early visual processing including the role of LGN, a unified model of LGN responses to real-world objects has not yet been developed...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631689/-objective-tympanophonia-caused-by-myoclonus-of-the-auricular-muscles
#5
N V Boiko
The objective of the present literature review was to systematize the available data on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostics, and treatment of muscular tympanophonia. The commonest source of muscular tympanophonia is the tremor (myoclonus) of the soft palate or the middle ear; sometimes this condition can be a consequence of myoclonus of the external ear muscles or head muscles. Pharmacotherapy of muscular tympanophonia does not invariably result in the favourable outcome. The author describes a rare observation of objective tympanophonia attributable to myoclonus of the auricular muscle...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627083/a-review-of-important-eeg-features-for-the-assessment-of-brain-maturation-in-premature-infants
#6
REVIEW
Elena Pavlidis, Rhodri O Lloyd, Sean Mathieson, Geraldine B Boylan
This review describes the maturational features of the baseline electroencephalogram (EEG) in the neurologically healthy preterm infant. Features such as continuity, sleep state, synchrony and transient waveforms are described, even from extremely preterm infants and includes abundant illustrated examples. The physiological significance of these EEG features and their relationship to neurodevelopment is highlighted where known. This review also demonstrates the importance of multichannel conventional EEG monitoring for preterm infants as many of the features described are not apparent if limited channel EEG monitors are used...
June 18, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626971/genetics-and-developmental-biology-of-cooperation
#7
Claudia Kasper, Maddalena Vierbuchen, Ulrich Ernst, Stefan Fischer, Reinder Radersma, Aura Raulo, Filipa Cunha-Saraiva, Min Wu, Kenyon Mobley, Barbara Taborsky
Despite essential progress towards understanding the evolution of cooperative behaviour, we still lack detailed knowledge about its underlying molecular mechanisms, genetic basis, evolutionary dynamics and ontogeny. An international workshop 'Genetics and Development of Cooperation', organized by the University of Bern (Switzerland), aimed at discussing the current progress in this research field and suggesting avenues for future research. This review uses the major themes of the meeting as a springboard to synthesize the concepts of genetic and non-genetic inheritance of cooperation, and to review a quantitative genetic framework that allows for the inclusion of indirect genetic effects...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626018/dissecting-the-function-of-hippocampal-oscillations-in-a-human-anxiety-model
#8
Saurabh Khemka, Gareth Barnes, Raymond J Dolan, Dominik R Bach
Neural oscillations in hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are a hallmark of rodent anxiety models that build on conflict between approach and avoidance. Yet, the function of these oscillations, and their expression in humans, remain elusive. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate neural oscillations in a task that simulated approach-avoidance conflict, wherein 23 male and female human participants collected monetary tokens under a threat of virtual predation. Probability of threat was learned beforehand by direct experience...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625683/a-developmental-and-clinical-perspective-of-rhythmic-interpersonal-coordination-from-mimicry-toward-the-interconnection-of-minds
#9
Jean Xavier, Julien Magnat, Alain Sherman, Soizic Gauthier, David Cohen, Laurence Chaby
Imitation plays a critical role in the development of intersubjectivity and serves as a prerequisite for understanding the emotions and intentions of others. In our review, we consider spontaneous motor imitation between children and their peers as a developmental process involving repetition and perspective-taking as well as flexibility and reciprocity. During childhood, this playful dynamic challenges developing visuospatial abilities and requires temporal coordination between partners. As such, we address synchrony as form of communication and social signal per se, that leads, from an experience of similarity, to the interconnexion of minds...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624421/spatial-synchrony-and-harvesting-in-fluctuating-populations-relaxing-the-small-noise-assumption
#10
Steinar Engen
In spatio-temporal population dynamic models, the most important concept, in addition to mean and variance of local density fluctuations, is the spatial scale of fluctuations in density expressed by studying the spatial autocovariance function. Analytical formulas for this scale in models with local density regulation, dispersal and spatially autocorrelated noise, are rather simple when based on asymptotic theory giving linear models in the limit as the environmental variance approaches zero. The accuracy of these analytical small noise approximations has, however, not been investigated theoretically...
June 15, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623525/comparison-of-czt-spect-and-conventional-spect-for-assessment-of-contractile-function-mechanical-synchrony-and-myocardial-scar-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#11
Dayong Wu, Zongyao Zhang, Rongzheng Ma, Feng Guo, Lei Wang, Wei Fang
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare CZT-SPECT (CZT SPECT) to conventional SPECT (C-SPECT) in the assessment of left ventricular myocardial scar, contractile function, and mechanical synchrony in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with HF who were referred for myocardial perfusion/metabolism imaging were enrolled. All patients underwent resting (99m)Tc-MIBI gated myocardial perfusion imaging using a CZT SPECT camera and a C-SPECT camera, respectively, and (18)F-FDG PET myocardial metabolism imaging within three days...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620291/network-wide-adaptive-burst-detection-depicts-neuronal-activity-with-improved-accuracy
#12
Inkeri A Välkki, Kerstin Lenk, Jarno E Mikkonen, Fikret E Kapucu, Jari A K Hyttinen
Neuronal networks are often characterized by their spiking and bursting statistics. Previously, we introduced an adaptive burst analysis method which enhances the analysis power for neuronal networks with highly varying firing dynamics. The adaptation is based on single channels analyzing each element of a network separately. Such kind of analysis was adequate for the assessment of local behavior, where the analysis focuses on the neuronal activity in the vicinity of a single electrode. However, the assessment of the whole network may be hampered, if parts of the network are analyzed using different rules...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619652/frontal-temporal-and-parietal-systems-synchronize-within-and-across-brains-during-live-eye-to-eye-contact
#13
Joy Hirsch, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Yumie Ono
Human eye-to-eye contact is a primary source of social cues and communication. In spite of the biological significance of this interpersonal interaction, the underlying neural processes are not well-understood. This knowledge gap, in part, reflects limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, including solitary confinement in the bore of a scanner and minimal tolerance of head movement that constrain investigations of natural, two-person interactions. However, these limitations are substantially resolved by recent technical developments in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive spectral absorbance technique that detects changes in blood oxygen levels in the brain by using surface-mounted optical sensors...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615332/different-roles-for-inhibition-in-the-rhythm-generating-respiratory-network
#14
Kameron Decker Harris, Tatiana Dashevskiy, Joshua Mendoza, Alfredo J Garcia, Jan-Marino Ramirez, Eric Shea-Brown
Unraveling the interplay of excitation and inhibition within rhythm-generating networks remains a fundamental issue in neuroscience. We use a biophysical model to investigate the different roles of local and long-range inhibition in the respiratory network, a key component of which is the pre-Bötzinger complex inspiratory microcircuit. Increasing inhibition within the microcircuit results in a limited number of out-of-phase neurons before rhythmicity and synchrony degenerate. Thus, unstructured local inhibition is destabilizing and cannot support the generation of more than one rhythm...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611618/potential-mechanisms-and-functions-of-intermittent-neural-synchronization
#15
Sungwoo Ahn, Leonid L Rubchinsky
Neural synchronization is believed to play an important role in different brain functions. Synchrony in cortical and subcortical circuits is frequently variable in time and not perfect. Few long intervals of desynchronized dynamics may be functionally different from many short desynchronized intervals although the average synchrony may be the same. Recent analysis of imperfect synchrony in different neural systems reported one common feature: neural oscillations may go out of synchrony frequently, but primarily for a short time interval...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611617/prediction-of-the-seizure-suppression-effect-by-electrical-stimulation-via-a-computational-modeling-approach
#16
Sora Ahn, Sumin Jo, Sang Beom Jun, Hyang Woon Lee, Seungjun Lee
In this paper, we identified factors that can affect seizure suppression via electrical stimulation by an integrative study based on experimental and computational approach. Preferentially, we analyzed the characteristics of seizure-like events (SLEs) using our previous in vitro experimental data. The results were analyzed in two groups classified according to the size of the effective region, in which the SLE was able to be completely suppressed by local stimulation. However, no significant differences were found between these two groups in terms of signal features or propagation characteristics (i...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610901/neural-dynamics-of-two-players-when-using-nonverbal-cues-to-gauge-intentions-to-cooperate-during-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#17
Jaehwan Jahng, Jerald D Kralik, Dong-Uk Hwang, Jaeseung Jeong
Social interaction is a fundamental part of our daily lives; however, exactly how our brains use social cues to determine whether to cooperate without being exploited remains unclear. In this study, we used an electroencephalography (EEG) hyperscanning approach to investigate the effect of face-to-face contact on the brain mechanisms underlying the decision to cooperate or defect in an iterated version of the Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Participants played the game either in face-to-face or face-blocked conditions...
June 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607375/the-role-of-touch-in-regulating-inter-partner-physiological-coupling-during-empathy-for-pain
#18
Pavel Goldstein, Irit Weissman-Fogel, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
The human ability to synchronize with other individuals is critical for the development of social behavior. Recent research has shown that physiological inter-personal synchronization may underlie behavioral synchrony. Nevertheless, the factors that modulate physiological coupling are still largely unknown. Here we suggest that social touch and empathy for pain may enhance interpersonal physiological coupling. Twenty-two romantic couples were assigned the roles of target (pain receiver) and observer (pain observer) under pain/no-pain and touch/no-touch conditions, and their ECG and respiration rates were recorded...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607083/unfinished-synchrony
#19
Michael J Plank, Jonathan W Pitchford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607045/mio-pliocene-aridity-in-the-south-central-andes-associated-with-southern-hemisphere-cold-periods
#20
William H Amidon, G Burch Fisher, Douglas W Burbank, Patricia L Ciccioli, Ricardo N Alonso, Andrew L Gorin, Perri H Silverhart, Andrew R C Kylander-Clark, Michael S Christoffersen
Although Earth's climate history is best known through marine records, the corresponding continental climatic conditions drive the evolution of terrestrial life. Continental conditions during the latest Miocene are of particular interest because global faunal turnover is roughly synchronous with a period of global glaciation from ∼6.2-5.5 Ma and with the Messinian Salinity Crisis from ∼6.0-5.3 Ma. Despite the climatic and ecological significance of this period, the continental climatic conditions associated with it remain unclear...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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