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Interneurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928636/smn-deficiency-increases-the-intrinsic-excitability-of-motoneurons
#1
Saravanan Arumugam, Ana Garcera, Rosa M Soler, Lucía Tabares
During development, motoneurons experience significant changes in their size and in the number and strength of connections that they receive, which requires adaptive changes in their passive and active electrical properties. Even after reaching maturity, motoneurons continue to adjust their intrinsic excitability and synaptic activity for proper functioning of the sensorimotor circuit in accordance with physiological demands. Likewise, if some elements of the circuit become dysfunctional, the system tries to compensate for the alterations to maintain appropriate function...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925523/bdnf-haplo-insufficiency-impairs-high-frequency-cortical-oscillations-in-mice
#2
Nigel C Jones, Matthew Hudson, Joshua Foreman, Gil Rind, Rachel Hill, Elizabeth E Manning, Maarten van den Buuse
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous aetiology involving genetic and environmental factors. Deficiencies in both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NMDA receptor function have been implicated in the disorder, and may play causal and synergistic roles. Perturbations in the regulation of electrophysiological signals, including high-frequency (gamma: 30-80 Hz and beta: 20-30 Hz) neuronal oscillations, are also associated with the disorder. This study investigated the influence of BDNF deficiency and NMDA receptor hypofunction on electrophysiological responses to brief acoustic stimuli...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925352/bmps-direct-sensory-interneuron-identity-in-the-developing-spinal-cord-using-signal-specific-not-morphogenic-activities
#3
Madeline G Andrews, Lorenzo M Del Castillo, Eliana Ochoa-Bolton, Ken Yamauchi, Jan Smogorzewski, Samantha J Butler
The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) family reiteratively signals to direct disparate cellular fates throughout embryogenesis. In the developing dorsal spinal cord, multiple BMPs are required to specify sensory interneurons (INs). Previous studies suggested that the BMPs act as concentration-dependent morphogens to direct IN identity, analogous to the manner in which sonic hedgehog patterns the ventral spinal cord. However, it remains unresolved how multiple BMPs would cooperate to establish a unified morphogen gradient...
September 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924206/ephrin-a2-regulates-excitatory-neuron-differentiation-and-interneuron-migration-in-the-developing-neocortex
#4
Jihane Homman-Ludiye, William C Kwan, Mitchell J de Souza, Jennifer Rodger, James A Bourne
The development of the neocortex requires co-ordination between proliferation and differentiation, as well as the precise orchestration of neuronal migration. Eph/ephrin signaling is crucial in guiding neurons and their projections during embryonic development. In adult ephrin-A2 knockout mice we consistently observed focal patches of disorganized neocortical laminar architecture, ranging in severity from reduced neuronal density to a complete lack of neurons. Loss of ephrin-A2 in the pre-optic area of the diencephalon reduced the migration of neocortex-bound interneurons from this region...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924050/discovery-of-leucokinin-like-neuropeptides-that-modulate-a-specific-parameter-of-feeding-motor-programs-in-the-molluscan-model-aplysia
#5
Guo Zhang, Ferdinand S Vilim, Dan-Dan Liu, Elena V Romanova, Ke Yu, Wang-Ding Yuan, Hui Xiao, Amanda B Hummon, Ting-Ting Chen, Vera Alexeeva, Si-Yuan Yin, Song-An Chen, Elizabeth C Cropper, Jonathan V Sweedler, Klaudiusz R Weiss, Jian Jing
A better understanding of neuromodulation in a behavioral system requires identifying active modulatory transmitters. Here, we used identifiable neurons in a neurobiological model system, the mollusc Aplysia, to study neuropeptides, a diverse class of neuromodulators. We took advantage of two types of feeding neurons, B48 and B1/B2, in the Aplysia buccal ganglion that might contain different neuropeptides. We performed a representational difference analysis (RDA) by subtraction of mRNAs in B48 versus mRNA in B1/B2...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923348/stimulation-of-accumbal-gabaa-receptors-inhibits-delta2-but-not-delta1-opioid-receptor-mediated-dopamine-efflux-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-freely-moving-rats
#6
Yuri Aono, Yuri Kiguchi, Yuriko Watanabe, John L Waddington, Tadashi Saigusa
The nucleus accumbens contains delta-opioid receptors that may reduce inhibitory neurotransmission. Reduction in GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release due to delta-opioid receptor activation should be suppressed by stimulating accumbal GABAA receptors. As delta-opioid receptors are divided into delta2- and delta1-opioid receptors, we analysed the effects of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol on delta2- and delta1-opioid receptor-mediated accumbal dopamine efflux in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922859/spatial-embryonic-origin-delineates-gabaergic-hub-neurons-driving-network-dynamics-in-the-developing-entorhinal-cortex
#7
Laura Mòdol, Vitor Hugo Sousa, Arnaud Malvache, Thomas Tressard, Agnes Baude, Rosa Cossart
Coordinated neuronal activity is essential for the development of cortical circuits. GABAergic hub neurons that function in orchestrating early neuronal activity through a widespread net of postsynaptic partners are therefore critical players in the establishment of functional networks. Evidence for hub neurons was previously found in the hippocampus, but their presence in other cortical regions remains unknown. We examined this issue in the entorhinal cortex, an initiation site for coordinated activity in the neocortex and for the activity-dependent maturation of the entire entorhinal-hippocampal network...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922832/fast-spiking-parvalbumin-interneurons-are-frequently-myelinated-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-mice-and-humans
#8
J Stedehouder, J J Couey, D Brizee, B Hosseini, J A Slotman, C M F Dirven, G Shpak, A B Houtsmuller, S A Kushner
Myelination, the insulating ensheathment of axons by oligodendrocytes, is thought to both optimize signal propagation and provide metabolic support. Despite the well-established physiological importance of myelination to neuronal function, relatively little is known about the myelination of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex. Here, we report that a large fraction of myelin in mouse cerebral cortex ensheaths GABAergic interneurons, reaching up to 80% in hippocampal subregions. Moreover, we find that a very high proportion of neocortical and hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exhibit axonal myelination...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922831/the-transcription-factors-coup-tfi-and-coup-tfii-have-distinct-roles-in-arealisation-and-gabaergic-interneuron-specification-in-the-early-human-fetal-telencephalon
#9
Ayman Alzu'bi, Susan J Lindsay, Lauren F Harkin, Jack McIntyre, Steven N Lisgo, Gavin J Clowry
In human telencephalon at 8-12 postconceptional weeks, ribonucleic acid quantitative sequencing and immunohistochemistry revealed cortical chicken ovalbumin upstream promotor-transcription factor 1 (COUP-TFI) expression in a high ventro-posterior to low anterior gradient except for raised immunoreactivity in the anterior ventral pallium. Unlike in mouse, COUP-TFI and SP8 were extensively co-expressed in dorsal sensory neocortex and dorsal hippocampus whereas COUPTFI/COUPTFII co-expression defined ventral temporal cortex and ventral hippocampus...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922504/selective-remodeling-of-glutamatergic-transmission-to-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-after-dopamine-depletion
#10
Jose de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Lior Tiroshi, Wei-Hua Chiu, Joshua A Goldberg
The widely-held view that the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease arises from an under-activation of the direct pathway striatal spiny neurons (dSPNs) has gained support from a recently described weakening of the glutamatergic projection from the parafascicular nucleus (PfN) to dSPNs in experimental parkinsonism. However, the impact of the remodeling of the thalamostriatal projection cannot be fully appreciated without considering its impact on cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) that themselves preferentially activate indirect pathway spiny neurons (iSPNs)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#11
ZhiYong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells and require initial excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921762/inhibition-shapes-the-organization-of-hippocampal-representations
#12
Sam McKenzie
Hippocampal neurons become tuned to stimuli that predict behaviorally salient outcomes. This plasticity suggests that memory formation depends upon shifts in how different anatomical inputs can drive hippocampal activity. Here, I present evidence that inhibitory neurons can provide such a mechanism for learning-related changes in the tuning of pyramidal cells. Inhibitory currents arriving on the dendrites of pyramidal cells determine whether an excitatory input can drive action potential output. Specificity and plasticity of this dendritic modulation allows for precise, modifiable changes in how afferent inputs are integrated, a process that defines a neuron's receptive field...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919466/intrastriatally-injected-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-differently-effects-cholinergic-and-dopaminergic-fibers-in-c57bl-6-mice
#13
Alexander Hawlitschka, Carsten Holzmann, Sarah Witt, Juliane Spiewok, Anne-Marie Neumann, Oliver Schmitt, Andreas Wree, Veronica Antipova
Unilateral intrastriatal BoNT-A injection abolished apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in a rat model of hemiparkinsonism (hemi-PD) up to 6 months. It was hypothesized that the beneficial effect of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) grounded on the reduction of the Parkinson's diseases (PD) associated striatal hypercholinism. Intrastriatal injection of BoNT-A was not cytotoxic in rat brain, but neuronal fiber swellings in the BoNT-A infiltrated striata appeared and named BoNT-A-induced varicosities (BiVs)...
September 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919309/the-heterogeneity-of-human-cajal-retzius-neurons
#14
REVIEW
Gundela Meyer, Miriam González-Gómez
The definition of a Cajal-Retzius neuron (CRN) is still controversial, in part possibly due to species differences. We review the developmental history of CRN in human neocortex and focus on two main CRN family members, transient (t) and persisting (p) CRN. They share the expression of Reelin andTbr1, complemented by p73, calretinin, CXCR4 and NOS, but differ in their moment of appearance, fate and morphology. The distinctive feature of tCRN is the axon plexus in the lower third of the marginal zone, which innervates the apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal cells and may serve as a migration substrate and waiting compartment for interneurons descending from the subpial granular layer (SGL) into the cortical plate...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918261/rat-motor-neurons-caudal-to-a-rubrospinal-tract-rst-transection-remain-viable
#15
Brandon M Wild, Rahul Mohan, Renée Morris
In the rat, the rubrospinal tract (RST) is a descending motor pathway involved in the production of skilled reaching movement. The RST originates in the red nucleus in the midbrain and runs down the spinal cord in the lateral-most aspect of the dorsolateral funiculus (DLF). The RST makes monosynaptic contact with interneurons within the intermediate laminae of the cord, however a contingent of RST axons constitutes direct supraspinal input for spinal cord motor neurons. The current study investigated the effects of unilateral RST transection at cervical levels C3-4 on the population of motor neurons in both spinal segments C5-6 and L2-3...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918258/olfactory-function-in-an-excitotoxic-model-for-secondary-neuronal-degeneration-role-of-dopaminergic-interneurons
#16
Concepció Marin, Sara Laxe, Cristobal Langdon, Joan Berenguer, Eduardo Lehrer, Franklin Mariño-Sánchez, Isam Alobid, Montserrat Bernabeu, Joaquim Mullol
Secondary neuronal degeneration (SND) occurring in Traumatic brain injury (TBI) consists in downstream destructive events affecting cells that were not or only marginally affected by the initial wound, further increasing the effects of the primary injury. Glutamate excitotoxicity is hypothesized to play an important role in SND. TBI is a common cause of olfactory dysfunction that may be spontaneous and partially recovered. The role of the glutamate excitotoxicity in the TBI-induced olfactory dysfunction is still unknown...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918256/transgene-is-specifically-and-functionally-expressed-in-retinal-inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-vgat-chr2-eyfp-mouse
#17
Guo-Zhong Xu, Ling-Jie Cui, Ai-Lin Liu, Wei Zhou, Xue Gong, Yong-Mei Zhong, Xiong-Li Yang, Shi-Jun Weng
Ectopic transgene expression in the retina has been reported in various transgenic mice, indicating the importance of characterizing retinal phenotypes. We examined transgene expression in the VGAT-ChR2-EYFP mouse retina by fluorescent immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology, with special emphasis on enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) localization in retinal neuronal subtypes identified by specific markers. Strong EYFP signals were detected in both the inner and outer plexiform layers. In addition, the ChR2-EYFP fusion protein was also expressed in somata of the great majority of inhibitory interneurons, including horizontal cells and GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918121/conserved-rules-in-embryonic-development-of-cortical-interneurons
#18
REVIEW
Christine Laclef, Christine Métin
This review will focus on early aspects of cortical interneurons (cIN) development from specification to migration and final positioning in the human cerebral cortex. These mechanisms have been largely studied in the mouse model, which provides unique possibilities of genetic analysis, essential to dissect the molecular and cellular events involved in cortical development. An important goal here is to discuss the conservation and the potential divergence of these mechanisms, with a particular interest for the situation in the human embryo...
September 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917641/changes-in-innervation-of-lumbar-motoneurons-and-organization-of-premotor-network-following-training-of-transected-adult-rats
#19
Loubna Khalki, Karina Sadlaoud, Julie Lerond, Jacques-Olivier Coq, Jean-Michel Brezun, Laurent Vinay, Patrice Coulon, Hélène Bras
Rats with complete spinal cord transection (SCT) can recover hindlimb locomotor function under strategies combining exercise training and 5-HT agonist treatment. This recovery is expected to result from structural and functional re-organization within the spinal cord below the lesion. To begin to understand the nature of this reorganization, we examined synaptic changes to identified gastrocnemius (GS) or tibialis anterior (TA) motoneurons (MNs) in SCT rats after a schedule of early exercise training and delayed 5-HT agonist treatment...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916300/distinct-neuronal-populations-in-the-basolateral-and-central-amygdala-are-activated-with-acute-pain-conditioned-fear-and-fear-conditioned-analgesia
#20
Ryan K Butler, Sarah Ehling, Megan Barbar, Jess Thomas, Mary A Hughes, Charles E Smith, Vladimir M Pogorelov, Dipendra K Aryal, William C Wetsel, B Duncan X Lascelles
Fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) is modulated by brain areas involved in the descending inhibitory pain pathway such as the basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala (CEA). The BLA contains Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and parvalbumin (PV) neurons. CEA neurons are primarily inhibitory (GABAergic) that comprise enkephalin (ENK) interneurons and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) - neurons that project to the periaqueductal grey. The purpose of our experiment was to determine the pattern of activation of CaMKII/PV and ENK/CRF neurons following the expression of acute pain, conditioned fear, and FCA...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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