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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907243/an-optimized-centrifugal-method-for-separation-of-semen-from-superabsorbent-polymers-for-forensic-analysis
#1
Lucy R Camarena, Bailey K Glasscock, Demi Daniels, Nicolle Ackley, Marybeth Sciarretta, Sarah J Seashols-Williams
Connection of a perpetrator to a sexual assault is best performed through the confirmed presence of semen, thereby proving sexual contact. Evidentiary items can include sanitary napkins or diapers containing superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), complicating spermatozoa visualization and DNA analysis. In this report, we evaluated the impact of SAPS on the current forensic DNA workflow, developing an efficient centrifugal protocol for separating spermatozoa from SAP material. The optimized filtration method was compared to common practices of excising the top layer only, resulting in significantly higher sperm yields when a core sample of the substrate was taken...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901410/bystander-interventions-for-sexual-assault-and-dating-violence-on-college-campuses-are-we-putting-bystanders-in-harm-s-way
#2
Tricia H Witte, Deborah M Casper, Christine L Hackman, Mazheruddin M Mulla
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the well-being of bystanders who witness and intervene in sexual assault and dating violence situations on campus. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 321 young men and women from a large university in the southeastern United States. METHODS: Participants completed a survey at the end of the Spring semester of 2015 about risky situations they had witnessed with follow up questions about their responses to the situations (e...
November 30, 2016: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890344/community-level-moderators-of-a-school-based-childhood-sexual-assault-prevention-program
#3
Matthew C Morris, Chrystyna D Kouros, Kim Janecek, Rachel Freeman, Alyssa Mielock, Judy Garber
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Lastprogramcomparedtoawaitlistcontrolcondition.(*) Knowledge gains from pre- to post-intervention were assessed in 5 domains: safe versus unsafe people; safe choices; problem-solving; clear disclosure; and assertiveness...
November 24, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885653/comparing-standard-and-selective-degradation-dna-extraction-methods-results-from-a-field-experiment-with-sexual-assault-kits
#4
Rebecca Campbell, Steven J Pierce, Dhruv B Sharma, Jessica Shaw, Hannah Feeney, Jeffrey Nye, Kristin Schelling, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
: A growing number of U.S. cities have large numbers of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs) in police property facilities. Testing older kits and maintaining current case work will be challenging for forensic laboratories, creating a need for more efficient testing methods. METHODS: We evaluated selective degradation methods for DNA extraction using actual case work from a sample of previously unsubmitted SAKs in Detroit, Michigan. We randomly assigned 350 kits to either standard or selective degradation testing methods and then compared DNA testing rates and CODIS entry rates between the two groups...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881621/unusual-case-of-drug-facilitated-sexual-assault-using-chloroform
#5
Camille Richeval, Delphine Allorge, Vincent Lopez, Baptiste Boyer, Jean-Michel Gaulier
Despite its well-known sedative properties, chloroform is rarely used for drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) as its administration cannot be achieved without the victim's knowledge: we report an unusual case of DFSA using this solvent. A 26-year-old woman declared that her partner get her to sleep using chloroform the previous night. When she waked up at 3 am, her hands were tied. She immediately suspected violence and sexual penetration. Toxicological blood screening using a liquid chromatography-electrospray coupled tandem mass spectrometry method highlighted the presence of bamifylline and theophylline, two therapeutics of asthma...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864965/attempted-drug-facilitated-sexual-assault-xylazine-intoxication-in-a-child
#6
Hilke Andresen-Streichert, Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann, Alexander Mueller, Sven Anders
There are only a few cases of drug-facilitated sexual assaults on children reported in the literature so far. Here, a case of a four-year-old boy is presented. He was unconscious, and the accompanying adults reported that the child had been at a playground on his own. Returning home, he complained of having been stung and collapsed immediately. Urine and serum samples of the child were investigated. In the toxicological analysis, xylazine, a sedative and muscle relaxant used in animals, was detected. Subsequent quantification by GC/MS after solid-phase extraction revealed 0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864570/comparing-help-seeking-behavior-of-male-and-female-survivors-of-sexual-assault-a-content-analysis-of-a-hotline
#7
Stephen M Young, Jana A Pruett, Marianna L Colvin
This content analysis examines written documentation of telephone calls to a regional sexual assault hotline over a 5-year period. All male callers identified as primary victims were selected for analysis (n = 58) and a corresponding sample of female primary victims (n = 58) were randomly selected for comparison to better understand the help-seeking behavior of sexual assault survivors and inform services accordingly. A summative content analysis revealed significant contrasting themes between male and female victims, including females significantly receiving more referrals and males accessing the hotline to tell their experience of being sexually assaulted due to perceived limited support...
November 18, 2016: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863981/physician-s-perceived-roles-as-well-as-barriers-toward-caring-for-women-sex-assault-survivors
#8
Priyanka Amin, Raquel Buranosky, Judy C Chang
BACKGROUND: Sexual assault (SA) affects about 40% of women in the United States and has many mental and physical health sequelae. Physicians often do not address SA with patients, although SA survivors describe a desire to talk to physicians to obtain additional help. Little information exists on how providers perceive their roles regarding caring for women SA survivors and what barriers they face in providing this care. METHODS: We performed a qualitative study using semistructured one-on-one interviews with 16 faculty physicians from five specialties: obstetrics and gynecology (n = 4), internal medicine (n = 4), family medicine (n = 1), emergency medicine (n = 3), and psychiatry (n = 4)...
November 15, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862347/social-support-coping-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-female-sexual-assault-survivors-a-longitudinal-analysis
#9
Sarah E Ullman, Mark Relyea
Social support and coping affect each other after stressful life events, including sexual assault (Taylor & Stanton, 2007). The present study examined the associations among assault-specific support, maladaptive coping, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) over 3 years in a sample of female sexual assault survivors from a large metropolitan area (N = 1,863). A 3-wave cross-lagged panel model revealed significant weak-to-moderate reciprocal associations between maladaptive coping and PTSS (βs = .09 to ...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859691/resilience-in-men-and-women-experiencing-sexual-assault-or-traumatic-stress-validation-and-replication-of-the-scale-of-protective-factors
#10
Elisabeth Ponce-Garcia, Amy N Madewell, Marina E Brown
The literature on sexual assault (SA) typically has been generalized to women and children. However, both men and women experience SA. Research shows that not all individuals experience the negative impacts of SA in the same way. The ability to buffer the negative effects of SA may lie in specific protective factors that determine resilience. Resilience scales used in adult populations have not been validated for use in SA samples. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the factor structure of a resilience scale, the Scale of Protective Factors (SPF), in a sample of emerging adults (n = 571) and to validate the replicated model on a subsample of the participants who reported SA (n = 173)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857155/fluorescence-and-magnetic-activated-cell-sorting-strategies-to-separate-spermatozoa-involving-plural-contributors-from-biological-mixtures-for-human-identification
#11
Yan Xu, Jianhui Xie, Ronghua Chen, Yu Cao, Yuan Ping, Qingwen Xu, Wei Hu, Dan Wu, Lihua Gu, Huaigu Zhou, Xin Chen, Ziqin Zhao, Jiang Zhong, Rui Li
No effective method has been developed to distinguish sperm cells originating from different men in multi-suspect sexual assault cases. Here we combined MACS and FACS to isolate single donor sperm cells from forensic mixture samples including female vaginal epithelial cells and sperm cells from multiple contributors. Sperms from vaginal swab were isolated by MACS using FITC-conjugated A kinase anchor protein 3 (AKAP3) antibody; target individual sperm cells involving two or three donors were separated by FACS using FITC-labeled blood group A/B antigen antibody...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855738/sexsomnia-a-specialized-non-rem-parasomnia
#12
Anne-Laure Dubessy, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Valérie Attali, Jean-Baptiste Maranci, Isabelle Arnulf
OBJECTIVE: To describe patients with sexsomnia and to contrast their clinical and sleep measures with those of healthy controls and sleepwalkers. METHODS: Subjects referred for sexsomnia and for sleepwalking/night terror were interviewed, completed the Paris Arousal Disorder Severity Scale (PADSS) and were monitored one to two nights with video-polysomnography. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (70.6% male, aged 17 to 76 years) had sexsomnia, with amnestic fondling of the bed partner (n=11), complete sexual intercourse (n=8), masturbation (n=8) and spontaneous orgasm (n=1)...
October 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854521/the-relationship-between-us-military-officer-leadership-behaviors-and-risk-of-sexual-assault-of-reserve-national-guard-and-active-component-servicewomen-in-nondeployed-locations
#13
Anne G Sadler, Michelle A Mengeling, Brenda M Booth, Amy M J O'Shea, James C Torner
OBJECTIVES: To determine if military leader behaviors are associated with active component and Reserve-National Guard servicewomen's risk of sexual assault in the military (SAIM) for nondeployed locations. METHODS: A community sample of 1337 Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom-era Army and Air Force servicewomen completed telephone interviews (March 2010-December 2011) querying sociodemographic and military characteristics, sexual assault histories, and leader behaviors...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854441/sexual-minority-college-students-perceptions-on-dating-violence-and-sexual-assault
#14
Elizabeth W Ollen, Victoria E Ameral, Kathleen Palm Reed, Denise A Hines
While the majority of research on dating violence (DV) and sexual assault (SA) in college students has focused on heterosexual students, victimization rates among sexual minority students are the same or higher than that of their heterosexual counterparts. The current study sought to explore sexual minority college students' perceptions of the prevalence of DV and SA, risk and protective factors, and barriers to seeking help, using focus groups. A total of 14 sexual minority students ranging in age from 18 to 24 participated across 2 focus groups...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846098/vaccine-recommendations-for-sexually-assaulted-patients-a-review-and-update
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846095/sane-a-palooza-logistical-development-and-implementation-of-a-clinical-immersion-course-for-sexual-assault-nurse-examiners
#16
Jodi Baker, Patricia J Kelly, Kimberly Carlson, Sharon Colbert, Carolyn Cordle, Jacki S Witt
SANE-A-PALOOZA, a continuing education program that utilizes hands-on practice with standardized patients and human simulators, was developed to fulfill a portion of the required supervised clinical experience for certification as a sexual assault nurse examiner. The program is designed to provide concentrated clinical skill practice application, eliminate the time gap between gaining and applying clinical knowledge, and decrease discontinuity among multiple preceptors. This article provides an overview of SANE-A-PALOOZA logistics, with the goal of aiding other organizations in developing skill-building experiences for new or less-experienced sexual assault nurse examiners...
October 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845523/using-the-trauma-film-paradigm-to-explore-interpersonal-processes-after-trauma-exposure
#17
Matthew J Woodward, J Gayle Beck
OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to examine ways in which social support might influence trauma symptoms using a variation of the trauma film paradigm. METHOD: Sixty-seven undergraduate female students in romantic relationships were randomized to watch a stressful film clip depicting a sexual assault, either in the presence (PP) or absence (PA) of their romantic partner. RESULTS: Analyses showed that the PP condition experienced more intrusive memories of the film than the PA condition...
June 16, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845239/circuit-dysregulation-and-circuit-based-treatments-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Jony Sheynin, Israel Liberzon
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that develops in some individuals in the aftermath of exposure to traumatic events, such as actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual assault. It has been hypothesized that dysregulations in a number of specific neurocircuits, characterized by heightened responsivity of amygdala, dACC and insula, diminished responsivity of mPFC, impaired hippocampal function and deficits in cortical regions, underlie the development and expression of key PTSD symptoms...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837183/correlates-of-disclosure-cessation-after-sexual-assault
#19
Emily R Dworkin, Nicole Allen
Contacts with responders after sexual assault may influence further disclosure, but this possibility has not been explored empirically. Thus, this study investigates associations between survivors' contacts with responders and their decisions to discontinue disclosure. Fifty-four college students with a history of unwanted sexual experiences described 94 ordered contacts with responders. Results indicate that survivors' perceptions of responsiveness were not associated with continued disclosure, but survivors were more likely to continue disclosing when they perceived more rape myth acceptance from responders and when the assault was more recent...
November 10, 2016: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832353/a-proof-of-principal-study-on-the-use-of-direct-pcr-of-semen-and-spermatozoa-and-development-of-a-differential-isolation-protocol-for-use-in-cases-of-alleged-sexual-assault
#20
Shanan S Tobe, Yuvaneswari C Swaran, Lynn Dennany, Ursula Sibbing, Kristina Schulze Johann, Lindsey Welch, Marielle Vennemann
Sexual assault samples are some of the most common samples encountered in forensic analysis. These samples can require a significant time investment due to differential extraction processes. We report on the first record of successful direct amplification of semen for STR analysis. Neat seminal fluid, dilutions ranging from 1:5 to 1:160 and GEDNAP samples were successfully amplified using a direct method. A mild differential isolation technique to enrich spermatozoa was developed and successfully implemented to separate and directly amplify a mixture of semen and female epithelial cells...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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