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Innate immunity

Jian-Wei Zheng, Su-Li Liu, Song-Hui Lu, Hong-Ye Li, Jie-Sheng Liu, Wei-Dong Yang
Blooms of Aureococcus anophagefferens, referred to as brown tides are responsible for massive mortalities and recruitment failure of some bivalves. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity remain elusive despite its biological significance, and the information currently available on the molecular effects is still insufficient. In this study, to evaluate the toxicity and associated mechanism of A. anophagefferens on bivalves, we analyzed the protein expression profiles in digestive glands of the A...
July 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Khaddouj Benmoussa, Johan Garaude, Rebeca Acín-Pérez
Metabolic reprogramming of cells from the innate immune system is one of the most noteworthy topics in immunological research nowadays. Upon infection or tissue damage innate immune cells, such as macrophages, mobilize various immune and metabolic signals to mount a response best suited to eradicate the threat. Current data indicate that both the immune and metabolic responses are closely interconnected. On account of its peculiar position in regulating both of these processes, the mitochondrion has emerged as a critical organelle that orchestrates the coordinated metabolic and immune adaptations in macrophages...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Paul E Marik
Glucocorticoids have been used as adjunctive therapy in patients with sepsis and septic shock for more than four decades. The rationale for the use of glucocorticoids is that this class of drugs downregulates the proinflammatory response and limits the anti-inflammatory response while preserving innate immunity. Between 1976 and 2017, 22 randomised placebo-controlled trials have been published evaluating the benefit of glucocorticoids in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, sepsis, and septic shock. These studies produced conflicting results...
July 10, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Chao Li, Mengyu Tian, Lu Zhang, Qiang Fu, Lin Song, Fei Chen, Ning Yang
Scavenger receptors (SRs) are a group of membrane-bound receptors that could bind to a variety of ligands including endogenous proteins and pathogens. SRs have been recognized to play vital roles in innate immune response against pathogen infection in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this regard, one SmSCARA5 gene was captured in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). The full-length SmSCARA5 transcript contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1494 bp. SmSCARA55 showed both the highest identity and similarity to half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), and a high degree of conservation of genomic structure to the teleost species...
July 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
N N Kostin, T V Bobik, E M Shurdova, R H Ziganshin, E A Surina, D A Shagin, I A Shagina, V D Knorre, V A Isaev, G N Rudenskaya, A G Gabibov, I V Smirnov
Serpins are a family of serine protease inhibitors that are involved in numerous physiological processes and are known to regulate innate immunity pathways. To advance our understanding of their role in P. camtschaticus, a commercially significant species, we cloned and characterized a serpin from this species, designated serpin PC, that has anticoagulant and anticomplement effects on human blood. We found that serpin PC is a secreted protein with a typical serpin-like primary structure that is similar to other known crustacean serpins...
July 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Cheng Luo, Blessing Gwekwe, Phares Choto, Wenhua Miao, Meiling Chen, Changfeng Xue, Yunsheng Xu, Xiaolong Yin, Glory Magawa, Di Wu, Jamal S Akida, Likui Wang, Qingqing Li, Shanggui Deng
The large yellow croakers (Larimichthys crocea) are mainly present in the Chinese coast and near seas with high economic importance, but vulnerable to many diseases, especially in the breeding and aquaculture. The purpose of this research was to boost the innate immune system of the large yellow croaker by administering bitter peptides into their peritoneal cavity. Total 120 Juvenile of large yellow croakers in very even weight of 60 g were divided into 4 different groups in 200/300 L of water tank, respectively...
July 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yating Zhang, Lili Yao, Xin Xu, Huansheng Han, Pengfei Li, Dehua Zou, Xingzhi Li, Liang Zheng, Lixin Cheng, Yujiang Shen, Xianhe Wang, Xuening Wu, Jiaxin Xu, Baifen Song, Shuyan Xu, Hua Zhang, Hongwei Cao
Stress granules (SGs) are host translationally silent ribonucleo-proteins formed in cells in response to multiple types of environmental stress, including viral infection. We previously showed that the nuclear protein, 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis protein (Sam68), is recruited to cytoplasm and form the Sam68-positive SGs at 6 hpi, but the Sam68-positive SGs disassembled beyond 12 hpi, suggesting that the SGs might be inhibited during the late stage of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. However, the mechanism and function of this process remains poorly understood...
July 10, 2018: Virus Research
Guiqiang Zhang, Peiyuan Jia, Hongtao Liu, Tao Hu, Yuguang Du
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated diseases have led to great economic losses to the pig industry. Our lab previously found that conjugation of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) or via a carrier protein enhanced the immunogenicity of PCV2 vaccine against infectious pathogens. However, precise mechanisms and signal transduction pathways underlying the efficacy of COS conjugation remains poorly defined. In this study, to better understand the effects and mechanism of COS conjugates maintain the adjuvant potential in vivo, we investigated its augmentation of macrophage function, including cell activation, NO production, cytokine production and phagocytosis...
July 6, 2018: Immunobiology
Elena Generali, Tanima Bose, Carlo Selmi, J Willem Voncken, Jan G M C Damoiseaux
Spondyloarthritides (SpA) include inflammatory joint diseases with various clinical phenotypes that may also include the axial skeleton and/or entheses. SpA include psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, enteropathic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis; the latter is frequently associated with extra-articular manifestations, such as uveitis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. SpA are associated with the HLA-B27 allele and recognize T cells as key pathogenetic players. In contrast to other rheumatic diseases, SpA affect women and men equally and are not associated with detectable serum autoantibodies...
July 10, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Augusto Vaglio, Peter C Grayson, Paride Fenaroli, Davide Gianfreda, Valeria Boccaletti, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Gabriella Moroni
Drug-induced lupus (DIL) includes a spectrum of drug-induced reactions often characterised by a clinical phenotype similar to that of idiopathic systemic lupus eruthematosus (SLE) but usually lacking major SLE complications. Different drugs may be associated with distinct clinical and serological profiles, and early recognition is crucial. Drugs traditionally associated with DIL include procainamide, hydralazine, quinidine and others, but strong associations with newer agents, such as TNF α (TNFα) inhibitors, are increasingly recognised...
July 10, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Jin Mo Ku, Se Hyang Hong, Soon Re Kim, Han-Seok Choi, Hyo In Kim, Dong Uk Kim, So Mi Oh, Hye Sook Seo, Tai Young Kim, Yong Cheol Shin, Chunhoo Cheon, Seong-Gyu Ko
BACKGROUND: Jawoongo is an herbal mixture used in traditional medicine to treat skin diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether Jawoongo ameliorates Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like pathology in mice and to understand its underlying cellular mechanisms. METHODS: AD was induced by 2, 4-Dinitrocholrlbenzene (DNCB) in BALB/c mice. Treatment with Jawoongo was assessed to study the effect of Jawoongo on AD in mice. Histological Analysis, blood analysis, RT-PCR, western blot analysis, ELISA assay and cell viability assay were performed to verify the inhibitory effect of Jawoongo on AD in mice...
July 13, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Janna Berg, Ann Rita Halvorsen, May-Bente Bengtson, Kristin A Taskén, Gunhild M Mælandsmo, Arne Yndestad, Bente Halvorsen, Odd Terje Brustugun, Pål Aukrust, Thor Ueland, Åslaug Helland
BACKGROUND: The development of both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer (LC) is influenced by smoking related chronic pulmonary inflammation caused by an excessive innate immune response to smoke exposure. In addition, the smoking induced formation of covalent bonds between the carcinogens and DNA and the accumulation of permanent somatic mutations in critical genes are important in the carcinogenic processes, and can also induce inflammatory responses. How chronic inflammation is mirrored by serum markers in COPD and LC and if these markers reflect prognosis in patients with LC is, however, largely unknown...
July 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Xudong Peng, Guiqiu Zhao, Jing Lin, Jianqiu Qu, Yingxue Zhang, Cui Li
BACKGROUND: Fungal keratitis (FK) is a sight-threatening disease, accounting for a significant portion with its complex presentation, suboptimal efficacy of the existing therapies and uncontrollable excessive innate inflammation. Phospholipase C-γ2 (PLCγ2) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role at the early period of innate immunity. This study aimed to identify the role of PLCγ2 in Dectin-1-mediated Ca2+ Flux and its effect on the expression of proinflammatory mediators at the exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus (A...
July 13, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Andrew M Whiteoak, Justin Ideozu, Hadil Alkathiry, Alexandra J Tomlinson, Richard J Delahay, Sara Cowen, Elizabeth Mullineaux, Eamonn Gormley, Richard J Birtles, Zhao-Rong Lun, Geoff Hide
The Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes are a conserved family of genes central to the innate immune response to pathogen infection. They encode receptor proteins, recognise pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger initial immune responses. In some host-pathogen systems, it is reported that genetic differences, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), associate with disease resistance or susceptibility. Little is known about TLR gene diversity in the European badger (Meles meles). We collected DNA from UK badgers, carried out PCR amplification of the badger TLR2 gene and exon 3 of TLR4 and determined DNA sequences for individual badgers for TLR2 (n = 61) and TLR4 exon 3 (n = 59)...
June 30, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Shin-Chang Kuo, Yi-Wei Yeh, Chun-Yen Chen, Chang-Chih Huang, Pei-Shen Ho, Chih-Sung Liang, Chun-Long Lin, Ta-Chuan Yeh, Chang-Chih Tsou, Bao-Zhu Yang, Ru-Band Lu, San-Yuan Huang
Amphetamine exposure impacts on innate and adaptive immunity and DRD3 may modulate the effect of amphetamine on the immune response. We assessed the immune-cytokine markers in 72 female patients with amphetamine dependence (AD) at baseline and after 4-week drug abstinence and in 51 healthy women. Multiplex magnetic bead assay was used to measure the plasma cytokine expression level simultaneously in all participants and DRD3 rs6280 polymorphism was genotyped in patients. We demonstrated an increase of the T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines (IL-2), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10) and other cytokines (IL-1β) in the entire AD cohort...
June 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ralf Oelmüller
Roots respond to a cocktail of chemicals from microbes in the rhizosphere. Infochemicals in nmol concentrations activate receptor-mediated signal pathways, which reprogram the plant responses to environmental changes. The microbial signals have to pass the cell wall to activate pattern recognition receptors at the surface of the plant plasma membrane. The structure of the cell wall is not only a barrier for the signaling molecules, but also changes permanently during growth and development, as well as in response to microbial attacks or abiotic stress...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Cherry S Leung, Jiatao Li, Feng Xu, Alan S L Wong, Kathy O Lui
Like conventional transplants, immunosuppression is required to facilitate survival and function of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivatives after implantation into xenogeneic recipients. We have previously reported that T cells alone are sufficient to reject allogeneic murine ESC derivatives; and strategies that inhibit T-cell activation, including coreceptor and costimulation blockade, prevent hESC derivatives from being rejected. This study aimed to investigate, in addition to T cells, whether macrophages contribute to transplant rejection of hESC xenografts with nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice that lack functional T and B cells but have macrophages...
July 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Seiya Yamada, Shin-Ichi Sakakibara
The orchestrated events required during brain development, as well as the maintenance of adult neuronal plasticity, highly depend on the accurate responses of neuronal cells to various cellular stress or environmental stimuli. Recent studies have defined a previously unrecognized, broad class of multidomain proteins, designated as "STAND" (signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains), which comprises a large number of proteins, including the apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 (Apaf1) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), central players in cell death and innate immune responses, respectively...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Mona O Mohsen, Ariane C Gomes, Monique Vogel, Martin F Bachmann
Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from viral nucleocapsids are an important class of nanoparticles. The structure, uniformity, stability, and function of these VLPs have attracted scientists in utilizing them as a unique tool in various applications in biomedical fields. Their interaction with the innate immune system is of major importance for the adaptive immune response they induce. The innate immune cells and molecules recognize and interact with VLPs on the basis of two major characteristics: size and surface geometry...
July 2, 2018: Vaccines
Chengming Ding, Jun He, Jun Zhao, Junhua Li, Jie Chen, Wenyan Liao, Yi Zeng, Jing Zhong, Chaoying Wei, Liming Zhang, Mei Zhou, Zeming Jia, Yaoting Zhang, Hui Li, Yuzheng Zhou, Xiaolong Xiao, Dong Han, Chong Li, Zhu Zhu, Zanxian Xia, Jian Peng
OBJECTIVE: β-catenin is one of the most critical oncogenes associated with many kinds of human cancers, especially in the human CRC. Innate immunity recognizes tumour derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and primes the anti-tumour adaptive responses. While the function of β-catenin in CRC tumourigenesis is well established, its impact on innate immune evasion is largely unknown. The aim of this study is to characterize the role of β-catenin in inhibiting RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated IFN-β signalling in colorectal cancer...
July 13, 2018: Cell Proliferation
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