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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444316/oxytocin-facilitates-reciprocity-in-social-communication
#1
Franny B Spengler, Dirk Scheele, Nina Marsh, Charlotte Kofferath, Aileen Flach, Sarah Schwarz, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Wolfgang Maier, René Hurlemann
Synchrony in social groups may confer significant evolutionary advantages by improving group cohesion and social interaction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms translating social synchrony into refined social information transmission between interacting individuals are still elusive. In two successively conducted experiments involving a total of 199 healthy volunteers, we explored the involvement of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in reciprocal social interaction. First, we show that synchronous social interactions evoke heightened endogenous OXT release in dyadic partners...
April 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444210/initial-shunt-type-at-the-norwood-operation-impacts-myocardial-function-in-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome%C3%A2
#2
Hanna K Ruotsalainen, Jaana Pihkala, Jukka Salminen, Lisa K Hornberger, Heikki Sairanen, Tiina Ojala
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of initial shunt type, a Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt versus a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit (RV-PA) on myocardial function at different stages of surgical palliation in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). METHODS: A population-based cohort of 63 Finnish children with HLHS (BT n  = 23, RV-PA n  = 40) born between 2003 and 2010 were studied retrospectively by echocardiography prior to Stages 1, 2 and 3 palliation and 0...
April 24, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443047/synchrony-in-joint-action-is-directed-by-each-participant-s-motor-control-system
#3
Lior Noy, Netta Weiser, Jason Friedman
In this work, we ask how the probability of achieving synchrony in joint action is affected by the choice of motion parameters of each individual. We use the mirror game paradigm to study how changes in leader's motion parameters, specifically frequency and peak velocity, affect the probability of entering the state of co-confidence (CC) motion: a dyadic state of synchronized, smooth and co-predictive motions. In order to systematically study this question, we used a one-person version of the mirror game, where the participant mirrored piece-wise rhythmic movements produced by a computer on a graphics tablet...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443012/the-posterior-parietal-cortex-subserves-precise-motor-timing-in-professional-drummers
#4
Bettina Pollok, Katharina Stephan, Ariane Keitel, Vanessa Krause, Nora K Schaal
The synchronization task is a well-established paradigm for the investigation of motor timing with respect to an external pacing signal. It requires subjects to synchronize their finger taps in synchrony with a regular metronome. A specific significance of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) for superior synchronization in professional drummers has been suggested. In non-musicians, modulation of the excitability of the left PPC by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates synchronization performance of the right hand...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442990/spatiotemporal-and-long-lasting-modulation-of-11-key-nogo-signaling-genes-in-response-to-strong-neuroexcitation
#5
Tobias E Karlsson, Katrin Wellfelt, Lars Olson
Inhibition of nerve growth and plasticity in the CNS is to a large part mediated by Nogo-like signaling, now encompassing a plethora of ligands, receptors, co-receptors and modulators. Here we describe the distribution and levels of mRNA encoding 11 key genes involved in Nogo-like signaling (Nogo-A, Oligodendrocyte-Myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1), NgR2, NgR3, Lingo-1, TNF receptor orphan Y (Troy), Olfactomedin, Lateral olfactory tract usher substance (Lotus) and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MT3-MPP)), as well as BDNF and GAPDH...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441238/diaphragm-activation-in-ventilated-patients-using-a-novel-transvenous-phrenic-nerve-pacing-catheter
#6
Steven Reynolds, Adrian Ebner, Tracy Meffen, Viral Thakkar, Matt Gani, Kaity Taylor, Linda Clark, Gautam Sadarangani, Ramasamy Meyyappan, Rodrigo Sandoval, Elizabeth Rohrs, Joaquín A Hoffer
OBJECTIVES: Over 30% of critically ill patients on positive-pressure mechanical ventilation have difficulty weaning from the ventilator, many of whom acquire ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction. Temporary transvenous phrenic nerve pacing using a novel electrode-bearing catheter may provide a means to prevent diaphragm atrophy, to strengthen an atrophied diaphragm, and mitigate the harms of mechanical ventilation. We tested the initial safety, feasibility, and impact on ventilation of this novel approach...
April 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438505/turning-down-the-volume-astrocyte-volume-change-in-the-generation-and-termination-of-epileptic-seizures
#7
REVIEW
Thomas R Murphy, Devin K Binder, Todd A Fiacco
Approximately 1% of the global population suffers from epilepsy, a class of disorders characterized by recurrent and unpredictable seizures. Of these cases roughly one-third are refractory to current antiepileptic drugs, which typically target neuronal excitability directly. The events leading to seizure generation and epileptogenesis remain largely unknown, hindering development of new treatments. Some recent experimental models of epilepsy have provided compelling evidence that glial cells, especially astrocytes, could be central to seizure development...
April 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437273/assessing-sensorineural-hearing-loss-using-various-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emission-stimulus-conditions
#8
Daniel B Putterman, Douglas H Keefe, Lisa L Hunter, Angela C Garinis, Denis F Fitzpatrick, Garnett P McMillan, M Patrick Feeney
OBJECTIVES: An important clinical application of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) is to evaluate cochlear outer hair cell function for the purpose of detecting sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Double-evoked TEOAEs were measured using a chirp stimulus, in which the stimuli had an extended frequency range compared to clinical tests. The present study compared TEOAEs recorded using an unweighted stimulus presented at either ambient pressure or tympanometric peak pressure (TPP) in the ear canal and TEOAEs recorded using a power-weighted stimulus at ambient pressure...
April 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431249/macrophages-facilitate-electrical-conduction-in-the-heart
#9
Maarten Hulsmans, Sebastian Clauss, Ling Xiao, Aaron D Aguirre, Kevin R King, Alan Hanley, William J Hucker, Eike M Wülfers, Gunnar Seemann, Gabriel Courties, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Yuan Sun, Andrej J Savol, Hendrik B Sager, Kory J Lavine, Gregory A Fishbein, Diane E Capen, Nicolas Da Silva, Lucile Miquerol, Hiroko Wakimoto, Christine E Seidman, Jonathan G Seidman, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Kamila Naxerova, Richard N Mitchell, Dennis Brown, Peter Libby, Ralph Weissleder, Filip K Swirski, Peter Kohl, Claudio Vinegoni, David J Milan, Patrick T Ellinor, Matthias Nahrendorf
Organ-specific functions of tissue-resident macrophages in the steady-state heart are unknown. Here, we show that cardiac macrophages facilitate electrical conduction through the distal atrioventricular node, where conducting cells densely intersperse with elongated macrophages expressing connexin 43. When coupled to spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes via connexin-43-containing gap junctions, cardiac macrophages have a negative resting membrane potential and depolarize in synchrony with cardiomyocytes. Conversely, macrophages render the resting membrane potential of cardiomyocytes more positive and, according to computational modeling, accelerate their repolarization...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429070/properties-of-synchronous-spontaneous-ca-2-transients-in-the-mural-cells-of-rat-rectal-arterioles
#10
Retsu Mitsui, Hikaru Hashitani
Synchrony of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients among venular mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) in visceral organs relies on the intercellular spread of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (LVDCC)-dependent depolarisations. However, the mechanisms underlying the synchrony of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients between arteriolar mural cells are less understood. The spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics of arteriolar mural cells in the rat rectal submucosa were visualised by Cal-520 Ca(2+) imaging to analyse their synchrony...
April 21, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427721/infants-use-of-movement-synchrony-to-infer-social-affiliation-in-others
#11
Christine Fawcett, Bahar Tunçgenç
Infants socially engage with others and observe others' social interactions from early in life. One characteristic found to be important for signaling and establishing affiliative social relationships is physical coordination and synchronization of movements. This study investigated whether synchrony in others' movements signals affiliation to 12- and 15-month-old infants. The infants were shown a scene in which two characters moved either synchronously or non-synchronously with a third character in the center...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423428/aggregation-behavior-and-a-putative-aggregation-pheromone-in-sugar-beet-root-maggot-flies-diptera-ulidiidae
#12
Erik J Wenninger, Susan Y Emmert, Kelly Tindall, Hongjian Ding, Mark A Boetel, D Rajabaskar, Sanford D Eigenbrode
Male-biased aggregations of sugar beet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder) (Diptera: Ulidiidae), flies were observed on utility poles near sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. [Chenopodiaceae]) fields in southern Idaho; this contrasts with the approximately equal sex ratio typically observed within fields. Peak observation of mating pairs coincided with peak diurnal abundance of flies. Volatiles released by individual male and female flies were sampled from 08:00 to 24:00 hours in the laboratory using solid-phase microextraction and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419491/intrinsic-neural-activity-differences-among-psychotic-illnesses
#13
Matthew E Hudgens-Haney, Lauren E Ethridge, Justin B Knight, Jennifer E McDowell, Sarah K Keedy, Godfrey D Pearlson, Carol A Tamminga, Matcheri S Keshavan, John A Sweeney, Brett A Clementz
Individuals with psychosis have been reported to show either reduced or augmented brain responses under seemingly similar conditions. It is likely that inconsistent baseline-adjustment methods are partly responsible for this discrepancy. Using steady-state stimuli during a pro/antisaccade task, this study addressed the relationship between nonspecific and stimulus-related neural activity, and how these activities are modulated as a function of cognitive demands. In 98 psychosis probands (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis), neural activity was assessed during baseline and during a 5-s period in preparation for the pro/antisaccade task...
April 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419208/interhemispheric-synchrony-of-spontaneous-cortical-states-at-the-cortical-column-level
#14
Kazunori O'Hashi, Tomer Fekete, Thomas Deneux, Rina Hildesheim, Cees van Leeuwen, Amiram Grinvald
In cat early visual cortex, neural activity patterns resembling evoked orientation maps emerge spontaneously under anesthesia. To test if such patterns are synchronized between hemispheres, we performed bilateral imaging in anesthetized cats using a new improved voltage-sensitive dye. We observed map-like activity patterns spanning early visual cortex in both hemispheres simultaneously. Patterns virtually identical to maps associated with the cardinal and oblique orientations emerged as leading principal components of the spontaneous fluctuations, and the strength of transient orientation states was correlated with their duration, providing evidence that these maps are transiently attracting states...
April 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416595/nonsinusoidal-beta-oscillations-reflect-cortical-pathophysiology-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Scott R Cole, Roemer van der Meij, Erik J Peterson, Coralie de Hemptinne, Philip A Starr, Bradley Voytek
Oscillations in neural activity play a critical role in neural computation and communication. There is intriguing new evidence that the nonsinusoidal features of the oscillatory waveforms may inform underlying physiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Time-domain waveform analysis approaches stand in contrast to traditional Fourier-based methods, which alter or destroy subtle waveform features. Recently it has been shown that the waveform features of oscillatory beta (13-30 Hz) events-a prominent motor cortical oscillation-may reflect near-synchronous excitatory synaptic inputs onto cortical pyramidal neurons...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415286/dissociation-between-two-subgroups-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-affected-by-the-number-of-damped-oscillated-neurons
#16
Changgui Gu, Huijie Yang, Jos Ht Rohling
In mammals, the main clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain synchronizes the body rhythms to the environmental light-dark cycle. The SCN is composed of about 2×10^{4} neurons which can be classified into three oscillatory phenotypes: self-sustained oscillators, damped oscillators, and arrhythmic neurons. Exposed to an artificial external light-dark cycle with a period of 22h instead of 24h, two subgroups of the SCN can become desynchronized (dissociated). The ventrolateral (VL) subgroup receives photic input and is entrained to the external cycle and a dorsomedial (DM) subgroup oscillates with its endogenous (i...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415236/globally-attracting-synchrony-in-a-network-of-oscillators-with-all-to-all-inhibitory-pulse-coupling
#17
Carmen C Canavier, Ruben A Tikidji-Hamburyan
The synchronization tendencies of networks of oscillators have been studied intensely. We assume a network of all-to-all pulse-coupled oscillators in which the effect of a pulse is independent of the number of oscillators that simultaneously emit a pulse and the normalized delay (the phase resetting) is a monotonically increasing function of oscillator phase with the slope everywhere less than 1 and a value greater than 2φ-1, where φ is the normalized phase. Order switching cannot occur; the only possible solutions are globally attracting synchrony and cluster solutions with a fixed firing order...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411410/spatio-temporal-patterns-of-event-related-potentials-related-to-audiovisual-synchrony-judgments-in-older-adults
#18
Yu Man Chan, Michael Julian Pianta, Stefan Bode, Allison Maree McKendrick
Older adults have altered perception of the relative timing between auditory and visual stimuli, even when stimuli are scaled to equate detectability. To help understand why, this study investigated the neural correlates of audiovisual synchrony judgments in older adults using electroencephalography (EEG). Fourteen younger (18-32 year old) and 16 older (61-74 year old) adults performed an audiovisual synchrony judgment task on flash-pip stimuli while EEG was recorded. All participants were assessed to have healthy vision and hearing for their age...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402539/associating-resting-state-connectivity-with-trait-impulsivity
#19
Nicholas H Angelides, Jayesh Gupta, Timothy J Vickery
Psychometric research has identified stable traits that predict inter-individual differences in appetitive motivation and approach behavior. Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales have been developed to quantitatively assess these traits. However, neural mechanisms corresponding to the proposed constructs reflected in BIS/BAS are still poorly defined. The ventral striatum (VS) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are implicated in subserving reward-related functions that are also associated with the BAS...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402479/perception-of-social-synchrony-induces-mother-child-gamma-coupling-in-the-social-brain
#20
Jonathan Levy, Abraham Goldstein, Ruth Feldman
The recent call to move from focus on one brain's functioning to two-brain communication initiated a search for mechanisms that enable two humans to coordinate brain response during social interactions. Here, we utilized the mother-child context as a developmentally salient setting to study two-brain coupling. Mothers and their 9-year-old children were videotaped at home in positive and conflictual interactions. Positive interactions were microcoded for social synchrony and conflicts for overall dialogical style...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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