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Sexual assault

Anne Gatuguta, Katherine G Merrill, Manuela Colombini, Seyi Soremekun, Janet Seeley, Isaac Mwanzo, Karen Devries
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, most sexual violence survivors either do not access healthcare, access healthcare late or do not complete treatment. To design interventions that ensure optimal healthcare for survivors, it is important to understand the characteristics of those who do and do not access healthcare. In this paper, we aim to: compare the characteristics of survivors who present for healthcare to those of survivors reporting violence on national surveys; understand the healthcare services provided to survivors; and, identify barriers to treatment...
June 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
Sheila M McMahon, Gretchen L Hoge, Laura Johnson, Sarah McMahon
Bystander education is an increasingly popular primary prevention strategy for preventing sexual and relationship violence on college campuses. Although the evidence base for this primary prevention approach has grown substantially in recent years, more research is needed that accounts for changes in students' readiness to help and helping behaviors over time. In addition, because there is still much to learn about the factors that contribute to these changes in behavior, it is important to hear from students in their own words about their experiences with bystander education...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Sandrine Duron, Aline Bohet, Henri Panjo, Nathalie Bajos, René Migliani, Catherine Marimoutou, Yann Le Strat, Jean Baptiste Meynard, Caroline Moreau
BACKGROUND: Sexual health in the military comprises a range of concerns including sexually transmitted infections (STI), unintended pregnancy, sexual violence and sexual dysfunction. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of sexual health concerns by gender in the French military and compare these prevalences to estimates in the general population. METHODS: COSEMIL, the first sexual health survey in the French military comprises a probability sample of 1500 military personnel...
June 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Theresa Vietor, Rosanne Hountz
Human trafficking, including both sex and labor trafficking, is a global issue affecting 20.9 million people worldwide. The National Human Trafficking Hotline identified 36,270 cases of human trafficking in the United States since 2007. Human trafficking affects every community in the United States, no matter the size. The Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) is a crisis intervention model that has shown improved outcomes for sexual assault victims. The SART approach can be modeled to develop a regional community response to human trafficking to improve outcomes for these victims...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Stefan Stürmer, Anette Rohmann, Laura Froehlich, Jolanda van der Noll
This article uses an interactionist perspective to understand the role of media framings of critical events in catalyzing Western citizens' support for radical responses to Muslim immigration (e.g., armed self-defense). A multi-method series of three studies tested this perspective in the context of the 2015/2016 Cologne New Year's Eve sexual assaults on women. Study 1, a content analysis of 163 online newspaper articles, revealed that mass media attributed the assaults to the suspects' Muslim culture. Study 2, a correlational study ( N = 487) conducted at the peak of the media coverage, confirmed that the degree to which participants accepted the veracity of the culture-focused media representation strengthened the relation between their feelings of symbolic threat as a result of Muslim immigration and their approval of radical responses...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jacqueline Woerner, Cassie Overstreet, Ananda B Amstadter, Carolyn E Sartor
Adverse psychosocial experiences operate simultaneously to affect mental health and behavior. The current study used mixture modeling to identify subgroups of young adults based on experiences of four types of psychosocial adversity and characterize their associations with depression, anxiety, world assumptions, substance use, and sexual risk behavior. Sexual assault, physical assault, and discrimination (interpersonal adversity) showed similar patterns within each group but diverged from neighborhood disadvantage in two groups...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Jessica A Blayney, Amy Hequembourg, Jennifer A Livingston
Adult sexual assault (ASA) has been linked to numerous negative psychological and behavioral outcomes. Recent research suggests that postassault adaptation may differ based on how the victim conceptualizes their ASA. For instance, women who label their rape experiences as such (i.e., acknowledged rape victims) report worse mental health symptoms than women who do not (i.e., unacknowledged rape victims). To date, this literature has focused exclusively on heterosexual women. Relative to heterosexuals, sexual minority women (SMW) are at greater risk for sexual assault and report worse postassault outcomes, yet little is known about rape acknowledgment in this at-risk population...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
C Christ, M de Jonge, C L H Bockting, M J Kikkert, D J F van Schaik, A T F Beekman, J J M Dekker
BACKGROUND: Depressed patients are at increased risk to fall victim to a violent crime compared to the general population. It remains unknown whether their increased risk persists after remission. This study compared victimization rates of remitted patients with both a random general population sample and a group of currently depressed patients. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify predictors of future violent victimization. METHODS: In this longitudinal study conducted in the Netherlands, 12-month prevalence rates of sexual assaults, physical assaults, and threats were assessed with the Safety Monitor in 140 currently remitted patients with recurrent depression, and compared to those of a weighted general population sample (N = 9...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Anne G Sadler, Ann M Cheney, Michelle A Mengeling, Brenda M Booth, James C Torner, Lance Brendan Young
Despite growing recognition of the high rates of sexual violence experienced by men serving in the U.S. military, male victimization, specifically sexual assault in military (SAIM), is an understudied topic. We qualitatively describe servicemen's awareness and perceptions of male SAIM, and their understanding of common barriers to servicemen reporting sexual assault. Participants included Midwestern Active Component and Reserve and National Guard servicemen, actively serving or Veteran, who had returned from Iraq or Afghanistan deployments during Operation Enduring/Iraqi Freedom eras...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Amanda K Gilmore, Christine K Hahn, Anna E Jaffe, Kate Walsh, Angela D Moreland, Erin F Ward-Ciesielski
INTRODUCTION: Sexual assault (SA) is common, and recent sexual assault is associated with suicidal ideation and prescription opioid (PO) use. PO use is also associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation. The current study examined suicidal ideation among adults seeking medical and psychological follow-up care after a SA medical forensic examination based on PO use and prior SA. METHODS: Adults (n = 60) who received a SA medical forensic exam at the emergency room within 120 h of a SA were invited to receive medical and psychological follow-up care, which included a questionnaire about current mental health symptoms...
May 31, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Francisco Caamano-Isorna, Amy Adkins, Lucía Moure-Rodríguez, Abigail H Conley, Danielle Dick
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of sexual and physical assault among university students and its association with alcohol use. The research is part of a wider cohort study (Spit for ScienceTM ) at a large public university in the United States. The follow-up data include the first two cohorts (2011, 2012; n = 5,170). The dependent variables were victim of sexual assault and victim of physical assault. The independent variables were alcohol dependence and abuse according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Sarah B Epstein, Beth R Crisp
It has been claimed that effective responses to child sexual abuse (CSA) must engage with the specific cultural, social, and religious contexts of the target communities. For Jewish communities in Australia, the program J-Safe was established to raise awareness, create cultural change, and empower the Jewish community to be able to prevent, recognize, and address child sexual assault within the school setting. This paper reports on the experiences of teachers in two Jewish-day schools who had participated in the J-Safe Project's protective behaviors teacher training program...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Libo Li, Thomas K Greenfield
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol's harms to others (AHTO) may cause substantial distress, particularly when harms are perpetrated by close others. One challenge to identifying causal impacts is that people harmed by drinkers differ in many ways from those not so harmed, so our aim was to assess mental health in relation to two serious types of AHTO, financial harm and assault by someone who had been drinking, using propensity score (PS) weighting to adjust for potentially confounding differences...
June 12, 2018: Addiction
Nichole M Sell, Rob Turrisi, Nichole M Scaglione, Michael J Cleveland, Kimberly A Mallett
Heavy drinking is a risk factor for sexual assault. Although protective behavioral strategies (PBS) tend to be associated with reduced alcohol consumption, there are studies showing differential benefits for using these strategies. The current study extended the research on PBS and drinking by examining daily associations between alcohol consumption and sexual assault PBS (e.g., letting others know one's whereabouts) versus stopping or limiting drinking PBS (e.g., planning to stop drinking at a predetermined time) and manner of drinking PBS (e...
March 2018: Psychology of Women Quarterly
Nicola Heslehurst, Heather Brown, Augustina Pemu, Hayley Coleman, Judith Rankin
BACKGROUND: Global migration is at an all-time high with implications for perinatal health. Migrant women, especially asylum seekers and refugees, represent a particularly vulnerable group. Understanding the impact on the perinatal health of women and offspring is an important prerequisite to improving care and outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the current evidence base on perinatal health outcomes and care among women with asylum seeker or refugee status. METHODS: Twelve electronic database, reference list and citation searches (1 January 2007-July 2017) were carried out between June and July 2017...
June 12, 2018: BMC Medicine
Alice Pearl Sedziafa, Eric Y Tenkorang, Adobea Y Owusu
In African societies, kinship ties determine how women are socialized, their access to power and wealth, as well as custody of children, often considered important factors in married women's experience of intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet studies that examine how kinship norms influence IPV are scant. Using in-depth interviews collected from women identifying with both matrilineal and patrilineal descent systems, we explored differences in Ghanaian women's experiences of IPV in both kin groups. Results show that while IPV occurs across matrilineal and patrilineal societies, all women in patrilineal societies narrated continuous pattern of emotional, physical, and sexual assault, and their retaliation to any type of violence almost always culminated in more experience of violent attacks and abandonment...
July 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Jonathan A Weiss, Michelle A Fardella
This study aimed to describe the self-reported experiences of childhood and adult victimization and perpetration in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) compared to a matched sample, and how victimization and perpetration are associated with autism-related difficulties. Forty-five adults with ASC and 42 adults without ASC completed questionnaires regarding violence victimization and perpetration, emotion regulation, and sociocommunicative competence. Participants with ASC reported experiencing, as children, more overall victimization; specifically, more property crime, maltreatment, teasing/emotional bullying, and sexual assault by peers, compared to participants without ASC...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Audun Brunes, Trond Heir
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of sexual assaults among individuals with visual impairment (VI) compared with the general population and to investigate the association between sexual assault and outcomes of self-efficacy and life satisfaction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional interview-based study conducted between February and May 2017. PARTICIPANTS: A probability sample of adults with VI (≥18 years) who were members of the Norwegian Association of the Blind and Partially Sighted...
June 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Meghan E Morean, Nancy Darling, Jessie Smit, Jolie DeFeis, Maya Wergeles, Dana Kurzer-Yashin, Kaitlyn Custer
Sexual misconduct occurs with disproportionate frequency on college campuses, and alcohol is involved in most sexual assaults. Importantly, collegiate athletes are at risk for both heavy drinking and sexual misconduct. Thus, the current study evaluated the efficacy of a novel, 2.5-hr, peer-facilitated, interactive, group-based bystander intervention program for student athletes that integrated information on sexual misconduct and risky drinking (Preventing and Responding to Sexual Misconduct [PRSM]). In all, 205 athletes completed 25-min surveys immediately before and after the training, and 76 (of 94 invited) completed a 3-month follow-up...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
C J Eubanks Fleming, Kyle A Lynch, Maggie B Hakas, Elizabeth Belanger
The risk for sexual victimization in college is high, and although there can be significant mental and physical consequences for the survivor, resource utilization for this issue is extremely low. The current study used the frameworks of both the ecological model and the theory of planned behavior to examine factors related to resource use in undergraduate survivors of unwanted sexual experiences. The sample consisted of 217 undergraduates who reported at least one unwanted sexual experience while in college (89% female, 76...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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