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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776999/stumbling-corrective-reaction-elicited-by-mechanical-and-electrical-stimulation-of-the-saphenous-nerve-in-walking-mice
#1
William Paganini Mayer, Turgay Akay
The ability to walk around in a natural environment requires the capacity to cope with unexpected obstacles that may disrupt locomotion. One such mechanism is called the stumbling corrective reaction (SCR) that enables animals to step over obstacles that would otherwise disturb the progression of swing movement. Here we use in vivo motion analysis and physiological recording techniques to describe the SCR in mice. We show that SCR can be elicited consistently in mice during locomotion by inserting an obstacle along the path of leg movement during swing phase...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774782/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-ethanol-intoxication-in-tbi-is-associated-with-the-suppression-of-erbb-signaling-in-pv-positive-interneurons
#2
Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Martin Wepler, Rida Rehman, Annette Palmer, Alberto Catanese, Birgit Linkus, Albert Ludolph, Tobias Boeckers, Markus Huber-Lang, Peter Radermacher, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication (EI) is a frequent comorbidity of TBI, but the impact of EI on TBI pathogenic cascades and prognosis is unclear: although clinical evidence suggests that EI may have neuroprotective effects, experimental support is, to date, inconclusive. We aimed at elucidating the impact of EI on TBI-associated neurological deficits, signaling pathways and pathogenic cascades, in order to identify new modifiers of TBI pathophysiology. We have shown that ethanol administration (5g/Kg) before trauma enhances behavioral recovery in a weight-drop TBI model; neuronal survival in the injured somatosensory cortex was enhanced by EI...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774449/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperone-grp78-following-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#3
Xuyan Jin, Dong Kyu Kim, Tae-Ryong Riew, Hong Lim Kim, Mun-Yong Lee
The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a chaperone protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in the injured central nervous system. Our aim was to examine the expression profiles and subcellular distributions of GRP78 and its association with the neuroglial reaction in the rat striatum after transient, focal cerebral ischemia. In sham-operated rats, constitutive, specific immunoreactivity for GRP78 was almost exclusively localized to the rough ER of striatal neurons, with none in the resting, ramified microglia or astrocytes...
May 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#4
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771919/firing-rate-based-network-modeling-of-the-dlgn-circuit-effects-of-cortical-feedback-on-spatiotemporal-response-properties-of-relay-cells
#5
Milad Hobbi Mobarhan, Geir Halnes, Pablo Martínez-Cañada, Torkel Hafting, Marianne Fyhn, Gaute T Einevoll
Visually evoked signals in the retina pass through the dorsal geniculate nucleus (dLGN) on the way to the visual cortex. This is however not a simple feedforward flow of information: there is a significant feedback from cortical cells back to both relay cells and interneurons in the dLGN. Despite four decades of experimental and theoretical studies, the functional role of this feedback is still debated. Here we use a firing-rate model, the extended difference-of-Gaussians (eDOG) model, to explore cortical feedback effects on visual responses of dLGN relay cells...
May 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771284/non-cell-autonomous-otx2-homeoprotein-regulates-visual-cortex-plasticity-through-gadd45b-g
#6
Jessica Apulei, Namsuk Kim, Damien Testa, Jérôme Ribot, David Morizet, Clémence Bernard, Laurent Jourdren, Corinne Blugeon, Ariel A Di Nardo, Alain Prochiantz
The non-cell autonomous transfer of OTX2 homeoprotein transcription factor into juvenile mouse cerebral cortex regulates parvalbumin interneuron maturation and critical period timing. By analyzing gene expression in primary visual cortex of wild-type and Otx2+/GFP mice at plastic and nonplastic ages, we identified several putative genes implicated in Otx2-dependent visual cortex plasticity for ocular dominance. Cortical OTX2 infusion in juvenile mice induced Gadd45b/g expression through direct regulation of transcription...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766029/seizure-suppressant-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-encapsulated-bdnf-producing-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Chiara Falcicchia, Giovanna Paolone, Dwaine F Emerich, Francesca Lovisari, William J Bell, Tracie Fradet, Lars U Wahlberg, Michele Simonato
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may represent a therapeutic for chronic epilepsy, but evaluating its potential is complicated by difficulties in its delivery to the brain. Here, we describe the effects on epileptic seizures of encapsulated cell biodelivery (ECB) devices filled with genetically modified human cells engineered to release BDNF. These devices, implanted into the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats, highly decreased the frequency of spontaneous seizures by more than 80%. These benefits were associated with improved cognitive performance, as epileptic rats treated with BDNF performed significantly better on a novel object recognition test...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760657/purkinje-cell-signaling-deficits-in-animal-models-of-ataxia
#8
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Ilaria Balbo, Maria Concetta Miniaci, Filippo Tempia
Purkinje cell (PC) dysfunction or degeneration is the most frequent finding in animal models with ataxic symptoms. Mutations affecting intrinsic membrane properties can lead to ataxia by altering the firing rate of PCs or their firing pattern. However, the relationship between specific firing alterations and motor symptoms is not yet clear, and in some cases PC dysfunction precedes the onset of ataxic signs. Moreover, a great variety of ionic and synaptic mechanisms can affect PC signaling, resulting in different features of motor dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760524/what-does-dopamine-mean
#9
REVIEW
Joshua D Berke
Dopamine is a critical modulator of both learning and motivation. This presents a problem: how can target cells know whether increased dopamine is a signal to learn or to move? It is often presumed that motivation involves slow ('tonic') dopamine changes, while fast ('phasic') dopamine fluctuations convey reward prediction errors for learning. Yet recent studies have shown that dopamine conveys motivational value and promotes movement even on subsecond timescales. Here I describe an alternative account of how dopamine regulates ongoing behavior...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758221/inhibition-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-activity-by-the-kv7-opener-retigabine-and-the-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-diclofenac
#10
Rodrigo Manuel Paz, Cecilia Tubert, Agostina Stahl, Analía López Díaz, Roberto Etchenique, Mario Gustavo Murer, Lorena Rela
Striatal cholinergic interneurons provide modulation to striatal circuits involved in voluntary motor control and goal-directed behaviors through their autonomous tonic discharge and their firing "pause" responses to novel and rewarding environmental events. Striatal cholinergic interneuron hyperactivity was linked to the motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease and the adverse effects of chronic antiparkinsonian therapy like l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Here we addressed whether Kv7 channels, which provide negative feedback to excitation in other neuron types, are involved in the control of striatal cholinergic interneuron tonic activity and response to excitatory inputs...
May 11, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757347/role-of-inhibitory-control-in-modulating-focal-seizure-spread
#11
Jyun-You Liou, Hongtao Ma, Michael Wenzel, Mingrui Zhao, Eliza Baird-Daniel, Elliot H Smith, Andy Daniel, Ronald Emerson, Rafael Yuste, Theodore H Schwartz, Catherine A Schevon
Focal seizure propagation is classically thought to be spatially contiguous. However, distribution of seizures through a large-scale epileptic network has been theorized. Here, we used a multielectrode array, wide field calcium imaging, and two-photon calcium imaging to study focal seizure propagation pathways in an acute rodent neocortical 4-aminopyridine model. Although ictal neuronal bursts did not propagate beyond a 2-3-mm region, they were associated with hemisphere-wide field potential fluctuations and parvalbumin-positive interneuron activity outside the seizure focus...
May 10, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755370/effects-of-ethanol-on-sensory-inputs-to-the-medial-giant-interneurons-of-crayfish
#12
Matthew E Swierzbinski, Jens Herberholz
Crayfish are capable of two rapid, escape reflexes that are mediated by two pairs of giant interneurons, the lateral giants (LG) and the medial giants (MG), which respond to threats presented to the abdomen or head and thorax, respectively. The LG has been the focus of study for many decades and the role of GABAergic inhibition on the escape circuit is well-described. More recently, we demonstrated that the LG circuit is sensitive to the acute effects of ethanol and this sensitivity is likely mediated by interactions between ethanol and the GABAergic system...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754751/pauses-in-cholinergic-interneuron-activity-are-driven-by-excitatory-input-and-delayed-rectification-with-dopamine-modulation
#13
Yan-Feng Zhang, John N J Reynolds, Stephanie J Cragg
Cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) of the striatum pause their firing in response to salient stimuli and conditioned stimuli after learning. Several different mechanisms for pause generation have been proposed, but a unifying basis has not previously emerged. Here, using in vivo and ex vivo recordings in rat and mouse brain and a computational model, we show that ChI pauses are driven by withdrawal of excitatory inputs to striatum and result from a delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr ) in concert with local neuromodulation...
May 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753864/long-term-reductions-in-the-population-of-gabaergic-interneurons-in-the-mouse-hippocampus-following-developmental-ethanol-exposure
#14
Clark W Bird, Devin H Taylor, Natalie J Pinkowski, G Jill Chavez, C Fernando Valenzuela
Developmental exposure to ethanol leads to a constellation of cognitive and behavioral abnormalities known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Many cell types throughout the central nervous system are negatively impacted by gestational alcohol exposure, including inhibitory, GABAergic interneurons. Little evidence exists, however, describing the long-term impact of fetal alcohol exposure on survival of interneurons within the hippocampal formation, which is critical for learning and memory processes that are impaired in individuals with FASDs...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753863/sex-differences-in-the-subcellular-distribution-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-in-the-rat-hippocampus-following-chronic-immobilization-stress
#15
Helena R McAlinn, Batsheva Reich, Natalina H Contoreggi, Renata Poulton Kamakura, Andreina G Dyer, Bruce S McEwen, Elizabeth M Waters, Teresa A Milner
Corticotropin releasing factor receptors (CRFR1) contribute to stress-induced adaptations in hippocampal structure and function that can affect learning and memory processes. Our prior studies showed that female rats with elevated estrogens compared to males have more plasmalemmal CRFR1 in CA1 pyramidal cells, suggesting a greater sensitivity to stress. Here, we examined the distribution of hippocampal CRFR1 following chronic immobilization stress (CIS) in female and male rats using immuno-electron microscopy...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753860/the-modular-architecture-and-neurochemical-patterns-in-the-cerebellar-cortex
#16
REVIEW
Sergei G Kalinichenko, Igor I Pushchin
The review deals with topical issues of the neuronal arrangement underlying basic cerebellar functions. The cerebellum and its auxiliary structures contain several hundreds of modules (so called "microzones"). Each module receives the corticopetal input specific for the lobule it belongs to and forms the topographic projection. The precision of the major input-output signal flow in the cerebellar cortex is provided by a pronounced stratification of its synaptic zones of a various origin and regular topography of its afferent connections, interneurons, and efferent neurons...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#17
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749407/peripheral-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-localization-and-role-in-gastric-acid-secretion-regulation-immunofluorescence-and-pharmacological-studies
#18
Iuliia Golovynska, Tatiana V Beregova, Tatiana M Falalyeyeva, Ludmila I Stepanova, Sergii Golovynskyi, Junle Qu, Tymish Y Ohulchanskyy
The enteric nervous system (ENS) and a glutamate receptor (GluR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), participate in gastric acid secretion (GAS) regulation. NMDARs are localized in different stomach cells; however, knowledge of NMDAR expression and function in the ENS is limited. In the present study, we clarified the types of stomach cells that express the NMDARs that are involved in GAS regulation. The pharmacological method of isolated stomach perfusion by Ghosh and Shild combined with direct mapping of NMDARs by fluorescence microscopy in the rat stomach was employed...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748916/zbtb20-regulates-developmental-neurogenesis-in-the-olfactory-bulb-and-gliogenesis-after-adult-brain-injury
#19
Thorsten R Doeppner, Josephine Herz, Mathias Bähr, Anton B Tonchev, Anastassia Stoykova
The transcription factor (TF) Zbtb20 is important for the hippocampal specification and the regulation of neurogenesis of neocortical projection neurons. Herein, we show a critical involvement of the TF Zbtb20 in the neurogenesis of both projection neurons and interneurons of the olfactory bulb during embryonic stages. Our data indicate that the lack of Zbtb20 significantly diminishes the generation of a set of early-born Tbr2+ neurons during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Zbtb20 regulates the transition between neurogenesis to gliogenesis in cortical radial glial progenitor cells at the perinatal (E18...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745593/-high-frequency-stimulations-change-the-phase-locking-relationship-between-neuronal-firing-and-the-rhythms-of-field-potentials
#20
Weijian Ma, Zhouyan Feng, Wenjie Zhou, Zhaoxiang Wang, Ziyan Cai
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been successfully used to treat a variety of brain diseases in clinic. Recent investigations have suggested that high frequency stimulation (HFS) of electrical pulses used by DBS might change pathological rhythms in action potential firing of neurons, which may be one of the important mechanisms of DBS therapy. However, experimental data are required to confirm the hypothesis. In the present study, 1 min of 100 Hz HFS was applied to the Schaffer collaterals of hippocampal CA1 region in anaesthetized rats...
February 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
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