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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647396/testicular-cancer-the-usage-of-central-review-for-pathology-diagnosis-of-orchiectomy-specimens
#1
Saul E Harari, Daniel J Sassoon, David S Priemer, Joseph M Jacob, John N Eble, Anna Caliò, David J Grignon, Mohammed Idrees, Costantine Albany, Timothy A Masterson, Nasser H Hanna, Richard S Foster, Thomas M Ulbright, Lawrence H Einhorn, Liang Cheng
BACKGROUND: Radical orchiectomy specimens present a unique set of challenges for pathology assessment owing to their rarity and complexity. This study compares second opinion pathology reports generated at a single, large academic institution to primary reports from outside hospitals. METHODS: A database search was conducted for orchiectomy cases that were sent to our institution for management of testicular cancer from 2014 to 2015. Cases sent for consultation without a finalized diagnosis from the outside hospitals were excluded...
June 21, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646211/increasing-cell-density-globally-enhances-the-biogenesis-of-piwi-interacting-rnas-in-bombyx-mori-germ-cells
#2
Shozo Honda, Phillipe Loher, Keisuke Morichika, Megumi Shigematsu, Takuya Kawamura, Yoriko Kirino, Isidore Rigoutsos, Yohei Kirino
Piwi proteins and their bound Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are predominantly expressed in the germline and play crucial roles in germline development by silencing transposons and other targets. Bombyx mori BmN4 cells are culturable germ cells that equip the piRNA pathway. Because of the scarcity of piRNA-expressing culturable cells, BmN4 cells are being utilized for the analyses of piRNA biogenesis. We here report that the piRNA biogenesis in BmN4 cells is regulated by cell density. As cell density increased, the abundance of Piwi proteins and piRNA biogenesis factors was commonly upregulated, resulting in an increased number of perinuclear nuage-like granules where Piwi proteins localize...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646079/identification-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-5-fmo5-as-a-regulator-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-a-potential-sensor-of-gut-bacteria
#3
Flora Scott, Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Brett A O'Brien, Diede Fennema, Sunil Veeravalli, Clarissa R Coveney, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-/-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-/-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645898/dna-pk-facilitates-piggybac-transposition-by-promoting-paired-end-complex-formation
#4
Yan Jin, Yaohui Chen, Shimin Zhao, Kun-Liang Guan, Yuan Zhuang, Wenhao Zhou, Xiaohui Wu, Tian Xu
The involvement of host factors is critical to our understanding of underlying mechanisms of transposition and the applications of transposon-based technologies. Modified piggyBac (PB) is one of the most potent transposon systems in mammals. However, varying transposition efficiencies of PB among different cell lines have restricted its application. We discovered that the DNA-PK complex facilitates PB transposition by binding to PB transposase (PBase) and promoting paired-end complex formation. Mass spectrometry analysis and coimmunoprecipitation revealed physical interaction between PBase and the DNA-PK components Ku70, Ku80, and DNA-PKcs Overexpression or knockdown of DNA-PK components enhances or suppresses PB transposition in tissue culture cells, respectively...
June 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645700/antagonistic-regulation-of-spermatogonial-differentiation-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-by-igf3-and-amh
#5
R D V S Morais, D Crespo, R H Nóbrega, M S Lemos, H J G van de Kant, L R de França, R Male, J Bogerd, R W Schulz
Fsh-mediated regulation of zebrafish spermatogenesis includes modulating the expression of testicular growth factors. Here, we study if and how two Sertoli cell-derived Fsh-responsive growth factors, anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh; inhibiting steroidogenesis and germ cell differentiation) and insulin-like growth factor 3 (Igf3; stimulating germ cell differentiation), cooperate in regulating spermatogonial development. In dose response and time course experiments with primary testis tissue cultures, Fsh up-regulated igf3 transcript levels and down-regulated amh transcript levels; igf3 transcript levels were more rapidly up-regulated and responded to lower Fsh concentrations than were required to decrease amh mRNA levels...
June 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645307/aberrant-intestinal-microbiota-due-to-il-1-receptor-antagonist-deficiency-promotes-il-17-and-tlr4-dependent-arthritis
#6
Rebecca Rogier, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jos Boekhorst, Harm Wopereis, Jose U Scher, Julia Manasson, Sanne J C M Frambach, Jan Knol, Johan Garssen, Peter M van der Kraan, Marije I Koenders, Wim B van den Berg, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz
BACKGROUND: Perturbation of commensal intestinal microbiota has been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn (-/-) mice) spontaneously develop autoimmune arthritis and are susceptible to other autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, diabetes, and encephalomyelitis; however, the mechanisms of increased susceptibility to these autoimmune phenotypes are poorly understood. We investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in regulation of commensal intestinal microbiota, and assessed the involvement of microbiota subsets and innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses that underlie the development of spontaneous arthritis in Il1rn (-/-) mice...
June 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645172/the-biogenesis-pathway-of-trna-derived-pirnas-in-bombyx-germ-cells
#7
Shozo Honda, Takuya Kawamura, Phillipe Loher, Keisuke Morichika, Isidore Rigoutsos, Yohei Kirino
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) function in translational machinery and further serves as a source of short non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). tRNA-derived ncRNAs show differential expression profiles and play roles in many biological processes beyond translation. Molecular mechanisms that shape and regulate their expression profiles are largely unknown. Here, we report the mechanism of biogenesis for tRNA-derived Piwi-interacting RNAs (td-piRNAs) expressed in Bombyx BmN4 cells. In the cells, two cytoplasmic tRNA species, tRNAAspGUC and tRNAHisGUG, served as major sources for td-piRNAs, which were derived from the 5΄-part of the respective tRNAs...
June 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644726/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-actions-of-casiopeina-iii-ea-cas-iii-ea-in-somatic-and-germ-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
L M Vidal, E Pimentel, M P Cruces, S Hernández, L Ruiz-Azuara
Casiopeinas® are a group of newly synthesized drugs designed to treat cancer. These copper (Cu) complexes exhibit cytostatic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antineoplastic activities through different mechanisms of action. To evaluate the influence of these compounds, some in vivo studies were performed using predominantly somatic cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic actions of Casiopeina III-Ea (Cas III-Ea) in somatic as well as germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster. For cytotoxicity, the productivity and some morphometric parameters were measured and genotoxicity was assessed by means of the somatic mutation and recombination test assay in the wing...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643257/genome-editing-mediated-by-primordial-germ-cell-in-chicken
#9
Jae Yong Han, Hong Jo Lee
Rapid development of genome editing technology has facilitated the studies on exploring specific gene functions and establishment of model animals. In livestock, the technology has contributed to create high value in industry fields, e.g., enhancing productivity or acquiring the resistance against disease. Meanwhile, genome editing in avian species has been emphasized because of their applicable possibilities in terms of highly productive chickens, disease-controlled avian lines, and development of novel biological models...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642479/a-genetically-enhanced-sterile-insect-technique-against-the-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel-by-feeding-adult-double-stranded-rnas
#10
Muhammad Waqar Ali, Wenping Zheng, Summar Sohail, Qingmei Li, Weiwei Zheng, Hongyu Zhang
RNAi based sterile insect technique (SIT) is an authentic insect management approach but requires proper target genes. During this study, spermless males were developed by interfering with germ cell differentiation and azoospermia related genes. Data demonstrates significant reductions in the target genes expressions (boul, zpg, dsx (M) , fzo and gas8) after oral dsRNAs administration. Knock down of target genes significantly affected the reproductive ability of males and reduced egg-hatching as compared to the control group...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642132/unphosphorylated-stat3-regulates-the-antiproliferative-antiviral-and-gene-inducing-actions-of-type-i-interferons
#11
Susan R Pfeffer, Meiyun Fan, Ziyun Du, Chuan He Yang, Lawrence M Pfeffer
Type I interferon (IFNα/β) induces antiviral and antiproliferative responses in cells through the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Although the roles of IFN-activated STAT1 and STAT2 in the IFN response are well described, the function of STAT3 is poorly characterized. We investigated the role of STAT3 in the biological response to IFNα/β in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with a germ line deletion of STAT3. These STAT3 knockout (STAT3-KO) MEFs were reconstituted with STAT3 or the F705-STAT3 mutant (unphosphorylated STAT3) where the canonical Y705 tyrosine phosphorylation site was mutated...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639735/neonates-with-cancer-and-causes-of-death-lessons-from-615-cases-in-the-seer-databases
#12
Ahmad S Alfaar, Waleed M Hassan, Mohamed Sabry Bakry, Ibrahim Qaddoumi
Neonatal tumors are rare with no standard treatment approaches to these diseases, and the patients experience poor outcomes. Our aim was to determine the distribution of cancers affecting neonates and compare survival between these cancers and older children. We analyzed SEER data (1973-2007) from patients who were younger than 2 years at diagnosis of malignancy. Special permission was granted to access the detailed (i.e., age in months) data of those patients. The Chi-square Log-rank test was used to compare survival between neonates (aged <1 month) and older children (>1 month to <2 years)...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639357/cerebellar-projections-to-the-ventral-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-the-cat
#13
Hiroyuki Nakamura
The ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNv) is a retinorecipient part of the ventral thalamus and in cats, it consists of medial (M), medial intermediate (IM), lateral intermediate (IL), lateral (L), and dorsal (D) subdivisions. These subdivisions can be differentiated not only by their cytoarchitecture, but also by their connectivity and putative functions. The LGNv may play a role in visuomotor gating, in that there is evidence of cerebellar afferent projections to the intermediate subdivisions. The cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP) and lateral (LC) nuclei are known to project to IM and IL, but the specifics of these projections are unclear...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638160/low-flow-extracorporeal-carbon-dioxide-removal-using-the-hemolung-respiratory-dialysis-system-%C3%A2-to-facilitate-lung-protective-mechanical-ventilation-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#14
Bindu Akkanti, Keshava Rajagopal, Kirti P Patel, Sangeeta Aravind, Emmanuel Nunez-Centanu, Rahat Hussain, Farshad Raissi Shabari, Wayne L Hofstetter, Ara A Vaporciyan, Igor S Banjac, Biswajit Kar, Igor D Gregoric, Pranav Loyalka
Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) permits reductions in alveolar ventilation requirements that the lungs would otherwise have to provide. This concept was applied to a case of hypercapnia refractory to high-level invasive mechanical ventilator support. We present a case of an 18-year-old man who developed post-pneumonectomy acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after resection of a mediastinal germ cell tumor involving the left lung hilum. Hypercapnia and hypoxemia persisted despite ventilator support even at traumatic levels...
June 2017: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637623/ddx41-related-myeloid-neoplasia
#15
REVIEW
Jaroslaw P Maciejewski, Richard A Padgett, Anna L Brown, Carsten Müller-Tidow
While early presentation of familial leukemia syndromes is typical, long disease anticipation may mask cases of familial traits in seemingly spontaneous disease. Germline mutations in DDX41 gene have been discovered in several leukemia families, as well as in mostly adult patients with seemingly spontaneous disease but having strong family histories of myeloid neoplasia. As with other familial genes, DDX41 mutation carriers can develop neoplasia through acquisition of another somatic mutation, thereby affecting both DDX41 alleles...
April 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636946/ptbp2-controls-an-alternative-splicing-network-required-for-cell-communication-during-spermatogenesis
#16
Molly M Hannigan, Leah L Zagore, Donny D Licatalosi
Alternative splicing has essential roles in development. Remarkably, spermatogenic cells express more alternatively spliced RNAs compared to most whole tissues; however, regulation of these RNAs remains unclear. Here, we characterize the alternative splicing landscape during spermatogenesis and reveal an essential function for the RNA-binding protein Ptbp2 in this highly regulated developmental program. We found that Ptbp2 controls a network of genes involved in cell adhesion, migration, and polarity, suggesting that splicing regulation by Ptbp2 is critical for germ cell communication with Sertoli cells (multifunctional somatic cells necessary for spermatogenesis)...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636618/de-novo-transcriptome-of-the-mayfly-cloeon-viridulum-and-transcriptional-signatures-of-prometabola
#17
Qin Si, Juan-Yan Luo, Ze Hu, Wei Zhang, Chang-Fa Zhou
Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) display many primitive characters and a unique type of metamorphosis (Prometabola). However, information on the genomes and transcriptomes of this insect group is limited. The RNA sequencing study presented here generated the first de novo transcriptome assembly of Cloeon viridulum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), and compared gene expression signatures among the young larva (YL), mature larva (ML), subimago (SI), and imago (IM) stages of this mayfly. The transcriptome, based on 88 Gb of sequence data, comprised a set of 81,185 high quality transcripts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635255/characterization-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-a-novel-peptide-ecfsta-from-wheat-germ-globulin
#18
Wenjia Wu, Mengmeng Zhang, Yao Ren, Xinze Cai, Zhina Yin, Xiaoai Zhang, Tian Min, Hui Wu
A novel peptide was extracted from wheat germ globulin and purified using ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and semi-preparative reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The sequence of the peptide was found to be Glu-Cys-Phe-Ser-Thr-Ala (ECFSTA). Its immunomodulatory effects were evaluated, and the results showed that ECFSTA could enhance phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 cells and significantly increase their secretion of nitric oxide (NO), interleukins-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634489/a-study-of-patients-with-primary-mediastinal-germ-cell-tumors-treated-using-multimodal-therapy
#19
Yutaro Tanaka, Takehiko Okamura, Takashi Nagai, Daichi Kobayashi, Takahiro Kobayashi, Hidetoshi Akita, Yoshinobu Moritoki, Takahiro Yasui
OBJECTIVES: Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (PMGCTs) are rare, which often makes them difficult to treat. Herein, we examined patients with PMGCTs who underwent multimodal treatment. METHODS: We examined 6 patients (median age: 25 years, range: 19-27 years) with PMGCTs who underwent multimodal treatment between April 2001 and March 2015. Three patients had seminomas, 2 patients had yolk sac tumors, and 1 patient had choriocarcinoma. The median observation period was 32...
2017: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634376/structural-basis-to-stabilize-the-domain-motion-of-bard1-ard-brct-by-cstf50
#20
Rajan Kumar Choudhary, Mohd Quadir Siddiqui, Pankaj S Thapa, Nikhil Gadewal, Senthil Kumar Nachimuthu, Ashok K Varma
BRCA1 associated ring domain protein 1(BARD1) is a tumor suppressor protein having a wide role in cellular processes like cell-cycle checkpoint, DNA damage repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. Germ-line mutation Gln 564 His discovered in linker region of BARD1 leads to loss of binding to Cleavage stimulating factor (CstF50), which in turn instigates the premature mRNA transcript formation and apoptosis. We have studied the dynamics of ARD domain present in the BARD1 wild-type and mutant protein in association with CstF50 using biophysical, biochemical and molecular dynamics simulations...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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