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Sexual assault

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050837/forensic-patients-in-the-emergency-department-who-are-they-and-how-should-we-care-for-them
#1
Celia J Filmalter, T Heyns, R Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Patients who suffer violent, crime related injuries are likely to seek medical assistance in emergency departments. Forensic patients may not disclose the cause of their injuries leading to the impairment of evidence. We explored healthcare providers' perceptions of forensic patients and how they should be cared for. METHOD: The perceptions of physicians and nurses regarding the profiles and care of forensic patients were explored in three urban emergency departments...
October 16, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042497/a-single-dual-function-enzyme-controls-the-production-of-inflammatory-nod-agonist-peptidoglycan-fragments-by-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#2
Jonathan D Lenz, Kathleen T Hackett, Joseph P Dillard
Neisseria gonorrhoeae gonococcus (GC) is a Gram-negative betaproteobacterium and causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. During growth, GC releases lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and peptidoglycan (PG) fragments, which contribute significantly to the inflammatory damage observed during human infection. In ascending infection of human Fallopian tubes, inflammation leads to increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and sterility. Of the PG fragments released by GC, most are disaccharide peptide monomers, and of those, 80% have tripeptide stems despite the observation that tetrapeptide stems make up 80% of the assembled cell wall...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021013/a-short-measure-of-social-reactions-to-sexual-assault-the-social-reactions-questionnaire-shortened
#3
Sarah E Ullman, Mark Relyea, Rannveig Sigurvinsdottir, Sidney Bennett
Social reactions to disclosures of sexual assault have significant effects on women's postassault recovery. However, being the most widely used measure of these reactions, the 48-item Social Reactions Questionnaire (SRQ; Ullman, 2000) is too long for some research and evaluation efforts. Thus, we developed a 16-item short version, the Social Reactions Questionnaire-Shortened (SRQ-S). Three preexisting college and community samples of women survivors (N = 1,012; 1,084; and 344) were used to determine which SRQ items were most related to psychological symptoms and could form reliable subscales...
October 11, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020793/sexual-abuse-of-children-with-learning-disabilities
#4
Jesse J Helton, Tatiana Gochez-Kerr, Ellen Gruber
Although children with a learning disability (LD) are at an increased risk of sexual abuse, it is unclear whether conditions specific to their impairment are associated with sexual assault or if risk derives from other comorbid conditions such as behavioral problems, social skill deficits, or loneliness. Using a national probability study of child maltreatment investigations in the United States ( n = 2,033), we hypothesized that children over the age of 4 with a LD are target congruent to a sexual perpetrator...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016157/assailant-identity-and-self-reported-nondisclosure-of-military-sexual-trauma-in-partnered-women-veterans
#5
Rebecca K Blais, Emily Brignone, Jamison D Fargo, Nathan W Galbreath, Adi V Gundlapalli
OBJECTIVE: Department of Veterans Affairs estimates of military sexual trauma (MST) suggest 27% of female veterans have experienced MST. However, Department of Defense data (Department of Defense, 2014) show that a subgroup of active-duty women do not report sexual assaults to a military authority, suggesting barriers to disclosure exist among military samples. No study of female veterans has examined rates of nondisclosure among those with previous screens for MST; these data could inform screening efforts and establishment of safe havens for candid disclosures...
October 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982313/biomarkers-of-alcohol-consumption-in-body-fluids-possibilities-and-limitations-of-application-in-toxicological-analysis
#6
Mateusz K Woźniak, Marek Wiergowski, Jacek Namieśnik, Marek Biziuk
Ethyl alcohol is the most popular legal drug, but its excessive consumption causes social problems. Despite many public campaigns against alcohol use, car accidents, instances of aggressive behaviour, sexual assaults and deterioration in labor productivity caused by inebriated people is still commonplace. Fast and easy diagnosis of alcohol consumption is required in order to introduce proper and effective therapy, and is crucial in forensic toxicology analysis. The easiest method to prove alcohol intake is determination of ethanol in body fluids or in breath...
October 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981312/intimate-violence-as-it-relates-to-risky-sexual-behavior-among-at-risk-females
#7
Danielle C Hill, L A R Stein, Joseph S Rossi, Molly Magill, Jennifer G Clarke
OBJECTIVE: Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents are on the rise. The majority of adolescents who contract STIs do so through risky sexual behavior. Previous literature has identified multiple correlates of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, including physical and sexual victimization, mental health concerns, and substance use. Few studies, however, have examined these relationships together in a comprehensive model. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether relationship violence was related to risky sexual behavior, and whether mental health symptoms and substance use mediated this relationship...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974491/judge-questions-why-gmc-took-three-years-to-investigate-sexual-assault-claim
#8
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972706/trauma-informed-care-survey-of-psychiatrists-and-primary-care-physicians-in-the-middle-east
#9
Ossama T Osman, Laeth Nasir, Richard F Mollica, Taoufik Zoubeidi, James Lavelle, Noor Amawi
Objective: To explore in Arab communities the prevalence, dynamics, and resources available to address the physical and psychological consequences that may arise from psychiatric disorders. Methods: An online survey of psychiatrists and primary care physicians from 17 Arab countries was conducted between September 2011 and June 2012. The survey serves as a needs assessment in a scientifically valid and culturally sensitive manner. Additionally, it focuses attention on the clinical strengths and weaknesses of Middle Eastern primary health care and mental health centers in identifying and treating trauma-related health and mental health issues...
September 28, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969492/national-comparisons-of-rape-myth-acceptance-predictors-between-nonathletes-and-athletes-from-multi-institutional-settings
#10
John C Navarro, Richard Tewksbury
Athletes are cited as common perpetrators of sexual victimization and are at greater risk of becoming offenders compared with nonathletes. Demographic, lifestyle, and social characteristics of 624 nonathletes and 101 athletes from 21 U.S. Division I postsecondary educational institutions were assessed, with the updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale gauging endorsement of rape myths. Results indicate that athletes and nonathletes were similar in the degree of rape myth acceptance, with athletes reporting stronger agreement with rape myths than nonathletes did...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965000/comparative-analysis-of-condom-lubricants-on-pre-post-coital-vaginal-swabs-using-accutof-dart
#11
Gloria Proni, Peter Cohen, Lesley-Ann Huggins, Nasri Nesnas
In this study we demonstrate the use of Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART) as a powerful tool for detection of nonoxynol in vaginal fluid post contact with a condom, enabling rapid tracing and added evidences in sexual assault crimes. Vaginal fluid was sampled using cotton swabs and glass rods and measured directly with DART. Sample preparation using water, hexane, methanol, and dichloromethane extraction, was explored for comparison and optimization of signals. Nonoxynol was detected up to eight hours after sampling...
September 28, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963943/effects-of-microbial-dna-on-human-dna-profiles-generated-using-the-powerplex-%C3%A2-16-hs-system
#12
Gina M Dembinski, Christine J Picard
Most crime scenes are not sterile and therefore may be contaminated with environmental DNA, especially if a decomposing body is found. Collecting biological evidence from this individual will yield DNA samples mixed with microbial DNA. This also becomes important if postmortem swabs are collected from sexually assaulted victims. Although genotyping kits undergo validation tests, including bacterial screens, they do not account for the diverse microbial load during decomposition. We investigated the effect of spiking human DNA samples with known concentrations of DNA from 17 microbe species associated with decomposition on DNA profiles produced using the Promega PowerPlex(®) HS system...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963095/cardiologist-is-cleared-of-sexual-assault-charges
#13
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961551/vulnerability-and-revictimization-victim-characteristics-in-a-dutch-assault-center
#14
E Zijlstra, G Esselink, M L Moors, S LoFoWong, G Hutschemaekers, A Lagro-Janssen
Sexual and family violence are highly prevalent problems with numerous negative health consequences. Assault centres, such as the Centre for Sexual and Family Violence (CSFV) in the Netherlands, have been set up to provide optimal care to victims. We wanted to gain insight into characteristics of the population that presented to the Centre in order to customize care to their needs. File analysis was conducted of victims who attended the CSFV between 2013 and 2016. Data were analyzed in SPSS. A total of 121 victims entered the Centre, 93% of them being female...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960606/proximal-relationships-between-social-support-and-ptsd-symptom-severity-a-daily-diary-study-of-sexual-assault-survivors
#15
Emily R Dworkin, Sarah E Ullman, Cynthia Stappenbeck, Charlotte D Brill, Debra Kaysen
BACKGROUND: In cross-sectional studies, social support and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms appear related, in that higher severity of PTSD is associated with lower social support and vice versa. Theoretical models of the causal direction of this relationship differ. Most longitudinal studies suggest that PTSD symptoms erode social support over time, although some suggest that higher social support is prospectively associated with decrease in PTSD symptom severity. It is unclear, though, how social support and PTSD affect each other in the short term...
September 28, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946082/genital-piercings-in-the-context-of-acute-sexual-assault
#16
Amy P Goldberg
After an acute sexual assault, children and adolescents often present for medical evaluation and treatment. Physicians have an important role in both the medical and legal components of these cases. Careful physical examination and questioning are important in determining the origin of the trauma. In the presented case report, genital trauma after an acute sexual assault was noted and attributed to the alleged offender's penis piercing. The genital trauma caused by the piercing provided physical evidence linking offender to victim and may have implications for the victim's risk of HIV infection and other blood borne pathogens...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946081/intra-and-inter-rater-agreement-of-the-genital-injury-severity-scale
#17
Dana L Kelly, Hillary J Larkin, Lauri A Paolinetti
INTRODUCTION: The Genital Injury Severity Scale (GISS) is a clinimetrically-tested tool in use for quantifying and qualifying external genital injury after sexual intercourse. PURPOSE: To evaluate inter- and intra-rater agreement of the GISS amongst examiner/raters in an urban, ethnically diverse, emergency department based sexual assault center. METHODS: The study was conducted in three phases. Six examiners with various years of experience rated their own cases and each others' cases greater than one year after the initial exam...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945674/trafficking-and-trauma-insight-and-advice-for-the-healthcare-system-from-sex-trafficked-women-incarcerated-on-rikers-island
#18
Anita Ravi, Megan R Pfeiffer, Zachary Rosner, Judy A Shea
BACKGROUND: Sex-trafficked persons experience significant trauma while exploited, resulting in complex health issues and barriers to health care. Incorporating survivor perspectives is critical in optimizing health care delivery for this population. OBJECTIVES: We interviewed sex-trafficking survivors regarding their experiences with trauma while being trafficked and elicited advice about health care delivery. RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative interviews were conducted in New York City's Rikers Island jail from July to September 2015...
September 22, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940320/a-randomized-clinical-trial-examining-the-effect-of-video-based-prevention-of-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-among-recent-sexual-assault-victims
#19
Kate Walsh, Amanda K Gilmore, Patricia Frazier, Linda Ledray, Ron Acierno, Kenneth J Ruggiero, Dean G Kilpatrick, Heidi S Resnick
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether a brief video intervention (Prevention of Postrape Stress; PPRS) delivered in the emergency department to recent sexual assault (SA) victims reduced alcohol and marijuana use at three points over the course of a six-month follow-up compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and an active control condition (Pleasant Imagery and Relaxation Information; PIRI). Prior assault history, minority status, and pre-SA substance use also were examined as moderators of intervention efficacy...
September 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940217/military-related-trauma-is-associated-with-eating-disorder-symptoms-in-male-veterans
#20
Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Brooke A Bartlett, Katherine M Iverson, Karen S Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders are understudied among male veterans, who may be at increased risk due to the high rates of trauma exposure and experiences of multiple traumatization in this population. This study sought to examine the associations between specific types of trauma (i.e., childhood physical abuse, adult physical assault, childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and military-related trauma) and eating disorder symptoms in a large, nationally-representative sample of trauma-exposed male veterans...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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