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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672758/explaining-the-gender-gap-in-sickness-absence
#1
K A Østby, A Mykletun, W Nilsen
Background: In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. Aims: To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Methods: Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events...
April 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672245/intimate-partner-violence-trauma-and-mental-health-need-among-female-community-college-students
#2
Rachel J Voth Schrag, Tonya E Edmond
The impact of interpersonal violence on college students has received considerable recent attention, yet no studies have been conducted among community college students. These students comprise over 40% of all American college students, and may have unique risk factors and needs. These students are more likely than their peers at 4 year institutions to be women, people of color, working, parenting, and first generation college students. The current study uses a simple random sample of students from four campuses (n = 435) to assess the extent of intimate partner violence, trauma exposure, sexual violence victimization, and associated mental health consequences among female students attending community college...
April 19, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672106/mmpi-2-rf-characteristics-of-veterans-seeking-treatment-for-military-sexual-trauma
#3
Eliza S McManus, Lisa-Ann J Cuccurullo, Madeline Uddo, C Laurel Franklin
Military sexual trauma (MST) is defined as experiences of sexual assault or repeated, threatening, harassment during military service. MST events may not qualify within posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Criterion A, making symptoms associated with MST unique from trauma-related disorders. Little research has been done to understand those presenting for MST treatment. Thus, this article provides Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores of 33 U.S. veterans who experienced MST in an effort to better understand psychological and personality characteristics of this important and unique group of veterans...
April 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662102/richard-gartner-understanding-the-sexual-betrayal-of-boys-and-men-the-trauma-of-sexual-abuse-and-healing-sexually-betrayed-men-and-boys-treatment-for-sexual-abuse-assault-and-trauma
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661117/sexual-victimization-and-mental-illness-prevalence-rates-among-incarcerated-women-a-literature-review
#5
Marie E Karlsson, Melissa J Zielinski
Incarcerated women evidence high rates of both interpersonal trauma and mental illness. In particular, the rates of sexual violence victimization are so high that some researchers have suggested that sexual abuse may be a pathway to prison for women, likely through the development of mental illness, including substance abuse. This review article summarizes the literature on sexual victimization ( n = 32 articles; 28 independent studies) and mental illness ( n = 11 articles; 8 independent studies) prevalence among samples of incarcerated women ( Ns ≥ 100) in context of methodological choices within included articles...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660018/sexual-assault-and-disabling-ptsd-in-active-duty-service-women
#6
Denise Parnell, Vasudha Ram, Paulette Cazares, Jennifer Webb-Murphy, Melanie Roberson, Shiva Ghaed
Introduction: Sexual assault in the military is a major concern and may result in significant health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Those developing disabling PTSD symptoms may require a disability evaluation. We examined disability evaluation trends for service women with PTSD to better understand characteristics associated with inability to continue Active Duty service. Methods: This is a retrospective review of disability reports and electronic medical records for 322 Active Duty women diagnosed with and treated for PTSD by psychiatrists and psychologists at a large military treatment facility between 2011 and 2014...
April 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652650/the-alcohol-contexts-of-consent-wanted-sex-sexual-pleasure-and-sexual-assault-results-from-a-probability-survey-of-undergraduate-students
#7
Debby Herbenick, Tsung-Chieh Jane Fu, Brian Dodge, J Dennis Fortenberry
OBJECTIVE: To examine, in a probability sample of undergraduate students, characteristics of students' most recent sexual experiences (including alcohol use) as well as their experiences with non-consensual sex. PARTICIPANTS: In January and February 2015, 22,046 students were invited to participate in an anonymous, cross-sectional, Internet-based survey; 7,032 surveys were completed (31.9%). METHODS: Measures included background characteristics (age, gender, sexual orientation), most recent sexual event items (sexual pleasure, wantedness, alcohol use), and experiences with nonconsensual sex (since college and lifetime)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652629/quantifying-the-magnitude-and-potential-influence-of-missing-data-in-campus-sexual-assault-surveys-a-systematic-review-of-surveys-2010-2016
#8
Molly Rosenberg, Ashley Townes, Shaneil Taylor, Maya Luetke, Debby Herbenick
OBJECTIVE: To understand how missing data may influence conclusions drawn from campus sexual assault surveys. METHODS: We systematically reviewed 40 surveys from 2010-2016. We constructed a pseudo-population of the total population targeted across schools, creating records proportional to the respective response rate and reported sexual assault prevalence. We simulated the effects of 9 scenarios where the sexual assault prevalence among non-responders differed from that of responders...
April 13, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650498/five-years-post-nirbhaya-critical-insights-into-the-status-of-response-to-sexual-assault
#9
Sunita Vs Bandewar, Amita Pitre, Lakshmi Lingam
It is five years since the fatal gang rape of Jyothi Singh (Nirbhaya), a physiotherapy student, on December 16, 2012, in New Delhi, the capital of India. The legal and policy reforms triggered by the Nirbhaya case will remain a watershed moment in the history of efforts towards seeking justice for survivors of gender-based violence in India. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 and the "Guidelines and protocols: Medico-legal care for survivors/victims of sexual violence" issued by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in March 2014 are two landmark reforms...
March 28, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629782/a-longitudinal-event-level-investigation-of-alcohol-intoxication-alcohol-related-blackouts-childhood-sexual-abuse-and-sexual-victimization-among-college-students
#10
Emily R Wilhite, Travis Mallard, Kim Fromme
Sexual assault is a troubling epidemic that plagues college campuses across the United States, and is often proceeded by drinking by the perpetrator and/or victim. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of level of intoxication, history of alcohol-related blackouts, and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of being a victim or perpetrator of coercive sexual activities. Participants (N = 2,244) were part of a 6-year longitudinal study which explored alcohol use and associated behavioral risks during college...
April 9, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629635/juror-decision-making-in-acquaintance-and-marital-rape-the-influence-of-clothing-alcohol-and-preexisting-stereotypical-attitudes
#11
Kirsty Osborn, Josh P Davis, Susan Button, John Foster
Stereotypical biases about women's roles in intimate relationships including their marital status and lifestyle choices such as clothing and alcohol use influence juror attributions of rape case defendant guilt, potentially reducing access to justice for victims. Across two mock-juror decision-making experiments, participants read identical fictitious sexual assault vignettes varying in intoxicated defendant-complainant relationship (married vs. acquaintance), accompanied by photographs of complainant clothing at the crime (body revealing vs...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629634/-why-should-i-the-one-who-was-raped-be-forced-to-take-training-in-what-sexual-assault-is-sexual-assault-survivors-and-those-who-know-survivors-responses-to-a-campus-sexual-assault-education-program
#12
Meredith G F Worthen, Samantha A Wallace
This study critically examines sexual assault survivors' (people with histories of sexual assault) and those who know survivors' (those who know and/or who are close to people with histories of sexual assault) responses to a mandatory online campus sexual assault education program using both quantitative survey data ( N = 1,899) and qualitative narratives ( n = 41) from a sample of students at a large southern university with special attention to gender, sexual identity, race, ethnicity, college group affiliations (student athletics, fraternities/sororities, LGBTQ [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, queer] ally programs), and the intersections between these identities and affiliations...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623533/psychosocial-health-disparities-among-black-bisexual-men-in-the-u-s-effects-of-sexuality-nondisclosure-and-gay-community-support
#13
M Reuel Friedman, Leigh Bukowski, Lisa A Eaton, Derrick D Matthews, Typhanye V Dyer, Dan Siconolfi, Ron Stall
Compared with Black gay men, Black bisexual men experience psychosocial health disparities, including depression, polydrug use, physical assault, and intimate partner violence (IPV). Black bisexual men are also less likely to disclose their sexuality, which may result in them receiving less sexual minority community support, exacerbating psychosocial health disparities. We assessed relationships between bisexual behavior, bisexual identity, sexuality nondisclosure, gay community support, and psychosocial morbidities among Black men who have sex with men (MSM)...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620636/clinical-characteristic-and-risk-factors-of-recurrent-sexual-abuse-and-delayed-reported-sexual-abuse-in-childhood
#14
Mei-Hua Hu, Go-Shine Huang, Jing-Long Huang, Chang-Teng Wu, An-Shine Chao, Fu-Sung Lo, Han-Ping Wu
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global problem that affects children of all ages, and the evaluation of these victims by psychologic and gynecologic experts in pediatric emergency departments is an important issue. Few data are available on the characteristics of children admitted to pediatric emergency department with recurrent CSA and delayed reported CSA. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical features of, and risk factors for, recurrent CSA and delayed reported CSA. The study retrospectively analyzed victims of CSA who were admitted to a pediatric emergency department...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620519/neurocognitive-emotional-and-neuroendocrine-correlates-of-exposure-to-sexual-assault-in-women
#15
Yann Quidé, Helen Cléry, Frédéric Andersson, Céline Descriaud, Pauline Saint-Martin, Laurent Barantin, Valérie Gissot, Marie-Paule Carrey Le Bas, Sylvie Osterreicher, Diane Dufour-Rainfray, Bruno Brizard, Maja Ogielska, Wissam El-Hage
BACKGROUND: Survivors of sexual assault are vulnerable to long-term negative psychological and physical health outcomes, but few studies have investigated changes in cognition, emotional processing and brain function in the early stages after sexual assault. We used a multimodal approach to identify the cognitive and emotional correlates associated with sexual assault in women. METHODS: Twenty-seven female survivors of sexual assault were included within 4 weeks of the traumatic event, and they were compared with 20 age-matched controls...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619558/externalizing-behavior-problems-are-related-to-substance-use-in-adolescents-across-six-samples-from-nordic-countries
#16
Mads Uffe Pedersen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Ove Heradstveit, Jens Christoffer Skogen, Morten Hesse, Sheila Jones
The aim of this study is to investigate associations between use of cigarettes, cannabis, and alcohol (CCA) and psychosocial problems among adolescents with different cultural backgrounds living in Nordic countries. Data from six questionnaire-based surveys conducted in Denmark, Norway, and Greenland, with participants from different cultural and religious backgrounds, were compared. A total of 2212 adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age participated in the study. The surveys were carried out nationally and in school settings...
April 4, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618539/sexsomnia-as-a-defense-in-repeated-sex-crimes
#17
Amir Mohebbi, Brian J Holoyda, William J Newman
Sexsomnia and related sexual behaviors during sleep may be diagnosed in individuals accused of sex crimes. Although sexsomnia is now formally recognized in the DSM-5, the variable presentation of such behaviors and the possibility of malingering in medicolegal situations can cause challenges for forensic evaluators and legal professionals alike. Review of the literature reveals a paucity of cases involving allegations of repeated incidents due to abnormal sexual behaviors or experiences in sleep. It is important for experts involved in such cases to understand how the courts have responded to sexsomnia defenses involving diverse alleged incidents...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609058/sperm-cell-purification-from-mock-forensic-swabs-using-somamer%C3%A2-affinity-reagents
#18
Evaldas Katilius, Andrew B Carmel, Heidi Koss, Dan O'Connell, Breanna C Smith, Glenn M Sanders, Greggory S LaBerge
We have demonstrated a proof of concept with affinity-based purification of sperm cells from mock forensic samples using SOMAmer™ reagents, DNA-based affinity reagents developed by SomaLogic, Inc. SOMAmer reagents were selected in vitro using whole-cell SELEX to bind specifically with intact, detergent-treated sperm cells. Successful separation of sperm from epithelial cells and their debris was demonstrated using buccal swabs with added semen. Primarily male DNA profiles were generated from sperm cells eluted from the types of cotton swabs typically used for rape kit evidence collection...
March 27, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603392/military-sexual-assault-in-transgender-veterans-results-from-a-nationwide-survey
#19
Kerry Beckman, Jillian Shipherd, Tracy Simpson, Keren Lehavot
There is limited understanding about the frequency of military sexual assault (MSA) in transgender veterans, characteristics associated with MSA, or subsequent mental and behavioral health problems. To address this gap, we used an online national survey of 221 transgender veterans to identify prevalence of MSA and to assess its association with demographic characteristics, past history of sexual victimization, and stigma-related factors. We also evaluated the association between MSA and several mental and behavioral health problems...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603040/screening-for-childhood-adversity-the-what-and-when-of-identifying-individuals-at-risk-for-lifespan-health-disparities
#20
Kate Ryan Kuhlman, Theodore F Robles, Julienne E Bower, Judith E Carroll
Existing research on childhood adversity and health risk across the lifespan lacks specificity regarding which types of exposures to assess and when. The purpose of this study was to contribute to an empirically-supported framework to guide practitioners interested in identifying youth who may be at greatest risk for a lifelong trajectory of health disparities. We also sought to identify the point in childhood at which screening for adversity exposure would capture the largest group of at risk individuals for triage to prevention and intervention services...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
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