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Innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235196/human-adaptive-immunity-rescues-an-inborn-error-of-innate-immunity
#1
Laura Israel, Ying Wang, Katarzyna Bulek, Erika Della Mina, Zhao Zhang, Vincent Pedergnana, Maya Chrabieh, Nicole A Lemmens, Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu, Marc Descatoire, Théo Lasseau, Elisabeth Israelsson, Lazaro Lorenzo, Ling Yun, Aziz Belkadi, Andrew Moran, Leonard E Weisman, François Vandenesch, Frederic Batteux, Sandra Weller, Michael Levin, Jethro Herberg, Avinash Abhyankar, Carolina Prando, Yuval Itan, Willem J B van Wamel, Capucine Picard, Laurent Abel, Damien Chaussabel, Xiaoxia Li, Bruce Beutler, Peter D Arkwright, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel
The molecular basis of the incomplete penetrance of monogenic disorders is unclear. We describe here eight related individuals with autosomal recessive TIRAP deficiency. Life-threatening staphylococcal disease occurred during childhood in the proband, but not in the other seven homozygotes. Responses to all Toll-like receptor 1/2 (TLR1/2), TLR2/6, and TLR4 agonists were impaired in the fibroblasts and leukocytes of all TIRAP-deficient individuals. However, the whole-blood response to the TLR2/6 agonist staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) was abolished only in the index case individual, the only family member lacking LTA-specific antibodies (Abs)...
February 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235099/the-natural-killer-cell-response-to-west-nile-virus-in-young-and-old-individuals-with-or-without-a-prior-history-of-infection
#2
Yi Yao, Dara M Strauss-Albee, Julian Q Zhou, Anna Malawista, Melissa N Garcia, Kristy O Murray, Catherine A Blish, Ruth R Montgomery
West Nile virus (WNV) typically leads to asymptomatic infection but can cause severe neuroinvasive disease or death, particularly in the elderly. Innate NK cells play a critical role in antiviral defenses, yet their role in human WNV infection is poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that NK cells mount a robust, polyfunctional response to WNV characterized by cytolytic activity, cytokine and chemokine secretion. This is associated with downregulation of activating NK cell receptors and upregulation of NK cell activating ligands for NKG2D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235052/multiple-functional-therapeutic-effects-of-tnp-a-small-stable-synthetic-peptide-derived-from-fish-venom-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Evilin Naname Komegae, Tais Aparecida Matozo Souza, Lidiane Zito Grund, Carla Lima, Monica Lopes-Ferreira
The pathological condition of multiple sclerosis (MS) relies on innate and adaptive immunity. New types of agents that beneficially modify the course of MS, stopping the progression and repairing the damage appear promising. Here, we studied TnP, a small stable synthetic peptide derived from fish venom in the control of inflammation and demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis as prophylactic treatment. TnP decreased the number of the perivascular infiltrates in spinal cord, and the activity of MMP-9 by F4/80+ macrophages were decreased after different regimen treatments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235043/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-inhibits-a-src-kinase-regulatory-phosphatase-and-reduces-t-cell-activation-in-vivo
#4
Nirjal Bhattarai, James H McLinden, Jinhua Xiang, M Meleah Mathahs, Warren N Schmidt, Thomas M Kaufman, Jack T Stapleton
Among human RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is unusual in that it causes persistent infection in the majority of infected people. To establish persistence, HCV evades host innate and adaptive immune responses by multiple mechanisms. Recent studies identified virus genome-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in HCV-infected cells; however, their biological significance during human HCV infection is unknown. One such vsRNA arising from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 coding region impairs T cell receptor (TCR) signaling by reducing expression of a Src-kinase regulatory phosphatase (PTPRE) in vitro...
February 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235040/the-relationship-of-serum-vitamins-a-d-e-and-ll-37-levels-with-allergic-status-tonsillar-virus-detection-and-immune-response
#5
Varpu Elenius, Oscar Palomares, Matti Waris, Riitta Turunen, Tuomo Puhakka, Beate Rückert, Tytti Vuorinen, Tobias Allander, Tero Vahlberg, Mübeccel Akdis, Carlos A Camargo, Cezmi A Akdis, Tuomas Jartti
BACKGROUND: Tonsils have an active role in immune defence and inducing and maintaining tolerance to allergens. Vitamins A, D, and E, and antimicrobial peptide LL-37 may have immunomodulatory effects. We studied how their serum levels were associated with allergy status, intratonsillar/nasopharyngeal virus detection and intratonsillar expression of T cell- and innate immune response-specific cytokines, transcription factors and type I/II/III interferons in patients undergoing tonsillectomy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234991/severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus-inhibits-exogenous-type-i-ifn-signaling-pathway-through-its-nss-invitro
#6
Xu Chen, Haiyan Ye, Shilin Li, Baihai Jiao, Jianqin Wu, Peibin Zeng, Limin Chen
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTS virus, SFTSV). At present there is still no specific antiviral treatment for SFTSV; To understand which cells support SFTSV life cycle and whether SFTSV infection activates host innate immunity, four different cell lines (Vero, Hela, Huh7.5.1, and Huh7.0) were infected with SFTSV. Intracellular/extracellular viral RNA and expression of IFNα, and IFNß were detected by real-time RT- PCR following infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234788/the-role-of-microglia-in-the-etiology-and-evolution-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#7
Hadijat M Makinde, Talia B Just, Carla M Cuda, Harris Perlman, Steven J Schwulst
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that presents as a late sequela from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Traumatic brain injury is a growing and under-recognized public health concern with a high degree of morbidity and large associated global costs. While the immune response to TBI is complex, its contribution to the development of CTE remains largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the link between CTE and the resident innate immune system of the brain- microglia...
February 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234357/pathogen-response-like-recruitment-and-activation-of-neutrophils-by-sterile-immunogenic-dying-cells-drives-neutrophil-mediated-residual-cell-killing
#8
Abhishek D Garg, Lien Vandenberk, Shentong Fang, Tekele Fasche, Sofie Van Eygen, Jan Maes, Matthias Van Woensel, Carolien Koks, Niels Vanthillo, Norbert Graf, Peter de Witte, Stefaan Van Gool, Petri Salven, Patrizia Agostinis
Innate immune sensing of dying cells is modulated by several signals. Inflammatory chemokines-guided early recruitment, and pathogen-associated molecular patterns-triggered activation, of major anti-pathogenic innate immune cells like neutrophils distinguishes pathogen-infected stressed/dying cells from sterile dying cells. However, whether certain sterile dying cells stimulate innate immunity by partially mimicking pathogen response-like recruitment/activation of neutrophils remains poorly understood. We reveal that sterile immunogenic dying cancer cells trigger (a cell autonomous) pathogen response-like chemokine (PARC) signature, hallmarked by co-release of CXCL1, CCL2 and CXCL10 (similar to cells infected with bacteria or viruses)...
February 24, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233779/the-role-of-alternative-polyadenylation-in-the-antiviral-innate-immune-response
#9
Xin Jia, Shaochun Yuan, Yao Wang, Yonggui Fu, Yong Ge, Yutong Ge, Xihong Lan, Yuchao Feng, Feifei Qiu, Peiyi Li, Shangwu Chen, Anlong Xu
Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is an important regulatory mechanism of gene functions in many biological processes. However, the extent of 3' UTR variation and the function of APA during the innate antiviral immune response are unclear. Here, we show genome-wide poly(A) sites switch and average 3' UTR length shortens gradually in response to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in macrophages. Genes with APA and mRNA abundance change are enriched in immune-related categories such as the Toll-like receptor, RIG-I-like receptor, JAK-STAT and apoptosis-related signalling pathways...
February 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233156/chikungunya-infection-a-global-public-health-menace
#10
REVIEW
A J Mathew, A Ganapati, J Kabeerdoss, A Nair, N Gupta, P Chebbi, S K Mandal, Debashish Danda
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been involved in epidemics in African and Asian subcontinents and, of late, has transcended to affect the Americas. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the major vectors for CHIKV infection, which results in dissemination of virus to various vital organs. Entry of virus into these tissues causes infiltration of innate immune cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells, and adaptive immune cells. Macrophages bearing the replicating virus, in turn, secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-17...
February 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233154/alveolar-macrophages-in-allergic-asthma-the-forgotten-cell-awakes
#11
REVIEW
Christina Draijer, Marc Peters-Golden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of alveolar macrophages in innate immune responses has long been appreciated. Here, we review recent studies evaluating the participation of these cells in allergic inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: Immediately after allergen exposure, monocytes are rapidly recruited from the bloodstream and serve to promote acute inflammation. By contrast, resident alveolar macrophages play a predominantly suppressive role in an effort to restore homeostasis...
February 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233152/effects-of-allergic-sensitization-on-antiviral-immunity-allergen-virus-and-host-cell-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Regina K Rowe, Michelle A Gill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple clinical and epidemiological studies demonstrate links between allergic sensitization and virus-induced atopic disease exacerbations. This review summarizes the recent findings regarding allergen, viral, and host cellular mechanisms relevant to these observations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have focused on the molecular pathways and genetic influences involved in allergen-mediated inhibition of innate antiviral immune responses. Multiple tissue and cell types from atopic individuals across the atopy spectrum exhibit deficient interferon responses to a variety of virus infections...
February 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232836/modulators-of-the-balance-between-m1-and-m2-macrophages-during-pregnancy
#13
REVIEW
Yong-Hong Zhang, Ming He, Yan Wang, Ai-Hua Liao
Macrophages are a subset of mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system with high plasticity and heterogeneity. At the maternal-fetal interface, macrophages are present in all stages of pregnancy and involved in a variety of activities, including regulation of immune cell activities, decidualization, placental cell invasion, angiogenesis, parturition, and postpartum uterine involution. The activation state and function of uterine-placental macrophages are largely dependent on the local tissue microenvironment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232834/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-mediated-immunity-to-cytomegalovirus-infection
#14
REVIEW
Camille Khairallah, Julie Déchanet-Merville, Myriam Capone
γδ T lymphocytes are unconventional immune cells, which have both innate- and adaptive-like features allowing them to respond to a wide spectrum of pathogens. For many years, we and others have reported on the role of these cells in the immune response to human cytomegalovirus in transplant patients, pregnant women, neonates, immunodeficient children, and healthy people. Indeed, and as described for CD8(+) T cells, CMV infection leaves a specific imprint on the γδ T cell compartment: (i) driving a long-lasting expansion of oligoclonal γδ T cells in the blood of seropositive individuals, (ii) inducing their differentiation into effector/memory cells expressing a TEMRA phenotype, and (iii) enhancing their antiviral effector functions (i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232832/dysregulated-responsiveness-of-circulating-dendritic-cells-to-toll-like-receptors-in-anca-associated-vasculitis
#15
Cécile Braudeau, Antoine Néel, Karine Amouriaux, Jérôme C Martin, Marie Rimbert, Audrey Besançon, Stéphanie Giraudet, Caroline Terrien, Marine Aliaga, Nina Salabert-Le Guen, Caroline Hémont, Mohamed Hamidou, Régis Josien
OBJECTIVE: Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical effectors of innate and adaptive immunity playing crucial roles in autoimmune responses. We previously showed that blood DC numbers were reduced in autoimmune antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). Here, we assessed toll-like receptor (TLR) responsiveness of blood DCs from patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). METHODS: Blood samples from healthy controls (HCs), GPA, or MPA patients, without treatment, during acute phase (AP) or remission phase (RP) were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232735/accelerated-disease-progression-and-robust-innate-host-response-in-aged-sivmac239-infected-chinese-rhesus-macaques-is-associated-with-enhanced-immunosenescence
#16
Hong-Yi Zheng, Ming-Xu Zhang, Min Chen, Jin Jiang, Jia-Hao Song, Xiao-Dong Lian, Ren-Rong Tian, Xiao-Liang Zhang, Lin-Tao Zhang, Wei Pang, Gao-Hong Zhang, Yong-Tang Zheng
The elderly population infected with HIV-1 is often characterized by the rapid AIDS progression and poor treatment outcome, possibly because of immunosenescence resulting from both HIV infection and aging. However, this hypothesis remains to be fully tested. Here, we studied 6 young and 12 old Chinese rhesus macaques (ChRM) over the course of three months after simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVmac239 infection. Old ChRM showed a higher risk of accelerated AIDS development than did young macaques, owing to rapidly elevated plasma viral loads and decreased levels of CD4(+) T cells...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232385/the-cytidine-deaminase-apobec3-family-is-subject-to-transcriptional-regulation-by-p53
#17
Daniel Menendez, Thuy-Ai Nguyen, Joyce Snipe, Michael A Resnick
: The APOBEC3 (A3) family of proteins are DNA cytidine deaminases that act as sentinels in the innate immune response against retroviral infections and are responsive to interferon. Recently, a few A3 genes were identified as potent enzymatic sources of mutations in several human cancers. Using human cancer cells and lymphocytes we show that under stress conditions and immune challenges all A3 genes are direct transcriptional targets of the tumor suppressor p53. While the expression of most A3 genes (including A3C and A3H) was stimulated by activation of p53, treatment with the DNA damaging agent doxorubicin or the p53 stabilizer Nutlin, led to repression of the A3B gene...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232279/card-and-tm-of-mavs-of-black-carp-play-the-key-role-in-its-self-association-and-antiviral-ability
#18
Jun Xiao, Chuanzhe Yan, Wei Zhou, Jun Li, Hui Wu, Tiansheng Chen, Hao Feng
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is an adaptor protein of the innate immune system of higher vertebrate. In this paper, the transcription profile of black carp MAVS (bcMAVS) in host cells in response to spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection was identified. EPC cells expressing bcMAVS possessed obviously enhanced antiviral activity against both SVCV and GCRV. Immunofluorescence (IF) staining data demonstrated that bcMAVS molecules were redistributed and formed aggregates on the mitochondria of EPC cells after virus infection...
February 20, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232278/modulation-of-innate-immune-responses-and-induction-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-pangasianodon-hypophthalamus-following-an-experimental-infection-with-dactylogyrid-monogeneans
#19
Saurav Kumar, R P Raman, K Pani Prasad, P P Srivastva, Sanath Kumar, K V Rajendran
Modulation of innate immune activity and oxidative stress response of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus through experimental infection with (Thaparocleidus sp.) dactylogyrid monogenean was studied. A standard cohabitation method was used to infect healthy experimental fish. After 14 days, dactylogyrid (gill monogenean) infested fish were sampled and categorised into three different infected groups namely (T1) low (<10 mean dactylogyrid per gill arch per fish), (T2) moderate (10-49 mean dactylogyrid per gill arch per fish) and (T3) high (>50 mean dactylogyrid per gill arch per fish) along with a control group T0 (un-infested fish)...
February 20, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232220/drosophila-larvae-food-intake-cessation-following-exposure-to-erwinia-contaminated-media-requires-odor-perception-trpa1-channel-and-evf-virulence-factor
#20
Seidou Keita, Ambra Masuzzo, Julien Royet, C Leopold Kurz
When exposed to microorganisms, animals use several protective strategies. On one hand, as elegantly exemplified in Drosophila melanogaster, the innate immune system recognizes microbial compounds and triggers an antimicrobial response. On the other hand, behaviors preventing an extensive contact with the microbes and thus reducing the risk of infection have been described. However, these reactions ranging from microbes aversion to intestinal transit increase or food intake decrease have been rarely defined at the molecular level...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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