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Innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647908/cmv-immune-evasion-and-manipulation-of-the-immune-system-with-aging
#1
REVIEW
Sarah E Jackson, Anke Redeker, Ramon Arens, Debbie van Baarle, Sara P H van den Berg, Chris A Benedict, Luka Čičin-Šain, Ann B Hill, Mark R Wills
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response...
June 24, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647779/transcriptome-profiling-and-digital-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-skin-of-dybowski-s-frog-rana-dybowskii-exposed-to-aeromonas-hydrophila
#2
Yi-Gang Xu, Long-Hui Chai, Wen Shi, Dan-Dan Wang, Jing-Yu Zhang, Xiang-Hong Xiao
Recently, populations of Rana dybowskii, an important amphibian species in Northeast China, have decreased, mainly owing to the disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. However, effective control methods have not yet been developed. In order to explore the immune responses of R. dybowskii upon exposure to A. hydrophila infection, Illumina high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) technology were employed to investigate transcriptomic changes in the skin of R. dybowskii exposed to A...
June 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647560/transcript-expression-bias-of-phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein-gene-in-bumblebee-bombus-lantschouensis-hymenoptera-apidae
#3
Jie Dong, Lei Han, Ye Wang, Jiaxing Huang, Jie Wu
The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family is a highly conserved group of proteins found in a wide range of organism. It plays an important role in innate immunity of insects. Little is known on the expression characteristic and function of PEBP in bees. In the current study, we cloned the pebp gene and investigated its expression profiles at different developmental stages and reproductive status from bumblebee, Bombus lantschouensis (Vogt), which is one of the most abundant pollinators for wild plants and crops in Northern China...
June 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647517/proteomics-to-study-macrophage-response-to-viral-infection
#4
Tuula A Nyman, Sampsa Matikainen
Viral infections are a major burden to human and animal health. Immune response against viruses consists of innate and adaptive immunity which are both critical for the eradication of the viral infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Proper innate immune response is required for the activation of adaptive, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Macrophages are innate immune cells which have a central role in detecting viral infections including influenza A and human immunodeficiency viruses...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647398/immune-modulatory-effects-of-syncytiotrophoblast-extracellular-vesicles-in-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#5
Claudia Göhner, Torsten Plösch, Marijke M Faas
Unique immunologic adaptations exist to successfully establish and maintain pregnancy and to avoid an immune attack against the semi allogenic fetus. These adaptations occur both locally at the maternofetal interface and in the peripheral circulation and affect the innate as well as the adaptive immune system. Pregnancy is characterized by a general inflammatory state with activation of monocytes and granulocytes, but also with suppressive lymphocytes (regulatory T cells), and skewing towards T helper 2 immunity...
June 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647358/mitochondria-associated-membranes-mams-an-emerging-platform-connecting-energy-and-immune-sensing-to-metabolic-flexibility
#6
Jennifer Rieusset
Living organisms have the capacity to sense both nutrients and immune signals in order to adapt their metabolism to the needs, and both metabolic inflexibility and exacerbated immune responses are associated with metabolic diseases. Over the past decade, mitochondria emerged as key nutrient and immune sensors regulating numerous signalling pathways, and mitochondria dysfunction has been extensively implicated in metabolic diseases. Interestingly, mitochondria interact physically and functionally with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, in contact sites named mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), in order to exchange metabolites and calcium and regulate cellular homeostasis...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647346/sting-is-involved-in-antiviral-immune-response-against-vzv-infection-via-the-induction-of-type-i-and-iii-ifn-pathways
#7
Ji-Ae Kim, Seul-Ki Park, Seong-Wook Seo, Chan-Hee Lee, Ok Sarah Shin
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is a human-restricted α-herpesvirus that exhibits tropism for the skin. The VZV host receptors and downstream signaling pathways responsible for the antiviral innate immune response in the skin are not completely understood. Here, we show that stimulator of interferon genes (STING) mediates an important host defense against VZV infection in dermal cells including human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and HaCaT keratinocytes. Inhibition of STING using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene disruption resulted in enhanced viral replication but diminished IRF3 phosphorylation and induction of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647328/effects-of-feeding-an-immunomodulatory-supplement-to-heat-stressed-or-actively-cooled-cows-during-late-gestation-on-postnatal-immunity-health-and-growth-of-calves
#8
Amy L Skibiel, Thiago F Fabris, Fabiana N Corrá, Yazielis M Torres, Derek J McLean, James D Chapman, David J Kirk, Geoffrey E Dahl, Jimena Laporta
Heat stress during late gestation negatively affects the physiology, health, and productivity of dairy cows as well as the calves developing in utero. Providing cows with active cooling devices, such as fans and soakers, and supplementing cows with an immunomodulating feed additive, OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corporation), improves immune function and milk yield of cows. It is unknown if maternal supplementation of OG combined with active cooling during late gestation might benefit the developing calf as well...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647326/effect-of-prepartum-energy-balance-on-neutrophil-function-following-pegbovigrastim-treatment-in-periparturient-cows
#9
S McDougall, S J LeBlanc, A Heiser
Treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases polymorphonuclear cell (neutrophil) count and enhances neutrophil function in the periparturient cow. Prepartum undernutrition was hypothesized to reduce the effect of a commercially available recombinant bovine G-CSF product (pegbovigrastim) on neutrophil count and function. Hence this study was undertaken to test the effect of undernutrition for approximately 1 mo before calving on the innate immune response to pegbovigrastim. Cows (n = 99) on pasture were blocked by expected calving date and body condition score and randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646947/measles-immune-suppression-and-vaccination-direct-and-indirect-nonspecific-vaccine-benefits
#10
Michael J Mina
The measles virus is among the most transmissible viruses known to infect humans. Prior to measles vaccination programs, measles infected over 95% of all children and was responsible for over 4 million deaths each year. Measles vaccination programs have been among the greatest public health achievements reducing, eliminating endemic measles in the whole of the Americas and across much of the globe. Where measles vaccines are introduced, unexpectedly large reductions in all-cause childhood mortality have been observed...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646899/immunoproteasome-deficiency-alters-microglial-cytokine-response-and-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-like-appps1-mice
#11
Lisa K Wagner, Kate E Gilling, Eileen Schormann, Peter M Kloetzel, Frank L Heppner, Elke Krüger, Stefan Prokop
The immunoproteasome (iP) represents a specialized type of proteasomes, which plays an important role in the clearance of oxidant-damaged proteins under inflammatory and pathological conditions determining the outcome of various diseases. In Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like APPPS1 mice Aβ-deposition is paralleled by iP upregulation, most likely mediated through type I interferon induction. To define the impact of increased iP expression we crossed APPPS1 mice with mice deficient in the iP subunit LMP7 resulting in impaired iP function...
June 24, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646630/characteristics-of-systemic-inflammation-in-hepatitis-b-precipitated-aclf-differentiate-it-from-no-aclf
#12
Wei Wu, Huadong Yan, Hong Zhao, Wenjie Sun, Qiao Yang, Jifang Sheng, Yu Shi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (SE-CHB) are at risk of developing acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Systemic inflammation (SI) is a major driver of ACLF. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of SI in hepatitis B-precipitated-ACLF (HB-ACLF), which may be distinct from No-ACLF patients with SE-CHB. METHODS: Two cohorts of patients with SE-CHB were enrolled in two tertiary hospitals. The associations between circulating leukocyte counts/subsets and ACLF progression and prognoses were analysed in Cohort A...
June 24, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646583/sebum-lipids-influence-macrophage-polarization-and-activation
#13
M Lovászi, M Mattii, K Eyerich, Attila Gácsi, Erzsébet Csányi, D Kovács, R Rühl, A Szegedi, L Kemény, M Ståhle, C C Zouboulis, S Eyerich, D Törőcsik
BACKGROUND: As lipids are known to regulate macrophage functions it is reasonable to suppose that a sebocyte - macrophage axis mediated by sebum lipids may exist. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if sebocytes could contribute to the differentiation, polarization and function of macrophages with their secreted lipids. METHODS: Oil-red-O lipid staining and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the dermal lipid content and penetration. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse the macrophage subsets...
June 24, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646487/immunotoxic-effects-of-thymus-in-mice-following-exposure-to-nanoparticulate-tio2
#14
Fashui Hong, Yaoming Zhou, Yingjun Zhou, Ling Wang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been extensively used in industry, medicine, and daily life, and have shown potential toxic effects for animals or humans. We noted that the effects of TiO2 NPs on the immune system and its mechanism of action in animals or humans have not been elucidated. Thus, mice were exposed to the TiO2 NPs (0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 9 consecutive months. Exposure to TiO2 NPs was accumulated in the thymus, leading to a decrease in body weight and increases in the weight of the thymus or thymus indices...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646039/monocyte-adhesion-migration-and-extracellular-matrix-breakdown-is-regulated-by-integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#15
Sara Brilha, Riccardo Wysoczanski, Ashley M Whittington, Jon S Friedland, Joanna C Porter
In tuberculosis (TB), the innate inflammatory immune response drives tissue destruction, morbidity, and mortality. Monocytes secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which have key roles in local tissue destruction and cavitation. We hypothesized that integrin signaling might regulate monocyte MMP secretion in pulmonary TB during cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Adhesion to type I collagen and fibronectin by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-stimulated monocytes increased MMP-1 gene expression by 2...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645875/high-resolution-igh-repertoire-analysis-reveals-fetal-liver-as-the-origin-of-life-long-innate-b-lymphopoiesis-in-humans
#16
Anindita Roy, Vojtech Bystry, Georg Bohn, Katerina Goudevenou, Tomas Reigl, Maria Papaioannou, Adam Krejci, Sorcha O'Byrne, Aristeidis Chaidos, Andrea Grioni, Nikos Darzentas, Irene A G Roberts, Anastasios Karadimitris
The ontogeny of the natural, public IgM repertoire remains incompletely explored. Here, high-resolution immunogenetic analysis of B cells from (unrelated) fetal, child, and adult samples, shows that although fetal liver (FL) and bone marrow (FBM) IgM repertoires are equally diversified, FL is the main source of IgM natural immunity during the 2nd trimester. Strikingly, 0.25% of all prenatal clonotypes, comprising 18.7% of the expressed repertoire, are shared with the postnatal samples, consistent with persisting fetal IgM+ B cells being a source of natural IgM repertoire in adult life...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645735/serum-amyloid-a-self-assembles-with-phospholipids-to-form-stable-protein-rich-nanoparticles-with-a-distinct-structure-a-hypothetical-function-of-saa-as-a-molecular-mop-in-immune-response
#17
Nicholas M Frame, Shobini Jayaraman, Donald L Gantz, Olga Gursky
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase protein whose action in innate immunity and lipid homeostasis is unclear. Most circulating SAA binds plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and reroutes lipid transport. In vivo SAA binds existing lipoproteins or generates them de novo upon lipid uptake from cells. We explored the products of SAA-lipid interactions and lipoprotein remodeling in vitro. SAA complexes with palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphocholine (POPC) were analyzed for structure and stability using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, electron microscopy, gel electrophoresis and gel filtration...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645512/the-rna-seq-analysis-suggests-a-potential-multi-component-complement-system-in-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#18
Lingling Wang, Huan Zhang, Leilei Wang, Daoxiang Zhang, Zhao Lv, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Zhi Zhou, Limei Qiu, Hao Wang, Jun Li, Linsheng Song
The complement system is one of the major effector mechanisms of immune system, playing essential roles in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, the counterparts of vertebrate complement components were identified by screening the sequenced genome of Crassostrea gigas, resulting in the identification of 792 gene models containing complement-related domains. The transcriptome of haemocytes at 6, 12 and 24 h post lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation showed differential expression of 77 C1q domain containing proteins, 53 C-type lectins and 42 fibrinogen-related proteins...
June 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645307/aberrant-intestinal-microbiota-due-to-il-1-receptor-antagonist-deficiency-promotes-il-17-and-tlr4-dependent-arthritis
#19
Rebecca Rogier, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jos Boekhorst, Harm Wopereis, Jose U Scher, Julia Manasson, Sanne J C M Frambach, Jan Knol, Johan Garssen, Peter M van der Kraan, Marije I Koenders, Wim B van den Berg, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz
BACKGROUND: Perturbation of commensal intestinal microbiota has been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn (-/-) mice) spontaneously develop autoimmune arthritis and are susceptible to other autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, diabetes, and encephalomyelitis; however, the mechanisms of increased susceptibility to these autoimmune phenotypes are poorly understood. We investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in regulation of commensal intestinal microbiota, and assessed the involvement of microbiota subsets and innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses that underlie the development of spontaneous arthritis in Il1rn (-/-) mice...
June 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645300/bacterial-ghosts-as-adjuvants-mechanisms-and-potential
#20
REVIEW
Irshad A Hajam, Pervaiz A Dar, Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
Bacterial ghosts (BG) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They contain many innate immunostimulatory agonists, and are potent activators of a broad range of cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Several considerable studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of BG as adjuvants as well as their ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine production by a range of immune and non-immune cell types. These proinflammatory cytokines trigger a generalized recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to lymph nodes that maximize the chances of encounter with their cognate antigen, and subsequent elicitation of potent immune responses...
June 24, 2017: Veterinary Research
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