keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Interneurons

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549975/knockdown-of-epigenetic-transcriptional-co-regulator-brd2a-disrupts-apoptosis-and-proper-formation-of-hindbrain-and-midbrain-hindbrain-boundary-mhb-region-in-zebrafish
#1
Tami Murphy, Heather Melville, Eliza Fradkin, Giana Bistany, Gregory Branigan, Kelly Olsen, Catharine R Comstock, Hayley Hanby, Ellie Garbade, Angela J DiBenedetto
Brd2 is a member of the bromodomain-extraterminal domain (BET) family of proteins and functions as an acetyl-histone-directed transcriptional co-regulator and recruitment scaffold in chromatin modification complexes affecting signal-dependent transcription. While Brd2 acts as a protooncogene in mammalian blood, developmental studies link it to regulation of neuronal apoptosis and epilepsy, and complete knockout of the gene is invariably embryonic lethal. In Drosophila, the Brd2 homolog acts as a maternal effect factor necessary for segment formation and identity and proper expression of homeotic loci, including Ultrabithorax and engrailed...
May 23, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548612/multiple-sclerosis-serum-anti-cns-autoantibodies
#2
John W Prineas, John D E Parratt
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether there are autoantibodies detectable by indirect immunofluorescence in the serum of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are anti-central nervous system (CNS) autoantibodies detectable by indirect immunofluorescence in the serum of MS patients. METHODS: Sera and in some cases cerebrospinal fluid from 106 patients with multiple sclerosis, 156 patients with other neurological diseases, and 70 healthy control subjects were examined by indirect immunofluorescence using cryostat sections of rat cerebrum fixed by perfusion with paraformaldehyde...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548606/anatomical-recruitment-of-spinal-v2a-interneurons-into-phrenic-motor-circuitry-after-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Lyandysha Viktorovna Zholudeva, Jordyn Karliner, Kimberly J Dougherty, Michael Lane
More than half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur at the cervical level, often resulting in impaired respiration. Despite this devastating outcome, there is substantial evidence for endogenous neuroplasticity after cervical SCI. Spinal interneurons are widely recognized as being an essential anatomical component of this plasticity by contributing to novel neuronal pathways that can result in functional improvement. The identity of spinal interneurons involved with respiratory plasticity post-SCI, however, has remained largely unknown...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544891/emergence-of-ultrafast-sparsely-synchronized-rhythms-and-their-responses-to-external-stimuli-in-an-inhomogeneous-small-world-complex-neuronal-network
#4
Sang-Yoon Kim, Woochang Lim
We consider an inhomogeneous small-world network (SWN) composed of inhibitory short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) interneurons, and investigate the effect of network architecture on emergence of synchronized brain rhythms by varying the fraction of LR interneurons plong. The betweenness centralities of the LR and SR interneurons (characterizing the potentiality in controlling communication between other interneurons) are distinctly different. Hence, in view of the betweenness, SWNs we consider are inhomogeneous, unlike the "canonical" Watts-Strogatz SWN with nearly the same betweenness centralities...
April 28, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543166/chronic-emgs-in-treadmill-running-sod1-mice-reveal-early-changes-in-muscle-activation
#5
K A Quinlan, E Kajtaz, J D Ciolino, R D Imhoff-Manuel, M C Tresch, C J Heckman, V M Tysseling
To improve our understanding of early disease mechanisms and find reliable biomarkers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, we measured electromyogram (EMG) activity in hind limb muscles of SOD1G93A mice. In contrast to clinical diagnostic measures using EMGs, which are performed on quiescent patients, we monitored activity during treadmill running in order to detect presymptomatic changes in motor patterning. Chronic EMG electrodes were implanted into vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris posterior (BFP), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) in mice from postnatal day (P) 55-100, and results were assessed using linear mixed models...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539874/juvenile-hippocampal-ca2-region-expresses-aggrecan
#6
Asako Noguchi, Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Shota Morikawa, Hideki Tamura, Yuji Ikegaya
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are distributed primarily around inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons. PNNs are also present around excitatory neurons in some brain regions and prevent plasticity in these neurons. A recent study demonstrated that PNNs also exist around mouse hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are the principle type of excitatory neurons, in the CA2 subregion and modulate the excitability and plasticity of these neurons. However, the development of PNNs in the CA2 region during postnatal maturation was not fully investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539397/variations-on-a-theme-species-differences-in-synaptic-connectivity-do-not-predict-central-pattern-generator-activity
#7
Charuni A Gunaratne, Akira Sakurai, Paul S Katz
A fundamental question in comparative neuroethology is the extent to which synaptic wiring determines behavior versus the extent to which it is constrained by phylogeny. We investigated this by examining the connectivity and activity of homologous neurons in different species. Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) have homologous neurons and exhibit homologous swimming behaviors consisting of alternating left-right (LR) whole body flexions. Yet, a homologous interneuron (Si1) differs between the two species in its participation in the swim motor pattern (SMP) and synaptic connectivity...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536821/impaired-motor-coordination-and-learning-in-mice-lacking-anoctamin-2-calcium-gated-chloride-channels
#8
Franziska Neureither, Katharina Ziegler, Claudia Pitzer, Stephan Frings, Frank Möhrlen
Neurons communicate through excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Both lines of communication are adjustable and allow the fine tuning of signal exchange required for learning processes in neural networks. Several distinct modes of plasticity modulate glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex to promote motor control and learning. In the present paper, we present evidence for a role of short-term ionic plasticity in the cerebellar circuit activity. This type of plasticity results from altered chloride driving forces at the synapses that molecular layer interneurons form on Purkinje cell dendrites...
May 23, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532887/the-influence-of-walking-aids-on-the-plasticity-of-spinal-interneuronal-networks-central-pattern-generators-and-the-recovery-of-gait-post-stroke-a-literature-review-and-scholarly-discussion
#9
REVIEW
Clare C Maguire, Judith M Sieben, Robert A de Bie
BACKGROUND: Many aspects of post-stroke gait-rehabilitation are based on low-level evidence or expert opinion. Neuroscientific principles are often not considered when evaluating the impact of interventions. The use of walking-aids including canes and rollators, although widely used for long periods, has primarily been investigated to assess the immediate kinetic, kinematic or physiological effects. The long-term impact on neural structures und functions remains unclear. METHODS: A literature review of the function of and factors affecting plasticity of spinal interneuronal-networks and central-pattern-generators (CPG) in healthy and post-stroke patients...
April 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529315/disinhibition-of-somatostatin-positive-interneurons-by-deletion-of-postsynaptic-gabaa-receptors
#10
T Fuchs, S J Jefferson, A Hooper, P-H P Yee, J Maguire, B Luscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528964/inhibitory-interneurons-and-their-circuit-motifs-in-the-many-layers-of-the-barrel-cortex
#11
Dirk Feldmeyer, Guanxiao Qi, Vishalini Emmenegger, Jochen F Staiger
Recent years have seen substantial progress in studying the structural and function properties of GABAergic interneurons and their roles in the neuronal networks of barrel cortex. Although GABAergic interneurons represent only about 12% of the total number of neocortical neurons, they are extremely diverse with respect to their structural and functional properties. It has become clear that barrel cortex interneurons not only serve the maintenance of an appropriate excitation/inhibition balance but also are directly involved in sensory processing...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528380/the-rat-corticospinal-system-is-functionally-and-anatomically-segregated
#12
Rafael Olivares-Moreno, Yunuen Moreno-Lopez, Luis Concha, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Miguel Condés-Lara, Matilde Cordero-Erausquin, Gerardo Rojas-Piloni
The descending corticospinal (CS) projection has been considered a key element for motor control, which results from direct and indirect modulation of spinal cord pre-motor interneurons in the intermediate gray matter of the spinal cord, which, in turn, influences motoneurons in the ventral horn. The CS tract (CST) is also involved in a selective and complex modulation of sensory information in the dorsal horn. However, little is known about the spinal network engaged by the CST and the organization of CS projections that may encode different cortical outputs to the spinal cord...
May 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527575/coup-tf-genes-human-diseases-and-the-development-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-murine-models
#13
Xiong Yang, Su Feng, Ke Tang
COUP-TFI and -TFII are members of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Recent clinical studies reveal that COUP-TFI gene mutations are associated with Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome displaying symptoms of optic atrophy, intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizure, autism spectrum disorders, oromotor dysfunction, thin corpus callosum, or hearing defects, and COUP-TFII gene mutations lead to congenital heart defects and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with developmental delay and mental defects...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526883/openspritzer-an-open-hardware-pressure-ejection-system-for-reliably-delivering-picolitre-volumes
#14
C J Forman, H Tomes, B Mbobo, R J Burman, M Jacobs, T Baden, J V Raimondo
The ability to reliably and precisely deliver picolitre volumes is an important component of biological research. Here we describe a high-performance, low-cost, open hardware pressure ejection system (Openspritzer), which can be constructed from off the shelf components. The device is capable of delivering minute doses of reagents to a wide range of biological and chemical systems. In this work, we characterise the performance of the device and compare it to a popular commercial system using two-photon fluorescence microscopy...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525574/a-schizophrenia-related-deletion-leads-to-kcnq2-dependent-abnormal-dopaminergic-modulation-of-prefrontal-cortical-interneuron-activity
#15
Se Joon Choi, Jun Mukai, Mirna Kvajo, Bin Xu, Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Pothitos M Pitychoutis, Bin Gou, Joseph A Gogos, Hui Zhang
Altered prefrontal cortex function is implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ) pathophysiology and could arise from imbalance between excitation and inhibition (E/I) in local circuits. It remains unclear whether and how such imbalances relate to genetic etiologies. We used a mouse model of the SCZ-predisposing 22q11.2 deletion (Df(16)A+/- mice) to evaluate how this genetic lesion affects the excitability of layer V prefrontal pyramidal neurons and its modulation by dopamine (DA). Df(16)A+/- mice have normal balance between E/I at baseline but are unable to maintain it upon dopaminergic challenge...
May 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522884/profiles-of-periglomerular-cells-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-prokineticin-type-2-receptor-deficient-mice
#16
Atsuko Kubo, Mitsugu Sujino, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Atsuko Fujioka, Toshio Terashima, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi, Mamoru Nagano
Both prokineticin receptor 2 (pkr2) and prokineticin 2 (pk2) gene-deficient mice have hypoplasia of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). This hypoplasia has been attributed to disruption of the glomerulus that is caused by loss of afferent projection from olfactory sensory neurons (OSN), and to the impaired migration of granule cells, a type of interneuron. In the present study, we examined whether migration of the second type of interneuron, periglomerular cells (PGC), is dependent on the pkr2 expression by observing the localization of distinct subpopulations of PGC: calretinin (CR)-, calbindin (CB)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing neurons...
April 27, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513860/cortical-contributions-to-sensory-gating-in-the-ipsilateral-somatosensory-cortex-during-voluntary-activity
#17
Yuming Lei, Monica A Perez
An important principle in the organization of the somatosensory cortex is that it processes afferent information from the contralateral side of the body. The role of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (iS1) in sensory gating in humans remains largely unknown. Using electroencephalographic recordings over the iS1 and electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist we examined somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs; P14/N20, N20/P25, and P25/N33 components) and paired-pulse SSEPs between (interhemispheric inhibition) and within (intracortical inhibition) the iS1 at rest and during tonic index finger voluntary activity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511841/a-method-for-isolating-cortical-interneurons-sharing-the-same-birthdays-for-gene-expression-studies
#18
Hui Xuan Ng, Ean Phing Lee, Brenton L Cavanagh, Joanne M Britto, Seong-Seng Tan
The two neuronal populations in the cortex, pyramidal neurons and interneurons, can be separated based on neurotransmitter identity, however, within this segregation a large degree of diversity exists. Investigations into the molecular diversity of neurons are impeded by the inability to isolate cell populations born at different times for gene expression analysis. Developing interneurons may be distinguished by the expression of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase-67 (GAD67). Neuronal birthdating using nucleoside analogs is an effective means of identifying coetaneous interneurons...
May 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510275/single-cell-transcriptome-profiling-of-developing-chick-retinal-cells
#19
Lauren A Laboissonniere, Gregory M Martin, Jillian J Goetz, Ran Bi, Brock Pope, Kallie Weinand, Laura Ellson, Diane Fru, Miranda Lee, Andrea K Wester, Peng Liu, Jeffrey M Trimarchi
The vertebrate retina is a specialized photosensitive tissue comprised of six neuronal and one glial cell types, each of which develops in prescribed proportions at overlapping timepoints from a common progenitor pool. While each of these cells has a specific function contributing to proper vision in the mature animal, their differential representation in the retina as well as the presence of distinctive cellular subtypes makes identifying the transcriptomic signatures that lead to each retinal cell's fate determination and development challenging...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509666/an-inhibitory-gate-for-state-transition-in-cortex
#20
Stefano Zucca, Giulia D'Urso, Valentina Pasquale, Dania Vecchia, Giuseppe Pica, Serena Bovetti, Claudio Moretti, Stefano Varani, Manuel Molano-Mazón, Michela Chiappalone, Stefano Panzeri, Tommaso Fellin
Large scale transitions between active (up) and silent (down) states during quiet wakefulness or NREM sleep regulate fundamental cortical functions and are known to involve both excitatory and inhibitory cells. However, if and how inhibition regulates these activity transitions is unclear. Using fluorescence-targeted electrophysiological recording and cell-specific optogenetic manipulation in both anesthetized and non-anesthetized mice, we found that two major classes of interneurons, the parvalbumin and the somatostatin positive cells, tightly control both up-to-down and down-to-up state transitions...
May 16, 2017: ELife
keyword
keyword
36103
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"