Read by QxMD icon Read


John D Fisher
In the words of the legendary late John Messenger, pacemakers have evolved from the equivalent of a pirate's peg leg that simply prevents you from falling down, to a fully articulated prosthesis. Each "ultimate" step has been succeeded by ever more sophisticated devices. Very early attempts at providing atrioventricular synchrony included metal wire connections between atrium and ventricle, and His bundle pacing with large screw-in electrodes. These efforts failed, largely because of poor conductivity, excessive fibrosis and loss of capture...
October 24, 2016: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Ethungshan Shitiri, Ho-Shin Cho
For nanonetworks to be able to achieve large-scale functionality, such as to respond collectively to a trigger, synchrony between nanomachines is essential. However, to facilitate synchronization, some sort of physical clocking mechanism is required, such as the oscillators driven by auto-inhibitory molecules or by auto-inducing molecules. In this study, taking inspiration from the widely studied biological oscillatory phenomena called Calcium (Ca2+) oscillations, we undertake a different approach to design an oscillator...
October 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Ibrahim J Domian, Hanry Yu, Nikhil Mittal
In this essay the authors argue that chamber pressure dominates the biomechanics of the contraction cycle of the heart, while tissue stiffness dominates the relaxation cycle. This appears to be an under-recognized challenge in cardiac tissue engineering. Optimal approaches will involve constructing chambers or modulating the stiffness of the scaffold/substrate in synchrony with the beating cycle.
October 24, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Molly Davis, Joanie Bilms, Cynthia Suveg
A growing body of research has highlighted the connection between parent-child positive behavioral synchrony and youth self-regulation; however, this association has yet to be the focus of a meta-analytic review. Therefore, the present meta-analysis aimed to estimate the magnitude of the relation between parent-child positive behavioral synchrony and youth self-regulation and to identify moderator variables that can explain the variability in the degree of this association across the extant literature. A thorough literature search of two major databases, in addition to scanning the reference sections of relevant articles, yielded a total of 10 peer-reviewed articles (24 effect sizes, 658 children) that were eligible for inclusion in the current meta-analysis...
October 23, 2016: Family Process
P Zeman
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is peculiar due to its unstable dynamics with profound inter-annual fluctuations in case numbers - a phenomenon not well understood to date. Possible reasons - apart from variable human contact with TBE foci - include external factors, e.g. climatic forcing, autonomous oscillations of the disease system itself, or a combined action of both. Spectral analysis of TBE data from six regions of central Europe (CE) revealed that the ostensibly chaotic dynamics can be explained in terms of four superposed (quasi-)periodical oscillations: a quasi-biennial, triennial, pentennial, and a decadal cycle...
October 24, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Andrei Tsentsevitsky, Leniz Nurullin, Evgeny Nikolsky, Artem Malomouzh
There is some evidence that glutamate (Glu) acts as a signaling molecule at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions where acetylcholine (ACh) serves as a neurotransmitter. In this study, performed on the cutaneous pectoris muscle of the frog Rana ridibunda, Glu receptor mechanisms that modulate ACh release processes were analyzed. Electrophysiological experiments showed that Glu reduces both spontaneous and evoked quantal secretion of ACh and synchronizes its release in response to electrical stimulation. Quisqualate, an agonist of ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptors and metabotropic Group I mGlu receptors, also exerted Glu-like inhibitory effects on the secretion of ACh but had no effect on the kinetics of quantal release...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams, Johanna Forst, Matthew J Mender, Erikson G Neilans, Fabio Idrobo, Laurel H Carney
Vowels make a strong contribution to speech perception under natural conditions. Vowels are encoded in the auditory nerve primarily through neural synchrony to temporal fine structure and to envelope fluctuations rather than through average discharge rate. Neural synchrony is thought to contribute less to vowel coding in central auditory nuclei, consistent with more limited synchronization to fine structure and the emergence of average-rate coding of envelope fluctuations. However, this hypothesis is largely unexplored, especially in background noise...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Roger Graham Lentle, Gordon W Reynolds, Corrin M Hulls, J P Chambers
We used spatiotemporal mapping of strain rate to determine the direction of propagation and amplitudes of the longitudinal and circumferential components of antro-corporal contractions and fundal contractions in the rat stomach maintained ex vivo and containing a volume of fluid that was within its normal functional capacity. In the region of the greater curvature the longitudinal and circular components of anterocorporal (AC) contractions propagated synchronously at right angles to the arciform geometric axis of the stomach...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Melissa Ellamil, Joshua Berson, Jen Wong, Louis Buckley, Daniel S Margulies
Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music...
2016: PloS One
Mingxiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb, Annemarie Angeles, Sharon Nichols, Angela I Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria Risbrough, Anders M Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or Veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Fabien Aubret, Florent Bignon, Philippe J R Kok, Gaëlle Blanvillain
Egg-clustering and communal nesting behaviours provide advantages to offspring. Advantages range from anti-predatory benefits, maintenance of moisture and temperature levels within the nest, preventing the eggs from rolling, to enabling hatching synchrony through embryo communication. It was recently suggested that embryo communication may extend beyond development fine-tuning, and potentially convey information about the quality of the natal environment as well as provide an indication of forthcoming competition amongst siblings, conspecifics or even heterospecifics...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ayako Yamaguchi, Jessica Cavin Barnes, Todd Appleby
Central pattern generators (CPG) in the brainstem are considered to underlie vocalizations in many vertebrate species, but the detailed mechanisms underlying how motor rhythms are generated, coordinated, and initiated remain unclear. We addressed these issues using isolated brain preparations of Xenopus laevis from which fictive vocalizations can be elicited. Advertisement calls of male X. laevis that consist of fast and slow trills are generated by vocal CPGs contained in the brainstem. Brainstem central vocal pathways consist of a premotor nucleus (DTAM) and a laryngeal motor nucleus (n...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Oana Chever, Elena Dossi, Nathalie Rouach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Barbara A Morrongiello, Amanda Cox
In most industrialized countries, injuries are the leading cause of death for children 1 through 18 years of age. For infants, many injuries occur in the home when they are acquiring new motor milestones. Thus, as infants' motor competencies change with development, creating increasing opportunities for them to interact with hazards, parent safety strategies need to adapt in synchrony in order to sustain a safe ecological niche and prevent injuries. The present study examined parent safety practices when infants were pre-mobile (i...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Janine Aucamp, Abel Jacobus Bronkhorst, Piet J Pretorius
The quantitative and qualitative differences of circulating nucleic acids (cirNAs) between healthy and diseased individuals have motivated researchers to utilize these differences in the diagnosis and prognosis of various pathologies. The position maintained here is that reviewing the rather neglected early work associated with cirNAs and extracellular vesicles (EVs) is required to fully describe the nature of cirNAs. This review consists of an empirically up-to-date schematic summary of the major events that developed and integrated the concepts of heredity, genetic information and cirNAs...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Joshua J Emrick, Brooks A Gross, Brett T Riley, Gina R Poe
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Investigators assign sleep-waking states using brain activity collected from a single site, assuming that states occur at the same time throughout the brain. We sought to determine if sleep-waking states differ between two separate structures: the hippocampus and neocortex. METHODS: We measured electrical signals (electroencephalograms and electromyograms) during sleep from the hippocampus and neocortex of five freely behaving adult male rats. We assigned sleep-waking states in 10-sec epochs based on standard scoring criteria across a 4 h recording and analyzed and compared states and signals from simultaneous epochs between sites...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Yindong Tong, Xiaoge Bu, Junyue Chen, Feng Zhou, Long Chen, Maodian Liu, Xin Tan, Tao Yu, Wei Zhang, Zhaorong Mi, Lekuan Ma, Xuejun Wang, Jing Ni
Based on a time-series dataset and the mass balance method, the contributions of various sources to the nutrient discharges from the Yangtze River to the East China Sea are identified. The results indicate that the nutrient concentrations vary considerably among different sections of the Yangtze River. Non-point sources are an important source of nutrients to the Yangtze River, contributing about 36% and 63% of the nitrogen and phosphorus discharged into the East China Sea, respectively. Nutrient inputs from non-point sources vary among the sections of the Yangtze River, and the contributions of non-point sources increase from upstream to downstream...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Maximilian H Beck, Jens K Haumesser, Johanna Kühn, Jennifer Altschüler, Andrea A Kühn, Christoph van Riesen
Abnormally enhanced beta oscillations have been found in deep brain recordings from human Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in animal models of PD. Recent correlative evidence suggests that beta oscillations are related to disease-specific symptoms such as akinesia and rigidity. However, this hypothesis has also been repeatedly questioned by studies showing no changes in beta power in animal models using an acute pharmacologic dopamine blockade. To further investigate the temporal dynamics of exaggerated beta synchrony in PD, we investigated the reserpine model, which is characterized by an acute and stable disruption of dopamine transmission, and compared it to the chronic progressive 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Z Schultzhaus, T B Johnson, B D Shaw
Cell growth necessitates extensive membrane remodeling events including vesicle fusion or fission, processes that are regulated by coat proteins. The hyphal cells of filamentous fungi concentrate both exocytosis and endocytosis at the apex. This investigation focuses on clathrin in Aspergillus nidulans, with the aim of understanding its role in membrane remodeling in growing hyphae. We examined clathrin heavy chain (ClaH-GFP) which localized to three distinct subcellular structures: late Golgi (trans-Golgi equivalents of filamentous fungi), which are concentrated just behind the hyphal tip but are intermittently present throughout all hyphal cells; the region of concentrated endocytosis just behind the hyphal apex (the "endocytic collar"); and small, rapidly moving puncta that were seen trafficking long distances in nearly all hyphal compartments...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Tanmoy Banerjee, Partha Sharathi Dutta, Anna Zakharova, Eckehard Schöll
This paper reports the occurrence of several chimera patterns and the associated transitions among them in a network of coupled oscillators, which are connected by a long-range interaction that obeys a distance-dependent power law. This type of interaction is common in physics and biology and constitutes a general form of coupling scheme, where by tuning the power-law exponent of the long-range interaction the coupling topology can be varied from local via nonlocal to global coupling. To explore the effect of the power-law coupling on collective dynamics, we consider a network consisting of a realistic ecological model of oscillating populations, namely the Rosenzweig-MacArthur model, and show that the variation of the power-law exponent mediates transitions between spatial synchrony and various chimera patterns...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"