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Sexual assault

Louise Morgan, Lisa Long
A gender specific approach to understanding female sex offenders is important for developing prevention and treatment strategies, yet research to date is limited. While it is recognised that females often offend with another person, there has been little attempt to look beyond the two groupings of solo and co-offending and study females who offend in larger groups. Furthermore, very few studies have looked at the victims of these crimes and all of these have focussed on child victims only. The present work describes demographic and assault related characteristics of victims of all ages reporting a sexual assault by a female perpetrator to the Havens sexual assault referral centres in London, UK, in a five year period, with the aim of identifying victim, perpetrator and offence patterns in solo, pair and group sexual assaults...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Eileen M Ahlin
Research suggests that youth are at higher risk of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than adult inmates. However, compared with adult inmates, very little is known about the risk factors associated with such violence among youth in custody. Without sufficient research on risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody, practitioners and policy makers may be reliant on the adult literature when making decisions about how to address and prevent such violence among juveniles...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Sharyn Potter, Rebecca Howard, Sharon Murphy, Mary M Moynihan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the well-documented mental and physical health problems suffered by undergraduate women sexually assaulted while on campus with an exploration of how the trauma impacts a survivor's lifetime education trajectory and career attainment. PARTICIPANTS: In November and December 2015, researchers recruited US participants using an on-line crowdsourcing tool and a Listserv for sexual violence prevention and response professionals. METHODS: Of 316 women who completed initial screening, 89 qualified to complete a Qualtrics survey...
February 15, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Rita C Seabrook, Sarah McMahon, Julia O'Connor
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the relation between interest and membership in a fraternity and acceptance of sexual violence (e.g., rape myth acceptance, proclivity to perpetrate sexual aggression) among first year college men. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 315 men were surveyed before their first year of college (June - August 2010) and again at four time points over the next year. METHODS: Participants responded to measures of rape myth acceptance and proclivity to perpetrate sexual aggression...
February 15, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Jennifer DiMauro, Keith D Renshaw
Relative to survivors of other traumatic events, survivors of sexual assault have an increased likelihood of meeting criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They are also comparatively more likely to exhibit higher levels of PTSD symptom severity. Recent research has highlighted the importance of trauma-related disclosure within the context of intimate relationships for posttrauma functioning and recovery, but this phenomenon has yet to be examined specifically in sexual assault survivor samples...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Alexander J Melkonian, Lindsay S Ham
Alcohol-related sexual assault among young adult women continues to present a public health concern. Social information-processing theory provides an organizing framework for understanding how alcohol intoxication can impair the processing of sexual assault risk cues and behavioral responding in sexual assault scenarios. The aim of the present article was to systematically review the extant research on the effects of alcohol intoxication on sexual assault risk information processing among young adult women...
February 12, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Sally F Kelty, Roberta Julian, Eva Bruenisholz, Linzi Wilson-Wilde
Forensic science is increasingly used to help exonerate the innocent and establishing links between individuals and criminal activities. With increased reliance on scientific services provided by multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational in the private and government sectors (health, justice, legal, police) practitioners, the potential for miscommunication resulting unjust outcomes increases. The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational information sharing is to prevent the 'justice silo effect'; where practitioners from different organisations operate in isolation with minimal or no interaction...
January 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
Brian I O'Toole, Mark Dadds, Sue Outram, Stanley V Catts
Background: War service increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to combatants, and has been shown to increase the risk of PTSD in their offspring. The extent to which there is an excess compared with the general population is not yet established, nor whether PTSD increases the risk of other psychiatric problems. Methods: A national sample of 133 sons and 182 daughters of a cohort of 179 Australian Vietnam veterans' families were assessed in person, using structured psychiatric interviews...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Natalie Hellman, Bethany L Kuhn, Edward W Lannon, Michael F Payne, Cassandra A Sturycz, Shreela Palit, Joanna O Shadlow, Jamie L Rhudy
OBJECTIVE: Sexual assault (SA) is associated with an increased risk for chronic pain and affective distress. Given that emotional processes modulate pain (e.g., negative emotions enhance pain, positive emotions inhibit pain), increased pain risk in SA survivors could stem from a disruption of emotional modulation processes. METHODS: A well-validated affective picture-viewing paradigm was used to study emotional modulation of pain in 33 healthy, pain-free SA survivors and a control group of 33 healthy, pain-free individuals with no reported history of SA (matched on age, sex, race, and number of non-SA traumas)...
February 9, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Laura J Miller, Nafisa Y Ghadiali
Introduction: Premenstrual, perinatal, and/or perimenopausal psychiatric problems require specific screening, assessment, and treatment strategies. The scope of these reproductive-linked psychiatric symptoms among women veterans is unknown. Due to high rates of sexual trauma among women veterans, it is also important to ascertain relationships between sexual trauma experiences and reproductive cycle mood problems. This pilot study investigates the prevalence of self-reported premenstrual, perinatal, and perimenopausal emotional problems and whether these correlate with pre-military sexual abuse, military sexual harassment, and/or military sexual assault, among veterans receiving psychiatric evaluations within a Veterans Administration Women's Health Clinic...
February 5, 2018: Military Medicine
Papanu Suttipasit, Surachet Wongwittayapanich
The presence of semen is generally accepted as evidence in sexual assault cases prosecution. Detection of sperm is confirmation of semen; however, sperm cannot always be detected. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and semenogelin (Sg) are used as semen biomarkers. We compared the detection rate and persistence of sperm, PSA and Sg over a range of time intervals from the time of assault to specimen collection. The results show that sperm had the longest persistence and highest detection rate. The detection rate of the Sg test was significantly better than that of the PSA test overall, whether the sperm test was negative or positive...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Megan Krantz, Tina Goldstein, Brian Rooks, John Merranko, Fangzi Liao, Mary Kay Gill, Rasim Diler, Danella Hafeman, Neal Ryan, Benjamin Goldstein, Shirley Yen, Heather Hower, Jeffrey Hunt, Martin Keller, Michael Strober, David Axelson, Boris Birmaher
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to document rates of sexual activity among youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BD) and to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with first sexual activity and sexual risk behavior during follow-up. METHOD: The sample was drawn from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study of 413 youth 7 to 17 years at baseline who met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorder according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer, Orapin Laosee, Kawinarat Suthisukon
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the occurrence and health consequences of intimate partner sexual assault. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of sexual assault in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Thailand. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey adult female participants were systematically screened (self-administered or interview administered) for IPV in antenatal care and general outpatient clinics in nine randomly selected hospitals in two provinces in the central region...
February 6, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Carrie A Moylan, McKenzie Javorka
Varying prevalence rates of sexual violence across colleges and universities indicate the need to understand institutional factors underlying such variation; however, research often focuses exclusively on individual risk and protective factors, which both under theorizes and under explains the phenomenon of campus sexual assault. In this review, we propose that broadening to include campus- and contextual-level factors is necessary to fully explain campus sexual assault. Using an ecological approach, we identify and synthesize research related to campus-level variation in sexual violence, including availability of campus services and resources for survivors, institutional risk factors such as alcohol and party culture, athletics, and fraternities, and the impact of policies at the state and federal levels...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Lucas Fortaleza de Aquino Ferreira, Fábio Henrique Queiroz Pereira, Ana Maria Luna Neri Benevides, Matias Carvalho Aguiar Melo
Although sexual abuse (SA) is known to be frequent among borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients, few reviews evaluating that relationship have been published. This systematic review aimed to investigate SA (including adulthood) as a predictor of BPD diagnosis, clinical presentation and prognosis. Studies written in English or Portuguese from January 1997 until January 2017 were identified by searching the following keywords in three international databases: "borderline personality disorder" OR "borderline disorder" AND "sexual abuse" OR "sexual violence" OR "sexual victimization" OR "sexual assault" OR "rape"...
February 1, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Allyson L Dir, Elizabeth N Riley, Melissa A Cyders, Gregory T Smith
Sexual assault is a major public health concern and college women are four times more likely to experience sexual assault than any other group. We investigated whether sexting is a mechanism by which alcohol use increases risk for college women to be targeted for sexual assault. We hypothesized that sexting would mediate the relationship between problem drinking and sexual assault, such that drinking (T1 = beginning fall semester) would contribute to increased sexting (T2 = end fall semester), and in turn increase the risk of being targeted for sexual assault (T3 = end spring semester)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Carrie A Moylan, Courtney Hatfieldm, Jenna Randall
OBJECTIVE: Despite popularity of climate surveys as a tool produce accurate data on campus sexual assault, little is known about how campuses are administering these surveys, what they are assessing, and what they are finding. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 105 campus climate survey reports was located with an internet search during the 2015-2016 academic year. METHODS: Review of climate survey reports assessed the methodology used, such as sampling method, use of incentives and sample size and response rate...
February 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Tiffany Marcantonio, D J Angelone, Meredith Joppa
OBJECTIVE: Verbal coercion (VC) is a common sexual assault tactic whereby men and women can be victims or perpetrators. College study abroad students report engagement in casual sex, alcohol consumption, and immersion in a sexualized environment (e.g., an environment that supports or encourages sexual activity); factors highly associated with sexual assault in general. The purpose of this study was to examine casual sex, alcohol use, and sexualized environments with VC victimization (VCV) and perpetration (VCP) while abroad...
February 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Sage E Hawn, Mackenzie J Lind, Abigail Conley, Cassie M Overstreet, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick, Ananda B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the moderating and mediating effects of perceived social support on the association between pre-college sexual assault (SA) and college-onset SA. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 6,132 undergraduates. METHODS: The PLUM procedure in SPSS was used to test the moderation model, with individual regressions conducted in a hierarchical fashion. A weighted least squared mean and variance adjusted (WLSMV) mediation model was used to examine the mediating effect of social support...
February 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Kate B Carey, Alyssa L Norris, Sarah E Durney, Robyn L Shepardson, Michael P Carey
OBJECTIVE: One in five college women experience unwanted sexual contact while in college, with first-year women being at the greatest risk. Given these data, we investigate how first-semester sexual assault impacts college women's mental health. PARTICIPANTS: 483 female first-year students enrolled in the study during the first month of college. METHODS: All participants completed a health questionnaire when they arrived on campus and again at the end of their first semester...
February 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
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