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Innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319790/within-host-rna-virus-persistence-mechanisms-and-consequences
#1
REVIEW
Richard E Randall, Diane E Griffin
In a prototypical response to an acute viral infection it would be expected that the adaptive immune response would eliminate all virally infected cells within a few weeks of infection. However many (non-retrovirus) RNA viruses can establish 'within host' persistent infections that occasionally lead to chronic or reactivated disease. Despite the importance of 'within host' persistent RNA virus infections, much has still to be learnt about the molecular mechanisms by which RNA viruses establish persistent infections, why innate and adaptive immune responses fail to rapidly clear these infections, and the epidemiological and potential disease consequences of such infections...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319612/colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-is-a-central-component-of-the-foreign-body-response-to-biomaterial-implants-in-rodents-and-non-human%C3%A2-primates
#2
Joshua C Doloff, Omid Veiseh, Arturo J Vegas, Hok Hei Tam, Shady Farah, Minglin Ma, Jie Li, Andrew Bader, Alan Chiu, Atieh Sadraei, Stephanie Aresta-Dasilva, Marissa Griffin, Siddharth Jhunjhunwala, Matthew Webber, Sean Siebert, Katherine Tang, Michael Chen, Erin Langan, Nimit Dholokia, Raj Thakrar, Meirigeng Qi, Jose Oberholzer, Dale L Greiner, Robert Langer, Daniel G Anderson
Host recognition and immune-mediated foreign body response to biomaterials can compromise the performance of implanted medical devices. To identify key cell and cytokine targets, here we perform in-depth systems analysis of innate and adaptive immune system responses to implanted biomaterials in rodents and non-human primates. While macrophages are indispensable to the fibrotic cascade, surprisingly neutrophils and complement are not. Macrophages, via CXCL13, lead to downstream B cell recruitment, which further potentiated fibrosis, as confirmed by B cell knockout and CXCL13 neutralization...
March 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319200/induction-of-immunomodulatory-mir-146a-and-mir-155-in-small-intestinal-epithelium-of-vibrio-cholerae-infected-patients-at-acute-stage-of-cholera
#3
Aziz Bitar, Rituparna De, Silvia Melgar, Kyaw Min Aung, Arman Rahman, Firdausi Qadri, Sun Nyunt Wai, Tahmina Shirin, Marie-Louise Hammarström
The potential immunomodulatory role of microRNAs in small intestine of patients with acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection was investigated. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from study-participants at the acute (day 2) and convalescent (day 21) stages of disease, and from healthy individuals. Levels of miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-375 and target gene (IRAK1, TRAF6, CARD10) and 11 cytokine mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. The cellular source of microRNAs in biopsies was analyzed by in situ hybridization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319123/saccharomyces-boulardii-and-bacillus-subtilis-b10-modulate-tlrs-and-cytokines-expression-patterns-in-jejunum-and-ileum-of-broilers
#4
Imran Rashid Rajput, Huang Ying, Sun Yajing, Muhammad Asif Arain, Li Weifen, Li Ping, Dost Muhammad Bloch, Liu Wenhua
The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR), and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers) were allotted into three groups (n = 100) and each divided into five replications (n = 20). Control group (Ctr) birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed) Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319114/internally-tagged-ubiquitin-a-tool-to-identify-linear-polyubiquitin-modified-proteins-by-mass-spectrometry
#5
Katarzyna Kliza, Christoph Taumer, Irene Pinzuti, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Simone Kunzelmann, Benjamin Stieglitz, Boris Macek, Koraljka Husnjak
Ubiquitination controls a plethora of cellular processes. Modifications by linear polyubiquitin have so far been linked with acquired and innate immunity, lymphocyte development and genotoxic stress response. Until now, a single E3 ligase complex (LUBAC), one specific deubiquitinase (OTULIN) and a very few linear polyubiquitinated substrates have been identified. Current methods for studying lysine-based polyubiquitination are not suitable for the detection of linear polyubiquitin-modified proteins. Here, we present an approach to discovering linear polyubiquitin-modified substrates by combining a lysine-less internally tagged ubiquitin (INT-Ub...
March 20, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319097/long-noncoding-rna-lnckdm2b-is-required-for-ilc3-maintenance-by-initiation-of-zfp292-expression
#6
Benyu Liu, Buqing Ye, Liuliu Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Guanling Huang, Pingping Zhu, Ying Du, Jiayi Wu, Xiwen Qin, Runsheng Chen, Yong Tian, Zusen Fan
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) communicate with other hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells to regulate immunity, inflammation and tissue homeostasis. How ILC lineages develop and are maintained remains largely unknown. In this study we observed that a divergent long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), lncKdm2b, was expressed at high levels in intestinal group 3 ILCs (ILC3s). LncKdm2b deficiency in the hematopoietic system led to reductions in the number and effector functions of ILC3s. LncKdm2b expression sustained the maintenance of ILC3s by promoting their proliferation through activation of the transcription factor Zfp292...
March 20, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318829/toll-like-receptor-4-inhibitor-protects-against-retinal-ganglion-cell-damage-induced-by-optic-nerve-crush-in-mice
#7
Yukimichi Nakano, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Kazuki Ojino, Hiroshi Izawa, Hiroto Takeuchi, Yuki Inoue, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Hideaki Hara
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays key roles in innate immune responses and inflammatory reactions. TAK-242 (resatorvid) is a small-molecule cyclohexene derivative that selectively inhibits TLR4 signaling pathways and suppresses inflammatory reactions. Here we investigated the protective effects of TAK-242 against optic nerve crush (ONC) which induces axonal injury like glaucoma in mice. TAK-242 was injected intravitreally immediately after ONC. The effect of TAK-242 was evaluated by measuring the number of fluorogold-labeled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at 10 days after ONC...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318408/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-immune-mediated-liver-injury-and-compromise-virus-control-during-acute-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-mice
#8
Mengmeng Qu, Xu Yuan, Dan Liu, Yuhong Ma, Jun Zhu, Jun Cui, Mengxue Yu, Changyong Li, Deyin Guo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used as therapeutic tools not only for their ability to differentiate toward different cells, but also for their unique immunomodulatory properties. However, it is still unknown how MSCs may affect immunity during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study was designed to explore the effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on hepatic natural killer (NK) cells in a mouse model of acute HBV infection. Mice were injected with 1 × 10(6) BM-MSCs, which stained with chloromethyl derivatives of fluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe, 24 h before hydrodynamic injection of viral DNA (pHBV1...
February 2, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317534/vitiligo-pathogenesis-and-emerging-treatments
#9
REVIEW
Mehdi Rashighi, John E Harris
The pathogenesis of vitiligo involves interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic melanocyte defects, innate immune inflammation, and T-cell-mediated melanocyte destruction. The goal of treatment is to not only halt disease progression but also promote repigmentation through melanocyte regeneration, proliferation, and migration. Treatment strategies that address all aspects of disease pathogenesis and repigmentation are likely to have greatest efficacy, a strategy that may require combination therapies. Current treatments generally involve nontargeted suppression of autoimmunity, whereas emerging treatments are likely to use a more targeted approach based on in-depth understanding of disease pathogenesis, which may provide higher efficacy with a good safety profile...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317043/il-8-gene-polymorphism-in-acute-biliary-and-non-biliary-pancreatitis-probable-cause-of-high-level-parameters
#10
Ender Anilir, Filiz Ozen, Ibrahim Halil Yildirim, Ibrahim Ali Ozemir, Can Ozlu, Orhan Alimoglu
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Inflammatory mediators of the innate immune response play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. The correlation between interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene polymorphism with types of acute pancreatitis and severity of pancreatitis, was evaluated in this study. METHODS: According to the diagnostic criteria, 176 patients with acute pancreatitis were grouped into biliary (n=83) and nonbiliary pancreatitis (n=93). Healthy blood donors (n=100) served as controls...
February 2017: Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316997/sildenafil-can-affect-innate-and-adaptive-immune-system-in-both-experimental-animals-and-patients
#11
REVIEW
Monika Kniotek, Agnieszka Boguska
Sildenafil, a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE5-I), is primarily used for treating erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil inhibits the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by competing with cGMP for binding site of PDE5. cGMP is a secondary messenger activating protein kinases and a common regulator of ion channel conductance, glycogenolysis, and cellular apoptosis. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE-Is) found application in cardiology, nephrology, urology, dermatology, oncology, and gynecology. Positive result of sildenafil treatment is closely connected with its immunomodulatory effects...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316371/znf395-is-an-activator-of-a-subset-of-ifn-stimulated-genes
#12
Linda Schroeder, Christine Herwartz, Darko Jordanovski, Gertrud Steger
Activation of the interferon (IFN) pathway in response to infection with pathogens results in the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) including proinflammatory cytokines, which mount the proper antiviral immune response. However, aberrant expression of these genes is pathogenic to the host. In addition to IFN-induced transcription factors non-IFN-regulated factors contribute to the transcriptional control of ISGs. Here, we show by genome wide expression analysis, siRNA-mediated suppression and Doxycycline-induced overexpression that the cellular transcription factor ZNF395 activates a subset of ISGs including the chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11 in keratinocytes...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316103/identification-of-hip-bmd-loss-and-fracture-risk-markers-through-population-based-serum-proteomics
#13
Carrie M Nielson, Jack Wiedrick, Jian Shen, Jon Jacobs, Erin S Baker, Aaron Baraff, Paul Piehowski, Christine G Lee, Arie Baratt, Vladislav Petyuk, Shannon McWeeney, Jeong Youn Lim, Douglas C Bauer, Nancy E Lane, Peggy M Cawthon, Richard D Smith, Jodi Lapidus, Eric S Orwoll
Serum proteomics analysis may lead to the discovery of novel osteoporosis biomarkers. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) comprises men ≥65 in the US who have had repeated BMD measures and have been followed for incident fracture. High-throughput quantitative proteomic analysis was performed on baseline fasting serum samples from non-Hispanic white men using a multi-dimensional approach coupling liquid chromatography, ion-mobility separation, and mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS). We followed the participants for a mean of 4...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315938/the-relationship-between-breast-cancer-molecular-subtypes-and-mast-cell-populations-in-tumor-microenvironment
#14
Anna Glajcar, Joanna Szpor, Agnieszka Pacek, Katarzyna Ewa Tyrak, Florence Chan, Joanna Streb, Diana Hodorowicz-Zaniewska, Krzysztof Okoń
Mast cells (MCs) are a part of the innate immune system. The MC functions toward cancer are partially based on the release of chymase and tryptase. However, the MC effect on breast cancer is controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of MCs in breast cancer tumors of different molecular subtypes and their relationships with other pathological prognostic factors. Tryptase- and chymase-positive mast cell densities were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 108 primary invasive breast cancer tissue samples...
March 18, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315853/effects-of-extracts-and-compounds-from-tricholoma-populinum-lange-on-degranulation-and-il-2-il-8-secretion-of-immune-cells
#15
Simon Merdivan, Kristina Jenett-Siems, Karsten Siems, Timo H J Niedermeyer, Nadin Schultze, Carmen Steinborn, Carsten Gründemann, Ulrike Lindequist
Tricholoma populinum Lange is an edible basidiomycete from the family Tricholomataceae. Extracts, fractions, and different metabolites isolated from the fruiting bodies of this mushroom were tested for degranulation-inhibiting activities on RBL-2H3 cells (rat basophils). Dichloromethane extracts decreased degranulation significantly, as did a fraction after column chromatography. In addition, the extract decreased the IL-2 release from Jurkat T cells and the release of IL-8 from HMC-1 human mast cells. The results show the significant effects of extracts of T...
March 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315788/does-baseline-innate-immunity-change-with-age-a-multi-year-study-in-great-tits
#16
Anke Vermeulen, Marcel Eens, Stefan Van Dongen, Wendt Müller
Throughout their life animals progressively accumulate mostly detrimental changes in cells, tissues and their functions, causing a decrease in individual performance and ultimately an increased risk of death. The latter may be amplified if it also leads to a deterioration of the immune system which forms the most important protection against the permanent threat of pathogens and infectious diseases. Here, we investigated how four baseline innate immune parameters (natural antibodies, complement activity, concentrations of haptoglobin and concentrations of nitric oxide) changed with age in free-living great tits (Parus major)...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315775/assessment-of-histone-tail-modifications-and-transcriptional-profiling-during-colon-cancer-progression-reveals-a-global-decrease-in-h3k4me3-activity
#17
Karen Triff, Mathew W McLean, Kranti Konganti, Jiahui Pang, Evelyn Callaway, Beiyan Zhou, Ivan Ivanov, Robert S Chapkin
During colon cancer, epigenetic alterations contribute to the dysregulation of major cellular functions and signaling pathways. Modifications in chromatin signatures such as H3K4me3 and H3K9ac, which are associated with transcriptionally active genes, can lead to genomic instability and perturb the expression of gene sets associated with oncogenic processes. In order to further elucidate early pre-tumorigenic epigenetic molecular events driving CRC, we integrated diverse, genome-wide, epigenetic inputs (by high throughput sequencing of RNA, H3K4me3, and H3K9ac) and compared differentially expressed transcripts (DE) and enriched regions (DER) in an in-vivo rat colon cancer progression model...
March 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314590/inflammasome-activation-triggers-caspase-1-mediated-cleavage-of-cgas-to-regulate-responses-to-dna-virus-infection
#18
Yutao Wang, Xiaohan Ning, Pengfei Gao, Shuxian Wu, Mengyin Sha, Mengze Lv, Xiang Zhou, Juyi Gao, Run Fang, Guangxun Meng, Xiaodong Su, Zhengfan Jiang
Viral infection triggers host innate immune responses that result in the production of various cytokines including type I interferons (IFN), activation of inflammasomes, and programmed cell death of the infected cells. Tight control of inflammatory cytokine production is crucial for the triggering of an effective immune response that can resolve the infection without causing host pathology. In examining the inflammatory response of Asc(-/-) and Casp1(-/-) macrophages, we found that deficiency in these molecules resulted in increased IFN production upon DNA virus infection, but not RNA virus challenge...
March 8, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314211/the-role-of-kupffer-cells-in-hepatic-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Peizhi Li, Kun He, Jinzheng Li, Zuojin Liu, Jianping Gong
Kupffer cells (KCs) constitute 80-90% of the tissue macrophages present in the body. Essential to innate and adaptive immunity, KCs are responsible for the swift containment and clearance of exogenous particulates and immunoreactive materials which are perceived as foreign and harmful to the body. Similar to other macrophages, KCs also sense endogenous molecular signals that may result from perturbed homeostasis of the host. KCs have been implicated in host defense and the pathogenesis of various hepatic diseases, including endotoxin tolerance, liver transplantation, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and alcoholic liver disease...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314156/an-explant-of-heifer-mammary-gland-to-study-the-immune-response-of-the-organ
#20
Giada Magro, Tiziana A L Brevini, Marcella De Maglie, Giulietta Minozzi, Eugenio Scanziani, Renata Piccinini
Continuous or primary epithelial cell lines have been extensively used to study the mammary gland immune response, but they are constituted by a single cell population. Our aim was to test whether an explant of heifer gland, where the tissue structure is maintained, might be a valid model to investigate the innate immune response to infection. The study was carried out on 2mm(3)-sections of heifer udders, in 2 consecutive trials, using LPS or LTA in the first trial and two different concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus (Staph...
March 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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