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Innate immunity

Matthew J Murray, Nicholas E Peters, Matthew B Reeves
The host cell represents a hostile environment that viruses must counter in order to establish infection. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is no different and encodes a multitude of functions aimed at disabling, re-directing or hijacking cellular functions to promulgate infection. However, during the very early stages of infection the virus relies on the outcome of interactions between virion components, cell surface receptors and host signalling pathways to promote an environment that supports infection. In the context of latent infection-where the virus establishes an infection in an absence of many gene products specific for lytic infection-these initial interactions are crucial events...
March 16, 2018: Pathogens
Timothy J Green, Peter Speck
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , is becoming a valuable model for investigating antiviral defense in the Lophotrochozoa superphylum. In the past five years, improvements to laboratory-based experimental infection protocols using Ostreid herpesvirus I (OsHV-1) from naturally infected C. gigas combined with next-generation sequencing techniques has revealed that oysters have a complex antiviral response involving the activation of all major innate immune pathways. Experimental evidence indicates C. gigas utilizes an interferon-like response to limit OsHV-1 replication and spread...
March 16, 2018: Viruses
Petra Bachour, Stephen T Sonis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goals of this review are to describe the complexity of factors influencing the risk of cancer regimen-related mucosal injury (CRRMI), to evaluate the contribution of the innate immune response to CRRMI risk, to compare the concordance of genome analytics in describing mechanism and risk, and to determine if common biological pathways are noted when CRRMI is compared to a disease with a similar phenotype. RECENT FINDINGS: The pathogenesis of and risk for CRRMI are complex and influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Enrico Gugliandolo, Roberta Fusco, Giovanna Ginestra, Ramona D'amico, Carlo Bisignano, Giuseppina Mandalari, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosanna Di Paola
BACKGROUND: Colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), the most common pathogen isolated mainly in patients with cystic fibrosis, is particularly difficult to eradicate and is associated with acceleration of decline in lung function and with poorer prognosis. PA LPS is recognized by toll like receptors 4 (TLR4) and has been shown to induce lung inflammation in vivo. In addition, regulation of this process is essential for proper pathogen clearance and to prevent excessive inflammatory response resulting in tissue damage...
March 15, 2018: Shock
Nailia R Khasbiullina, Nadezhda V Shilova, Maxim E Navakouski, Alexey Yu Nokel, Yuri A Knirel, Ola Blixt, Nicolai V Bovin
Innate immunity natural Abs (NAbs) execute a number of functions, including protection and surveillance. Despite active research, the stimuli that induce the formation of NAbs are still described only hypothetically. Here, we compared repertoires of anti-glycan Abs in the peripheral blood of mice that received per os various bacteria. The repertoires of Abs of mice primed in this way were compared using a microarray that included about 350 glycans, as well as 150 bacterial polysaccharides. Sterile mice did not possess anti-glycan Abs...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Vivek Murthy, Janna Minehart, Daniel H Sterman
Modern cancer immunotherapies represent a major shift in paradigm with respect to how we understand innate and adaptive responses to malignancy. Successful tumors co-opt normal immunosurveillance mechanisms by potent interactions between the tumor and local draining lymph nodes. Tumor cells mediate a complex and dynamic immunoediting procedure that results in increased vascular efflux into the draining lymphatics, an immunosuppressive microenvironment rich in regulatory T-lymphocytes, dysfunctional antigen presentation, and downregulation of normal effector lymphocyte responses...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Li Xue, Yan Geng, Ming Li, Yao-Feng Jin, Hui-Xun Ren, Xia Li, Feng Wu, Biao Wang, Wei-Ying Cheng, Teng Chen, Yan-Jiong Chen
Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine (MA) influences host immunity; however, the effect of MA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses remains unknown. Mast cells (MCs) are considered to serve an important role in the innate and acquired immune response, but it remains unknown whether MA modulates MC activation and LPS-stimulated cytokine production. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of MA on LPS-induced MC activation and the production of MC-derived cytokines in mice...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lorena Pizarro, Meirav Leibman-Markus, Silvia Schuster, Maya Bar, Tal Meltz, Adi Avni
Plants recognize microbial/pathogen associated molecular patterns (MAMP/PAMP) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) triggering an immune response against pathogen progression. MAMP/PAMP triggered immune response requires PRR endocytosis and trafficking for proper deployment. LeEIX2 is a well-known Solanum lycopersicum RLP-PRR, able to recognize and respond to the fungal MAMP/PAMP ethylene-inducing xylanase (EIX), and its function is highly dependent on intracellular trafficking. Identifying protein machinery components regulating LeEIX2 intracellular trafficking is crucial to our understanding of LeEIX2 mediated immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anas H Abu-Humaidan, Malin Elvén, Andreas Sonesson, Peter Garred, Ole E Sørensen
The complement system is an ancient part of the innate immune system important for both tissue homeostasis and host defense. However, bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (SA) possess elaborative mechanisms for evading both the complement system and other parts of the immune system. One of these evasive mechanisms-important in causing chronic and therapy resistant infections-is the intracellular persistence in non-immune cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether persistent intracellular SA infection of epidermal keratinocytes resulted in complement activation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Neha M Sahasrabudhe, Martin Beukema, Lingmin Tian, Berit Troost, Jan Scholte, Erik Bruininx, Geert Bruggeman, Marco van den Berg, Anton Scheurink, Henk A Schols, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Dietary carbohydrate fibers are known to prevent immunological diseases common in Western countries such as allergy and asthma but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Until now beneficial effects of dietary fibers are mainly attributed to fermentation products of the fibers such as anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Here, we found and present a new mechanism by which dietary fibers can be anti-inflammatory: a commonly consumed fiber, pectin, blocks innate immune receptors. We show that pectin binds and inhibits, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and specifically inhibits the proinflammatory TLR2-TLR1 pathway while the tolerogenic TLR2-TLR6 pathway remains unaltered...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Victoria Sundblad, Amado A Quintar, Luciano G Morosi, Sonia I Niveloni, Ana Cabanne, Edgardo Smecuol, Eduardo Mauriño, Karina V Mariño, Julio C Bai, Cristina A Maldonado, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Galectins, a family of animal lectins characterized by their affinity for N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates, modulate several immune cell processes shaping the course of innate and adaptive immune responses. Through interaction with a wide range of glycosylated receptors bearing complex branched N-glycans and core 2-O-glycans, these endogenous lectins trigger distinct signaling programs thereby controling immune cell activation, differentiation, recruitment and survival. Given the unique features of mucosal inflammation and the differential expression of galectins throughout the gastrointestinal tract, we discuss here key findings on the role of galectins in intestinal inflammation, particularly Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease (CeD) patients, as well as in murine models resembling these inflammatory conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Piera Valenti, Luigi Rosa, Daniela Capobianco, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Elisa Schiavi, Antimo Cutone, Rosalba Paesano, Paola Mastromarino
The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Zhaodong Li, Ludovica F Buttó, Kristine-Anne Buela, Li-Guo Jia, Minh Lam, John D Ward, Theresa T Pizarro, Fabio Cominelli
Death receptor 3 (DR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, has been implicated in regulating T-helper type-1 (TH 1), type-2 (TH 2), and type-17 (TH 17) responses as well as regulatory T cell (Treg ) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) functions during immune-mediated diseases. However, the role of DR3 in controlling lymphocyte functions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that activation of DR3 signaling modulates Treg expansion suggesting that stimulation of DR3 represents a potential therapeutic target in human inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lorenza Tulli, Francesca Cattaneo, Juliette Vinot, Cosima T Baldari, Ugo D'Oro
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the activation of innate immune cells, in which their engagement leads to production of cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules. TLRs signaling requires recruitment of toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain-containing adaptors, such as MyD88 and/or TRIF, and leads to activation of several transcription factors, such as NF-κB, the AP1 complex, and various members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, which in turn results in triggering of several cellular functions associated with these receptors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
BoYoon Chang, BongSeong Koo, HyeonCheol Lee, Joa Sub Oh, SungYeon Kim
Background: The innate immune system plays a crucial role in the initiation and subsequent direction of adaptive immune responses, as well as in the removal of pathogens that have been targeted by an adaptive immune response. Objective: Morus alba L. was reported to have immunostimulatory properties that might protect against infectious diseases. However, this possibility has not yet been explored. The present study investigated the protective and immune-enhancing ability of M...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Yi-Lin Zhang, Peng-Xiao Chen, Wei-Jie Guan, Hong-Mei Guo, Zhuo-Er Qiu, Jia-Wen Xu, Yu-Li Luo, Chong-Feng Lan, Jian-Bang Xu, Yuan Hao, Ya-Xia Tan, Ke-Nan Ye, Zhao-Rong Lun, Lei Zhao, Yun-Xin Zhu, Jiehong Huang, Wing-Hung Ko, Wei-De Zhong, Wen-Liang Zhou, Nan-Shan Zhong
Airway epithelial cells harbor the capacity of active Cl- transepithelial transport and play critical roles in modulating innate immunity. However, whether intracellular Cl- accumulation contributes to relentless airway inflammation remains largely unclear. This study showed that, in airway epithelial cells, intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl- ]i ) was increased after Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D)-cAMP signaling pathways...
March 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Salvatore Sutti, Frank Tacke
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a clinical challenge due to the poorly predictable outcomes. Accordingly, considerable efforts have been devoted to unravel the risk factors responsible for DILI worsening toward acute liver failure (ALF), liver transplantation (LT), and/or death. From a pathogenic point of view, exhaustion of drug metabolizing pathways, cell death mechanisms, activation of local immune cells, such as Kupffer cells, and recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes including monocytes and lymphocytes are key drivers of DILI progression...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Liping Qian, Yibo Zuo, Wenjun Deng, Ying Miao, Jin Liu, Yukang Yuan, Tingting Guo, Liting Zhang, Jun Jin, Jun Wang, Hui Zheng
Type-I interferons (IFN-I) are widely used for antiviral immunotherapy in clinic. Therefore, identification of the regulators of IFN-I antiviral activity is important for developing novel targets for IFN-based antiviral therapy. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) is critical for cellular inflammatory responses. However, the roles of MCPIP1 in interferons (IFNs)-mediated antiviral immunity are unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that MCPIP1 is an important positive regulator of IFNs antiviral activity...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jing-Rong Kong, Wei Wei, Xue-Li Qiao, Huan Kang, Di Huang, Yuan Liu, Wei-Na Wang
It is well known that PI3K regulates various processes in mammalian cells by generating a secondary messenger that later activates AKT. However, its innate immune function in crustaceans remains unclear. We report the characterization of Litopenaeus vannamei PI3K (LvPI3K) for investigating how PI3K participates in the innate immunity of crustaceans. Full-length LvPI3K cDNA was 3357 bp long, with a 3222 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a putative protein of 1292 amino acids. The PI3K catalytic domain (PI3Kc) of LvPI3K was found to be rather conserved when the PI3Ks from other species were analyzed...
March 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rose Nabatanzi, Stephen Cose, Moses Joloba, Sarah Rowland Jones, Damalie Nakanjako
HIV infection causes upregulation of markers of inflammation, immune activation and apoptosis of host adaptive, and innate immune cells particularly monocytes, natural killer (NK) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4 T-cell counts, the persistent aberrant activation of monocytes, NK and ILCs observed likely contributes to the incomplete recovery of T-cell effector functions. A better understanding of the effects of HIV infection and ART on the phenotype and function of circulating monocytes, NK, and ILCs is required to guide development of novel therapeutic interventions to optimize immune recovery...
March 15, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
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