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Innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742882/t-cell-intrinsic-tlr2-stimulation-promotes-il-10-expression-and-suppressive-activity-by-cd45rbhi-t-cells
#1
Janice C Jun, Mark B Jones, Douglas M Oswald, Edward S Sim, Amruth R Jonnalagadda, Lori S C Kreisman, Brian A Cobb
While Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent one of the best characterized innate immune pathways, evidence suggests that TLRs are not restricted to innate leukocytes and some epithelial cells, but are also expressed in T cells. Specifically, published evidence focusing on FoxP3+ regulatory T cells demonstrate that they express functional TLR2, which is already known among the TLR family for its association with immune suppression; however, little is known about the relationship between T cell-intrinsic TLR2 binding and cytokine production, T cell differentiation, or T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742861/targeting-the-permeability-barrier-and-peptidoglycan-recycling-pathways-to-disarm-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-against-the-innate-immune-system
#2
Gabriel Torrens, Marcelo Pérez-Gallego, Bartolomé Moya, Marta Munar-Bestard, Laura Zamorano, Gabriel Cabot, Jesús Blázquez, Juan A Ayala, Antonio Oliver, Carlos Juan
Antimicrobial resistance is a continuously increasing threat that severely compromises our antibiotic arsenal and causes thousands of deaths due to hospital-acquired infections by pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, situation further aggravated by the limited development of new antibiotics. Thus, alternative strategies such as those targeting bacterial resistance mechanisms, virulence or potentiating the activity of our immune system resources are urgently needed. We have recently shown that mutations simultaneously causing the peptidoglycan recycling blockage and the β-lactamase AmpC overexpression impair the virulence of P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742815/il33-mediated-ilc2-activation-and-neutrophil-il5-production-in-the-lung-response-after-severe-trauma-a-reverse-translation-study-from-a-human-cohort-to-a-mouse-trauma-model
#3
Jing Xu, Jesse Guardado, Rosemary Hoffman, Hui Xu, Rami Namas, Yoram Vodovotz, Li Xu, Mostafa Ramadan, Joshua Brown, Heth R Turnquist, Timothy R Billiar
BACKGROUND: The immunosuppression and immune dysregulation that follows severe injury includes type 2 immune responses manifested by elevations in interleukin (IL) 4, IL5, and IL13 early after injury. We hypothesized that IL33, an alarmin released early after tissue injury and a known regulator of type 2 immunity, contributes to the early type 2 immune responses after systemic injury. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Blunt trauma patients admitted to the trauma intensive care unit of a level I trauma center were enrolled in an observational study that included frequent blood sampling...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742407/tlr5-polymorphisms-rs2072493-rs5744174-and-rs5744168-are-not-genetic-risk-factors-for-chronic-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-indian-tamils
#4
Vaishnavi Goda, Megala Jayaraman, Rekha Loganathan, Mehnaz Nazeer, Mohammed Ali, Premkumar Karunakaran, Panneer Devaraju
The incidence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric cancer is on the rise in India, and the genetic factors influencing the increased susceptibility in Indian population remain obscure. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in innate immune system and genetic polymorphisms affecting their function were reported to enhance the risk for H. pylori infection. Seventy-seven patients (n = 77) diagnosed with H. pylori infection and 230 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. The rs2072493, rs5744174, and rs5744168 polymorphisms within TLR5 gene were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and Tetra-ARMS PCR genotyping techniques...
July 25, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742146/immunomodulatory-effects-of-excretory-secretory-compounds-from-contracaecum-osculatum-larvae-in-a-zebrafish-inflammation-model
#5
Foojan Mehrdana, Per Walter Kania, Sasan Nazemi, Kurt Buchmann
Excretory/secretory (ES) compounds isolated from third-stage larvae of the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum parasitizing liver of Baltic cod were investigated for effects on immune gene expression in a zebrafish LPS-induced inflammation model. ES products containing a series of proteins, of which some had enzymatic activity, were injected solely or with LPS. ES proteins alone induced up-regulation of a number of immune-related genes, but generally to a lower degree compared to LPS. When co-injected with LPS, the worm products exacerbated merely expression of five genes affecting Th1, Th2, Th17 and innate responses compared to the LPS-injected group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742108/fasting-metabolism-modulates-the-interleukin-12-interleukin-10-cytokine-axis
#6
Johannes J Kovarik, Elisabeth Kernbauer, Markus A Hölzl, Johannes Hofer, Guido A Gualdoni, Klaus G Schmetterer, Fitore Miftari, Yury Sobanov, Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Diana Mechtcheriakova, Nadine Witzeneder, Georg Greiner, Anna Ohradanova-Repic, Petra Waidhofer-Söllner, Marcus D Säemann, Thomas Decker, Gerhard J Zlabinger
A crucial role of cell metabolism in immune cell differentiation and function has been recently established. Growing evidence indicates that metabolic processes impact both, innate and adaptive immunity. Since a down-stream integrator of metabolic alterations, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is responsible for controlling the balance between pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 and anti-inflammatory IL-10, we investigated the effect of upstream interference using metabolic modulators on the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741645/inflammasome-and-autophagy-regulation-a-two-way-street
#7
Qian Sun, Jie Fan, Timothy R Billiar, Melanie J Scott
Inflammation plays a significant role in protecting hosts against pathogens. Inflammation induced by non-infectious, endogenous agents can be detrimental, and if excessive can result in organ and tissue damage. The inflammasome is a major innate immune pathway that can be activated via both exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Inflammasome activation involves formation and oligomerization of a protein complex including a NOD-like receptor (NLR), an adaptor protein (ASC) and procaspase-1...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741407/pericytes-secrete-pro-regenerative-molecules-in-response-to-platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb
#8
Abderahim Gaceb, Ilknur Özen, Thomas Padel, Marco Barbariga, Gesine Paul
Brain pericytes not only maintain the anatomical, biochemical and immune blood-brain barrier, but display features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. MSCs have pro-regenerative properties attributed to their secretome. However, whether also brain pericytes possess such pro-regenerative capacities is largely unknown. Here we characterize the secretome and microvesicle (MV) release of human brain pericytes mediated by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)/PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signalling...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741298/ifnl4-rs368234815-tt-%C3%AE-g-variant-is-associated-with-liver-damage-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Salvatore Petta, Luca Valenti, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Paola Dongiovanni, Rosaria Maria Pipitone, Calogero Cammà, Daniela Cabibi, Vito Di Marco, Anna Ludovica Fracanzani, Sara Badiali, Valerio Nobili, Silvia Fargion, Stefania Grimaudo, Antonio Craxì
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The IFNL3/4 locus influencing innate immunity regulation has been associated with the severity of hepatitis and fibrosis progression during chronic hepatitis C infection, while contrasting results were reported in NAFLD. In this study, we examined whether rs12979860 and the linked causal rs368234815 variant encoding for the alternative IFNL4 protein variant are associated with liver fibrosis and damage in a large multicenter cohort of patients at risk of NASH. To clarify the mechanism, we also evaluated the impact on interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) hepatic expression in a subset of patients...
July 24, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741129/overexpression-of-ghpfn2-enhances-protection-against-verticillium-dahliae-invasion-in-cotton
#10
Wenyan Wang, Yongduo Sun, Libo Han, Lei Su, Guixian Xia, Haiyun Wang
Growing evidence indicates that actin cytoskeleton is involved in plant innate immune responses, but the functional mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the behavior of a cotton profilin gene (GhPFN2) in response to Verticillium dahliae invasion, and evaluated its contribution to plant defense against this soil-borne fungal pathogen. GhPFN2 expression was up-regulated when cotton root was inoculated with V. dahliae, and the actin architecture was reorganized in the infected root cells, with a clear increase in the density of filamentous actin and the extent of actin bundling...
July 21, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740504/2-4-thiazolidinedione-treatment-improves-the-innate-immune-response-in-dairy-goats-with-induced-subclinical-mastitis
#11
Fernanda Rosa, Johan S Osorio, Erminio Trevisi, Francisco Yanqui-Rivera, Charles T Estill, Massimo Bionaz
Mastitis is a major disease in dairy cows resulting in significant economic losses. In vitro works suggest that ruminants peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) can aid in improving the response to mastitis and can control milk fat synthesis. The objectives of the present experiment were to test if treatment with the putative PPARγ agonist 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) improves (1) the response to subclinical mastitis and (2) milk fat production. Lactating goats received daily injections of 8 mg/kg BW of TZD or saline for 3 weeks...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740491/nod-like-receptor-p3-inflammasome-controls-protective-th1-th17-immunity-against-pulmonary-paracoccidioidomycosis
#12
Claudia Feriotti, Eliseu Frank de Araújo, Flavio Vieira Loures, Tania Alves da Costa, Nayane Alves de Lima Galdino, Dario Simões Zamboni, Vera Lucia Garcia Calich
The NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an intracellular multimeric complex that triggers the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, important cytokines for the innate immune response against pathogens. The functional NLRP3 inflammasome complex consists of NLRP3, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1. Various molecular mechanisms were associated with NLRP3 activation including the presence of extracellular ATP, recognized by the cell surface P2X7 receptor (P2X7R)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739824/epigenetic-mechanisms-regulate-innate-immunity-against-uropathogenic-and-commensal-like-escherichia-coli-in-the-surrogate-insect-model-galleria-mellonella
#13
Miriam Heitmueller, André Billion, Ulrich Dobrindt, Andreas Vilcinskas, Krishnendu Mukherjee
Innate immunity-related genes in humans are activated during urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli but are suppressed by commensals. Epigenetic mechanisms play a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. To determine whether epigenetic mechanisms can explain the different behaviors of pathogenic and commensal bacteria, we infected larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, a widely-used model insect host, with a uropathogenic E...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739790/a-cationic-polymer-that-shows-high-antifungal-activity-against-diverse-human-pathogens
#14
Leslie A Rank, Naomi M Walsh, Runhui Liu, Fang Yun Lim, Jin Woo Bok, Mingwei Huang, Nancy P Keller, Samuel H Gellman, Christina M Hull
Invasive fungal diseases are generally difficult to treat and often fatal. The therapeutic agents available to treat fungi are limited, and there is a critical need for new agents to combat these deadly infections. Antifungal compound development has been hindered by the challenge of creating agents that are highly active against fungal pathogens but not toxic to the host. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) are produced by eukaryotes as a component of the innate immune response to pathogens and have served as inspiration for the development of many new antibacterial compounds...
July 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739303/cpg-oligonucleotides-increase-hbv-specific-cytokine-responses-in-whole-blood-and-enhance-cytokine-release-assay-sensitivity
#15
Werner Dammermann, Julia Dornbrack, Katharina Bröker, Frank Bentzien, Stefan Lüth
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To develop a therapeutic vaccine for chronic hepatitis B patients it is necessary to assess cellular immune responses to hepatitis B virus(HBV) antigens. We investigated the potential of toll-like receptor(TLR) 9 agonists, i.e. CpG oligonucleotides, as costimulators to increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of our HBV specific cytokine release assay. METHODS: Whole blood from 80 healthy individuals(n=51 hepatitis B vaccinated, n=29 unvaccinated) was stimulated with hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg) or hepatitis B core antigen(HBcAg) in presence or absence of CpG oligonucleotides...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739292/a-polar-sxxs-motif-drives-assembly-of-the-transmembrane-domains-of-toll-like-receptor-4
#16
Vasileios Kargas, Jan K Marzinek, Daniel A Holdbrook, Hang Yin, Robert C Ford, Peter J Bond
Like all members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, TLR4 comprises of a large ectodomain (ECD) involved in ligand recognition at the cell-surface, and a cytosolic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) signalling domain, linked by a lipid membrane-anchored transmembrane (TM) domain (TMD). Binding of immunostimulatory pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) coreceptor-complexed TLR4 leads to its dimerization, resulting in productive juxtaposition of TIR domains and the initiation of pro-inflammatory innate immune responses...
July 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739185/novel-atherogenic-pathways-from-the-differential-transcriptome-analysis-of-diabetic-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#17
V Camarena, D Sant, M Mohseni, T Salerno, M L Zaleski, G Wang, G Iacobellis
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) transcriptome in comparison to subcutaneous fat (SAT) in coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS AND RESULTS: SAT and EAT samples were obtained from subjects with T2DM and CAD (n = 5) and those without CAD with or without T2DM (=3) undergoing elective cardiac surgery. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed in both EAT and SAT. Gene enrichment analysis was conducted to identify pathways affected by the differentially expressed genes...
June 10, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738907/rig-i-expression-in-perifascicular-myofibers-is-a-reliable-biomarker-of-dermatomyositis
#18
Xavier Suárez-Calvet, Eduard Gallardo, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Noemi De Luna, Cinta Lleixà, Jordi Díaz-Manera, Ricardo Rojas-García, Ivan Castellví, M Angeles Martínez, Josep M Grau, Albert Selva-O'Callaghan, Isabel Illa
BACKGROUND: Dermatomyositis (DM) is inflammatory myopathy or myositis characterized by muscle weakness and skin manifestations. In the differential diagnosis of DM the evaluation of the muscle biopsy is of importance among other parameters. Perifascicular atrophy in the muscle biopsy is considered a hallmark of DM. However, perifascicular atrophy is not observed in all patients with DM and, conversely, perifascicular atrophy can be observed in other myositis such as antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), complicating DM diagnosis...
July 24, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738878/tlr4-response-mediates-ethanol-induced-neurodevelopment-alterations-in-a-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#19
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Jerónimo Forteza, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, José Miñarro, Consuelo Guerri
BACKGROUND: Inflammation during brain development participates in the pathogenesis of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunctions. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects the developing brain and causes neural impairment, cognitive and behavioral effects, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Our previous studies demonstrate that ethanol activates the innate immune response and TLR4 receptor and causes neuroinflammation, brain damage, and cognitive defects in the developmental brain stage of adolescents...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738836/metabolism-associated-danger-signal-induced-immune-response-and-reverse-immune-checkpoint-activated-cd40-monocyte-differentiation
#20
REVIEW
Jin Dai, Pu Fang, Jason Saredy, Hang Xi, Cueto Ramon, William Yang, Eric T Choi, Yong Ji, Wei Mao, Xiaofeng Yang, Hong Wang
Adaptive immunity is critical for disease progression and modulates T cell (TC) and antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions. Three signals were initially proposed for adaptive immune activation: signal 1 antigen recognition, signal 2 co-stimulation or co-inhibition, and signal 3 cytokine stimulation. In this article, we propose to term signal 2 as an immune checkpoint, which describes interactions of paired molecules leading to stimulation (stimulatory immune checkpoint) or inhibition (inhibitory immune checkpoint) of an immune response...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
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