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Tumor dormancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928096/extremely-late-recurrence-21-years-after-total-removal-of-immature-teratoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Yui Mano, Masayuki Kanamori, Toshihiro Kumabe, Ryuta Saito, Mika Watanabe, Yukihiko Sonoda, Teiji Tominaga
Immature teratoma (IMT) is normally treated by resection and adjuvant therapy. The present unusual case of recurrent germinoma occurred 21 years after total resection of pineal IMT. A 3-year-old boy presented with headache, disturbance of consciousness, and Parinaud's syndrome. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a pineal mass lesion, and total resection of the tumor was achieved. The histological diagnosis was mature teratoma. He did not receive further treatment, and did well without recurrence for 20 years...
December 7, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916615/characterization-of-rare-dormant-and-therapy-resistant-cells-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#2
Sarah Ebinger, Erbey Ziya Özdemir, Christoph Ziegenhain, Sebastian Tiedt, Catarina Castro Alves, Michaela Grunert, Michael Dworzak, Christoph Lutz, Virginia A Turati, Tariq Enver, Hans-Peter Horny, Karl Sotlar, Swati Parekh, Karsten Spiekermann, Wolfgang Hiddemann, Aloys Schepers, Bernhard Polzer, Stefan Kirsch, Martin Hoffmann, Bettina Knapp, Jan Hasenauer, Heike Pfeifer, Renate Panzer-Grümayer, Wolfgang Enard, Olivier Gires, Irmela Jeremias
Tumor relapse is associated with dismal prognosis, but responsible biological principles remain incompletely understood. To isolate and characterize relapse-inducing cells, we used genetic engineering and proliferation-sensitive dyes in patient-derived xenografts of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We identified a rare subpopulation that resembled relapse-inducing cells with combined properties of long-term dormancy, treatment resistance, and stemness. Single-cell and bulk expression profiling revealed their similarity to primary ALL cells isolated from pediatric and adult patients at minimal residual disease (MRD)...
November 18, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910972/a-liver-microphysiological-system-of-tumor-cell-dormancy-and-inflammatory-responsiveness-is-affected-by-scaffold-properties
#3
A M Clark, S E Wheeler, C L Young, L Stockdale, J Shepard Neiman, W Zhao, D B Stolz, R Venkataramanan, D Lauffenburger, L Griffith, A Wells
Distant metastasis is the major cause of breast cancer-related mortality, commonly emerging clinically after 5 or more years of seeming 'cure' of the primary tumor, indicating a quiescent dormancy. The lack of relevant accessible model systems for metastasis that recreate this latent stage has hindered our understanding of the molecular basis and the development of therapies against these lethal outgrowths. We previously reported on the development of an all-human 3D ex vivo hepatic microphysiological system that reproduces several features of liver physiology and enables spontaneous dormancy in a subpopulation of breast cancer cells...
December 2, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896223/urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-upar-as-a-new-therapeutic-target-in-cancer
#4
Nunzia Montuori, Ada Pesapane, Francesca W Rossi, Valentina Giudice, Amato De Paulis, Carmine Selleri, Pia Ragno
The urokinase (uPA)-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored receptor that focuses urokinase (uPA) proteolytic activity on the cell surface. uPAR also regulates cell adhesion, migration and proliferation, protects from apoptosis and contributes to epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), independently of uPA enzymatic activity. Indeed, uPAR interacts with beta1, beta2 and beta3 integrins, thus regulating their activities. uPAR cross-talks with receptor tyrosine kinases through integrins and regulates cancer cell dormancy, proliferation and angiogenesis...
November 2016: Translational Medicine @ UniSa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893711/the-induction-of-mig6-under-hypoxic-conditions-is-critical-for-dormancy-in-primary-cultured-lung-cancer-cells-with-activating-egfr-mutations
#5
H Endo, J Okami, H Okuyama, Y Nishizawa, F Imamura, M Inoue
The biologic activity of individual cancer cells is highly heterogeneous. Hypoxia, one of the prominent features of a tumor microenvironment, is thought to be causal in generating this cellular heterogeneity. In this study, we revealed that primary lung cancer cells harboring activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations generally entered a dormant state when hypoxic. We found that heterodimer formation of the ERBB family receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and their subsequent downstream signaling, was diminished under hypoxic conditions, although phosphorylation of the EGFR was retained...
November 28, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868104/adaptive-stress-responses-during-tumor-metastasis-and-dormancy
#6
Daniela Senft, Ze Ev A Ronai
To survive inhospitable environments, tumor cells are forced to remodel their signaling pathways by altering transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. This adaptation is regulated in a spatial and temporal manner and gives rise to individual tumor cells with distinct gene expression and metabolic signatures. Such phenotypic heterogeneity is the result of tumor cell plasticity, which-together with the genetic background of the tumor-determines whether cells resist environmental stress, enter dormancy, or metastasize...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819283/axl-is-required-for-tgf-%C3%AE-2-induced-dormancy-of-prostate-cancer-cells-in-the-bone-marrow
#7
Kenji Yumoto, Matthew R Eber, Jingcheng Wang, Frank C Cackowski, Ann M Decker, Eunsohl Lee, Ana Rita Nobre, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Younghun Jung, Russell S Taichman
Disseminated prostate cancer (PCa) cells in the marrow survive for years without evidence of proliferation, while maintaining the capacity to develop into metastatic lesions. These dormant disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) may reside in close proximity to osteoblasts, while expressing high levels of Axl, one of the tyrosine kinase receptors for growth arrest specific 6 (Gas6). Yet how Axl regulates DTC proliferation in marrow remains undefined. Here, we explored the impact of the loss of Axl in PCa cells (PC3 and DU145) on the induction of their dormancy when they are co-cultured with a pre-osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797969/role-of-the-microenvironment-in-liver-metastasis-from-pre-to-prometastatic-niches
#8
REVIEW
Pnina Brodt
Liver metastases remain a major barrier to successful management of malignant disease, particularly for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract but also for other malignancies, such as breast carcinoma and melanoma. The ability of metastatic cells to survive and proliferate in the liver is determined by the outcome of complex, reciprocal interactions between tumor cells and different local resident subpopulations, including the sinusoidal endothelium, stellate, Kupffer, and inflammatory cells that are mediated through cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and the release of soluble factors...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784287/induction-of-autophagy-by-arhi-diras3-alters-fundamental-metabolic-pathways-in-ovarian-cancer-models
#9
Argentina Ornelas, Christopher R McCullough, Zhen Lu, Niki M Zacharias, Lindsay E Kelderhouse, Joshua Gray, Hailing Yang, Brian J Engel, Yan Wang, Weiqun Mao, Margie N Sutton, Pratip K Bhattacharya, Robert C Bast, Steven W Millward
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a bulk catabolic process that modulates tumorigenesis, therapeutic resistance, and dormancy. The tumor suppressor ARHI (DIRAS3) is a potent inducer of autophagy and its expression results in necroptotic cell death in vitro and tumor dormancy in vivo. ARHI is down-regulated or lost in over 60 % of primary ovarian tumors yet is dramatically up-regulated in metastatic disease. The metabolic changes that occur during ARHI induction and their role in modulating death and dormancy are unknown...
October 26, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761370/the-role-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche-in-prostate-cancer-bone-metastasis
#10
A M Decker, Y Jung, F Cackowski, R S Taichman
Approximately 80% of prostate cancers exhibit some degree of bone metastasis. The role of the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in attracting metastatic cells and maintaining dormancy of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) is an increasingly important topic towards the development of novel prostate cancer therapies. This paper reviews aspects of the HSC niche that lead to prostate cancer cell homing and dormancy in the bone marrow. This review also discusses the role of DTCs in the niche environment and discusses the role of erythropoietin in targeting DTCs within the HSC niche...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753136/mer-tyrosine-kinase-regulates-disseminated-prostate-cancer-cellular-dormancy
#11
Frank C Cackowski, Matthew R Eber, James Rhee, Ann M Decker, Kenji Yumoto, Janice E Berry, Eunsohl Lee, Yusuke Shiozawa, Younghun Jung, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Russell S Taichman
Many prostate cancer (PCa) recurrences are thought to be due to reactivation of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). We previously found a role of the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK in PCa dormancy regulation. However, the mechanism and contributions of the individual TAM receptors is largely unknown. Knockdown of MERTK, but not AXL or TYRO3 by shRNA in PCa cells induced a decreased ratio of P-Erk1/2 to P-p38, increased expression of p27, NR2F1, SOX2, and NANOG, induced higher levels of histone H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, and induced a G1/G0 arrest, all of which are associated with dormancy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737890/mgus-to-myeloma-a-mysterious-gammopathy-of-underexplored-significance
#12
REVIEW
Madhav V Dhodapkar
All cases of multiple myeloma (MM) are preceded by precursor states termed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or smoldering myeloma (SMM). Genetic analyses of MGUS cells have provided evidence that it is a genetically advanced lesion, wherein tumor cells carry many of the genetic changes found in MM cells. Intraclonal heterogeneity is also established early during the MGUS phase. Although the genetic features of MGUS or SMM cells at baseline may predict disease risk, transition to MM involves altered growth of preexisting clones...
December 8, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698134/cancer-cells-enter-dormancy-after-cannibalizing-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-mscs
#13
Thomas J Bartosh, Mujib Ullah, Suzanne Zeitouni, Joshua Beaver, Darwin J Prockop
Patients with breast cancer often develop malignant regrowth of residual drug-resistant dormant tumor cells years after primary treatment, a process defined as cancer relapse. Deciphering the causal basis of tumor dormancy therefore has obvious therapeutic significance. Because cancer cell behavior is strongly influenced by stromal cells, particularly the mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that are actively recruited into tumor-associated stroma, we assessed the impact of MSCs on breast cancer cell (BCC) dormancy...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665680/a-switching-control-law-approach-for-cancer-immunotherapy-of-an-evolutionary-tumor-growth-model
#14
Alina I Doban, Mircea Lazar
We propose a new approach for tumor immunotherapy which is based on a switching control strategy defined on domains of attraction of equilibria of interest. For this, we consider a recently derived model which captures the effects of the tumor cells on the immune system and viceversa, through predator-prey competition terms. Additionally, it incorporates the immune system's mechanism for producing hunting immune cells, which makes the model suitable for immunotherapy strategies analysis and design. For computing domains of attraction for the tumor nonlinear dynamics, and thus, for deriving immunotherapeutic strategies we employ rational Lyapunov functions...
September 22, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618899/molecular-mechanisms-of-bone-metastasis-which-targets-came-from-the-bench-to-the-bedside
#15
REVIEW
Sandra Casimiro, Arlindo R Ferreira, André Mansinho, Irina Alho, Luis Costa
Bone metastases ultimately result from a complex interaction between cancer cells and bone microenvironment. However, prior to the colonization of the bone, cancer cells must succeed through a series of steps that will allow them to detach from the primary tumor, enter into circulation, recognize and adhere to specific endothelium, and overcome dormancy. We now know that as important as the metastatic cascade, tumor cells prime the secondary organ microenvironment prior to their arrival, reflecting the existence of specific metastasis-initiating cells in the primary tumor and circulating osteotropic factors...
August 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613129/the-relationship-between-dormant-cancer-cells-and-their-microenvironment
#16
N Linde, G Fluegen, J A Aguirre-Ghiso
The majority of cancer deaths are due to metastases that can occur years or decades after primary tumor diagnosis and treatment. Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) surviving in a dormant state in target organs appear to explain the timing of this phenomenon. Knowledge on this process is important as it might provide a window of opportunity to prevent recurrences by eradicating dormant DTCs and/or by maintaining DTCs in a dormant state. Importantly, this research might offer markers of dormancy for early monitoring of metastatic relapse...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612430/restoring-mir122-in-human-stem-like-hepatocarcinoma-cells-prompts-tumor-dormancy-through-smad-independent-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway
#17
Loreto Boix, Juan Manuel López-Oliva, Ana Carolina Rhodes, Jordi Bruix
miR122 is the prevalent miRNA in adult healthy liver and it is responsible for liver stem cell differentiation towards hepatocyte lineage. Its expression is frequently lost in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We studied the effects of restoring miR122 expression in a distinctive cell line derived from human HCC-BCLC9 cells-with a solid stem-like cell profile, high tumor initiating ability and undetectable miR122 expression. We generated a stable BCLC9 cell line that expresses miR122 (BCLC9-miR122). Restitution of miR122 in BCLC9 cells, decreases cell proliferation rate and reduces significantly tumor size in vivo...
September 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603507/role-of-tregs-in-cancer-dormancy-or-recurrence
#18
Masoud H Manjili, Savannah E Butler
The immunogenic tumor dormancy has been demonstrated in animal models of cancer, which can explain clinical observations such as an increased incidence of cancer following organ transplantation. The role of immune cell populations in the maintenance of, or escape from, tumor dormancy and subsequent recurrence is poorly understood. Here, we provide a review of literature related to the contribution of Tregs in tumor dormancy or recurrence. Based on clinical results, we suggest that anecdotal reports on the association of human Tregs with poor prognosis are circumstantial rather than implying a cause-effect direction...
September 7, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597523/progression-of-atypical-extraventricular-neurocytoma-to-anaplastic-ganglioglioma
#19
Daniel Rusiecki, Boleslaw Lach, Branavan Manoranjan, Adam Fleming, Olufemi Ajani, Sheila K Singh
We report a childhood case of thalamic atypical extraventricular neurocytoma that progressed to highly anaplastic ganglioglioma (GG) after eight years of dormancy following subtotal resection and chemotherapy. The neurocytoma displayed immunoreactivity only for synaptophysin, beta-catenin, S-100 and CD56. The GG acquired strong immunoreactivity for chromogranin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron specific enolase and p53 and showed a very high proliferation rate approaching 50% in some areas. Tumor transformation was associated with overexpression of components of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Wnt developmental signaling pathways, which are known to regulate tumor-initiating cells in malignant brain neoplasms...
September 2, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593926/autophagy-in-cancer-metastasis
#20
E E Mowers, M N Sharifi, K F Macleod
Autophagy is a highly conserved self-degradative process that has a key role in cellular stress responses and survival. Recent work has begun to explore the function of autophagy in cancer metastasis, which is of particular interest given the dearth of effective therapeutic options for metastatic disease. Autophagy is induced upon progression of various human cancers to metastasis and together with data from genetically engineered mice and experimental metastasis models, a role for autophagy at nearly every phase of the metastatic cascade has been identified...
September 5, 2016: Oncogene
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