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Ignacio Rebollo, Anne-Dominique Devauchelle, Benoît Béranger, Catherine Tallon-Baudry
Resting-state networks offer a unique window into the brain's functional architecture, but their characterization remains limited to instantaneous connectivity thus far. Here, we describe a novel resting-state network based on the delayed connectivity between the brain and the slow electrical rhythm (0.05 Hz) generated in the stomach. The gastric network cuts across classical resting-state networks with partial overlap with autonomic regulation areas. This network is composed of regions with convergent functional properties involved in mapping bodily space through touch, action or vision, as well as mapping external space in bodily coordinates...
March 21, 2018: ELife
Nikola N Radovanović, Siniša U Pavlović, Goran Milašinović, Bratislav Kirćanski, Mirjana M Platiša
We investigated cardio-respiratory coupling in patients with heart failure by quantification of bidirectional interactions between cardiac (RR intervals) and respiratory signals with complementary measures of time series analysis. Heart failure patients were divided into three groups of twenty, age and gender matched, subjects: with sinus rhythm (HF-Sin), with sinus rhythm and ventricular extrasystoles (HF-VES), and with permanent atrial fibrillation (HF-AF). We included patients with indication for implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy device...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Meeri Eeva-Liisa Mäkinen, Laura Ylä-Outinen, Susanna Narkilahti
The electrical activity of the brain arises from single neurons communicating with each other. However, how single neurons interact during early development to give rise to neural network activity remains poorly understood. We studied the emergence of synchronous neural activity in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural networks simultaneously on a single-neuron level and network level. The contribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and gap junctions to the development of synchronous activity in hPSC-derived neural networks was studied with GABA agonist and antagonist and by blocking gap junctional communication, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Nesma Houmani, François Vialatte, Esteve Gallego-Jutglà, Gérard Dreyfus, Vi-Huong Nguyen-Michel, Jean Mariani, Kiyoka Kinugawa
This study addresses the problem of Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis with Electroencephalography (EEG). The use of EEG as a tool for AD diagnosis has been widely studied by comparing EEG signals of AD patients only to those of healthy subjects. By contrast, we perform automated EEG diagnosis in a differential diagnosis context using a new database, acquired in clinical conditions, which contains EEG data of 169 patients: subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, possible Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and patients with other pathologies...
2018: PloS One
Dong Liu, Adam Stowie, Nuria de Zavalia, Tanya Leise, Salil Saurav Pathak, Lester R Drewes, Alec J Davidson, Shimon Amir, Nahum Sonenberg, Ruifeng Cao
Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling controls cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism in dividing cells. Less is known regarding its function in postmitotic neurons in the adult brain. Here we created a conditional mTOR knockout mouse model to address this question. Using the Cre-LoxP system, the mTOR gene was specifically knocked out in cells expressing Vip (vasoactive intestinal peptide), which represent a major population of interneurons widely distributed in the neocortex, suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), olfactory bulb (OB), and other brain regions...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marina Bentivoglio, Giuseppe Bertini
Rijo-Ferreira et al. report alterations of circadian rhythmicity at the behavioral, tissue, cellular, and molecular levels in mice after Trypanosoma brucei infection, showing that targeting cell clocks is a specific feature of these parasites. Thus, African trypanosomes cause a severe disease by disrupting time-keeping mechanisms and their synchrony.
March 16, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
João Castelhano, Paula Tavares, Susana Mouga, Guiomar Oliveira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalographic biomarkers have been widely investigated in autism, in the search for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic outcome measures. Here we took advantage of the information available in temporal oscillatory patterns evoked by simple perceptual decisions to investigate whether stimulus dependent oscillatory signatures can be used as potential biomarkers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: We studied an extensive set of stimuli (9 categories of faces) and performed data driven classification (Support vector machine, SVM) of ASD vs...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Roboam R Aguirre, Mixel Z Mustafa, Alessandra Dumenigo, Steffen Schulz, Andreas Voss, Bishoy Goubran, Rhaisa Dumenigo, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez
A major contributing factor associated with increased cardiac mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) seems to be a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The link between ANS dysfunction and SCZ is multifactorial, but some reports suggest that the use of antipsychotics could be implicated. This case illustrates the time course of autonomic improvement in response to antipsychotic treatment in an inpatient with SCZ in acute psychosis. To this end, we documented markers of autonomic function during hospitalization...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
Frederic Pouille, Nathan E Schoppa
Recent studies have provided evidence that corticofugal feedback (CFF) from the olfactory cortex to the olfactory bulb (OB) can significantly impact the state of excitation of output mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) and also modulate neural synchrony. Interpreting these effects however has been complicated by the large number of cell targets of CFF axons in the bulb. Within the granule cell layer (GCL) alone, CFF axons target both GABAergic granule cells (GCs) as well as GABAergic deep short-axon cells (dSACs) that inhibit GCs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Magdalena Martinez-Losa, Tara E Tracy, Keran Ma, Laure Verret, Alexandra Clemente-Perez, Abdullah S Khan, Inma Cobos, Kaitlyn Ho, Li Gan, Lennart Mucke, Manuel Alvarez-Dolado, Jorge J Palop
Inhibitory interneurons regulate the oscillatory rhythms and network synchrony that are required for cognitive functions and disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Network dysrhythmias in AD and multiple neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with hypofunction of Nav1.1, a voltage-gated sodium channel subunit predominantly expressed in interneurons. We show that Nav1.1-overexpressing, but not wild-type, interneuron transplants derived from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) enhance behavior-dependent gamma oscillatory activity, reduce network hypersynchrony, and improve cognitive functions in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP)-transgenic mice, which simulate key aspects of AD...
March 15, 2018: Neuron
Lauri Nummenmaa, Juha M Lahnakoski, Enrico Glerean
Sociability and capability of shared mental states are hallmarks of the human species, and pursuing shared goals oftentimes requires coordinating both behaviour and mental states. Here we review recent work using indices of intersubject neural synchronisation for measuring similarity of mental states across individuals. We discuss the methodological advances and limitations in the analyses based on intersubject synchrony, and discuss how these kinds of model-free analysis techniques enable the investigation of the brain basis of complex social processes...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Sharon Shmuely, Prisca R Bauer, Erik W van Zwet, J Gert van Dijk, Roland D Thijs
OBJECTIVE: We assessed motor phenomena in syncope and convulsive seizures to aid differential diagnosis and understand the pathophysiologic correlates. METHODS: We studied video-EEG recordings of tilt-induced syncope and convulsive seizures in participants aged 15 years and older. Syncope was defined as (1) loss of consciousness (video-assessed), (2) circulatory changes (accelerating blood pressure decrease with or without bradycardia/asystole), and (3) EEG changes ("slow" or "slow-flat-slow")...
March 16, 2018: Neurology
Yan Zheng, Tetsuro Muraoka, Kento Nakagawa, Kouki Kato, Kazuyuki Kanosue
The relative-salience hypothesis has been proposed as a possible explanation for the stability of bimanual coordination. This explanation proceeds from a psychological viewpoint and is based on the following tenets: (1) cyclic joint motions involving two movements are conceived of as a unified event, (2) if a "single" point in each movement is seen as the most salient, the salient points of the two movements prefer to go together, and (3) in other cases, a unified event will be constrained by movement direction...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Robert T Keys, Anina N Rich, Regine Zopf
Tracking one's own body is essential for environmental interaction, and involves integrating multisensory cues with stored information about the body's typical features. Exactly how multisensory information is integrated in own-body perception is still unclear. For example, Ide and Hidaka (Exp Brain Res 228:43-50, 2013) found that participants made less precise visuo-tactile temporal order judgments (TOJ) when viewing hands in a plausible orientation (upright; typical for one's own hand) compared to an implausible orientation (rotated 180°)...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
M Tyloo, T Coletta, Ph Jacquod
In network theory, a question of prime importance is how to assess network vulnerability in a fast and reliable manner. With this issue in mind, we investigate the response to external perturbations of coupled dynamical systems on complex networks. We find that for specific, nonaveraged perturbations, the response of synchronous states depends on the eigenvalues of the stability matrix of the unperturbed dynamics, as well as on its eigenmodes via their overlap with the perturbation vector. Once averaged over properly defined ensembles of perturbations, the response is given by new graph topological indices, which we introduce as generalized Kirchhoff indices...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Maartje J Klapwijk, Jonathan A Walter, Anikó Hirka, György Csóka, Christer Björkman, Andrew M Liebhold
1.Studies of transient population dynamics have largely focused on temporal changes in dynamical behavior, such as the transition between periods of stability and instability. The present study explores a related dynamic pattern, namely transient synchrony during a 49-year period among populations of five sympatric species of forest insects that share host tree resources. The long time-series allows a more comprehensive exploration of transient synchrony patterns than most previous studies. Considerable variation existed in the dynamics of individual species, ranging from periodic to aperiodic...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
M Sehmbi, C D Rowley, L Minuzzi, F Kapczinski, M Steiner, R B Sassi, N A Bock, B N Frey
OBJECTIVE: Although cognitive dysfunction persists through affective and euthymic states in bipolar disorder (BD), its neurobiological correlates remain undetermined. We explore whole-cortex intracortical myelin (ICM) and cognition in BD-I and controls. METHODS: T1 -weighted images (3T) optimized for ICM measurement were analyzed using a surface-based approach. MRI signal was sampled at cortical mid-depth. Cognitive performance was measured via standardized computerized battery and paper-and-pencil Trails B...
March 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Guillermo Romero-Farina, Santiago Aguadé-Bruix
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Eline R Kupers, Helena X Wang, Kaoru Amano, Kendrick N Kay, David J Heeger, Jonathan Winawer
Currently, non-invasive methods for studying the human brain do not routinely and reliably measure spike-rate-dependent signals, independent of responses such as hemodynamic coupling (fMRI) and subthreshold neuronal synchrony (oscillations and event-related potentials). In contrast, invasive methods-microelectrode recordings and electrocorticography (ECoG)-have recently measured broadband power elevation in field potentials (~50-200 Hz) as a proxy for locally averaged spike rates. Here, we sought to detect and quantify stimulus-related broadband responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
2018: PloS One
Avniel Singh Ghuman, Rebecca N van den Honert, Theodore J Huppert, Gregory L Wallace, Alex Martin
BACKGROUND: Prevailing theories suggest that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) results from impaired brain communication, causing aberrant synchrony among neuronal populations. However, it remains debated whether synchrony abnormalities are among local or long-range circuits, are circuit specific or are generalized, reflect hypersynchrony or reflect hyposynchrony, and are frequency band-specific or are distributed across the frequency spectrum. METHODS: To help clarify these unresolved questions, we recorded spontaneous magnetoencephalography data and used a data-driven, whole-brain analysis of frequency-specific interregional synchrony in higher-functioning adolescents and adults, with 17 ASD and 18 control subjects matched on age, IQ, and sex, and equal for motion...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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