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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230788/the-adverse-effects-of-triptolide-on-the-reproductive-system-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-oogenesis-impairment-and-decreased-oocyte-quality
#1
Qinli Ruan, Yun Xu, Rui Xu, Jiaying Wang, Yongqing Hua, Meng Wang, Jinao Duan
Previous studies have revealed that Triptolide damages female reproductive capacity, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the effects of Triptolide on the germline and explore its possible mechanisms. Our data show that exposure for 4 h to 50 and 100 mg/L Triptolide reduced C. elegans fertility, led to depletion and inactivation of spermatids with the changes in the expression levels of related genes, and increased the number of unfertilized oocytes through damaging chromosomes and DNA damage repair mechanisms...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230281/resveratrol-enhances-self-renewal-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#2
Na Li, Zhaoyu Du, Qiaoyan Shen, Qijing Lei, Ying Zhang, Mengfei Zhang, Jinlian Hua
Resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to affect the differentiation of several types of stem cells, while the detailed mechanism is elusive. Here, we aim to investigate the function of RSV in self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the related mechanisms. In contrast with its reported roles, we found unexpectedly that differentiated ESCs or iPSCs treated by RSV would not show further differentiation, but regained a naïve pluripotency state with higher expressions of core transcriptional factors and with the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers when transplanted in vivo...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230233/establishment-and-growth-responses-of-nile-tilapia-embryonic-stem-like-cell-lines-under-feeder-free-condition
#3
Zhenhua Fan, Linyan Liu, Xiaohuan Huang, Yang Zhao, Linyan Zhou, Deshou Wang, Jing Wei
Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide an invaluable tool for molecular analysis of vertebrate development and a bridge linking genomic manipulations in vitro and functional analysis of target genes in vivo. Work towards fish ES cells so far has focused on zebrafish (Danio renio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Here we describe the derivation, pluripotency, differentiation and growth responses of ES cell lines from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a world-wide commercial farmed fish. These cell lines, designated as TES1-3, were initiated from blastomeres of Nile tilapia middle blastula embryos (MBE)...
February 23, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230102/identification-of-a-new-virulent-clade-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o26-h11-h-sequence-type-29
#4
Nozomi Ishijima, Ken-Ichi Lee, Tomomi Kuwahara, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Saori Yoneda, Atsushi Iguchi, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Makoto Ohnishi, Sunao Iyoda
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26 infections cause severe human diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathy, and is the predominant serogroup among non-O157 EHEC in many countries. Shiga toxin (Stx), which consists of two distinct types (Stx1 and Stx2), plays a central role in EHEC pathogenesis. The major stx gene type in EHEC O26 strains is stx1, although isolates with only stx2 have emerged in Japan since 2012 and have been reported in Europe. In this study, we selected 27 EHEC O26 strains isolated in Japan and identified a distinct genetic clade within sequence type (ST) 29, designated ST29C1, that carried only stx2 and had the plasmid gene profile ehxA+/katP-/espP+/etpD-...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229498/bax-and-bcl-2-are-involved-in-the-apoptosis-induced-by-local-testicular-heating-in-the-boar-testis
#5
H Xi, X Fan, Z Zhang, Y Liang, Q Li, J He
The aim of this study was to determine whether the effect of Bax and Bcl-2 on the apoptosis of germ cells is caused by local testicular heating (42°C, 1 hr) in boar testis. The testes of three boars were exposed to 42°C for 1 hr. Three other boars were assigned as control (no heat treatment). After 6 hr of heat treatment, all boars were castrated and the testes were harvested. Immunohistochemical results showed that a redistribution of Bax was caused by heat stress, and Bcl-2 was expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus...
February 23, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229284/prolonged-growth-hormone-insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-nutrient-response-signaling-pathway-as-a-silent-killer-of-stem-cells-and-a-culprit-in-aging
#6
REVIEW
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Andrzej Bartke, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz
The dream of slowing down the aging process has always inspired mankind. Since stem cells are responsible for tissue and organ rejuvenation, it is logical that we should search for encoded mechanisms affecting life span in these cells. However, in adult life the hierarchy within the stem cell compartment is still not very well defined, and evidence has accumulated that adult tissues contain rare stem cells that possess a broad trans-germ layer differentiation potential. These most-primitive stem cells-those endowed with pluripotent or multipotent differentiation ability and that give rise to other cells more restricted in differentiation, known as tissue-committed stem cells (TCSCs) - are of particular interest...
February 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229263/exosomes-derived-from-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-accelerate-wound-healing-and-inhibit-scar-formation
#7
Bin Zhao, Yijie Zhang, Shichao Han, Wei Zhang, Qin Zhou, Hao Guan, Jiaqi Liu, Jihong Shi, Linlin Su, Dahai Hu
Wound healing is a highly orchestrated physiological process consisting of a complex events, and scarless wound healing is highly desired for the development and application in clinical medicine. Recently, we have demonstrated that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) promoted wound healing and inhibited scar formation through a paracrine mechanism. However, exosomes (Exo) are one of the most important paracrine factors. Whether exosomes derived from human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs-Exo) have positive effects on scarless wound healing have not been reported yet...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228901/primary-choriocarcinoma-of-the-bilateral-basal-ganglia-presenting-in-a-teenaged-male
#8
Brandon C Perry, Francisco A Perez, Jason N Nixon, Bonnie L Cole, Gisele Ishak
Primary intracranial choriocarcinoma (PICCC), a type of germ-cell tumor, is a very rare primary tumor of the central nervous system that generally arises in the pineal or suprasellar region. We present a case of a teenage boy with PICCC of the bilateral basal ganglia, an anatomic site for which we were unable to find the previous reports. We offer discussion of the differential diagnosis, imaging characteristics, and prognosis of PICCC and germ-cell tumors of the basal ganglia, in the hope that it will increase awareness and allow for early detection...
March 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228354/effect-of-tamoxifen-on-spermatogenesis-and-testicular-steroidogenesis
#9
Rachna Verma, Amitabh Krishna
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vivo and in vitro treatments with selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), tamoxifen on testicular functions. The testis treated with tamoxifen, in vivo or in vitro, showed dose-dependent regressive changes in spermatogenesis. This study showed that the decreased estrogenic effect due to tamoxifen may be directly responsible for decreased testicular expression of aromatase, which in turn may be responsible for decreased synthesis of estradiol in the testis...
February 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225069/testicular-dnmt3-expression-and-global-dna-methylation-are-down-regulated-by-gonadotropin-releasing-hormones-in-the-ricefield-eel-monopterus-albus
#10
Yize Zhang, Xin Sun, Lihong Zhang, Weimin Zhang
In vertebrates, DNA methyltransferase 3 (Dnmt3) homologues are responsible for de novo DNA methylation and play important roles in germ cell development. In the present study, four dnmt3 genes, dnmt3aa, dnmt3ab, dnmt3ba and dnmt3bb.1, were identified in ricefield eels. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that all four dnmt3 mRNAs were detected broadly in tissues examined, with testicular expression at relatively high levels. In the testis, immunostaining for all four Dnmt3 forms was mainly localized to spermatocytes, which also contained highly methylated DNA...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224044/mastl-is-essential-for-anaphase-entry-of-proliferating-primordial-germ-cells-and-establishment-of-female-germ-cells-in-mice
#11
Sanjiv Risal, Jingjing Zhang, Deepak Adhikari, Xiaoman Liu, Jingchen Shao, Mengwen Hu, Kiran Busayavalasa, Zhaowei Tu, Zijiang Chen, Philipp Kaldis, Kui Liu
In mammals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic cell population that serve as germ cell precursors in both females and males. During mouse embryonic development, the majority of PGCs are arrested at the G2 phase when they migrate into the hindgut at 7.75-8.75 dpc (days post coitum). It is after 9.5 dpc that the PGCs undergo proliferation with a doubling time of 12.6 h. The molecular mechanisms underlying PGC proliferation are however not well studied. In this work. Here we studied how MASTL (microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase-like)/Greatwall kinase regulates the rapid proliferation of PGCs...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222996/stereotactic-radiation-therapy-for-residual-chemorefractory-primary-mediastinal-non-seminomatous-germ-cell-tumor-after-surgical-thoracotomy
#12
Philippe Laflamme, Cédric Doucet, Christian Sirois, Neil Kopek, Marie Vanhuyse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222406/leydig-cell-clustering-and-reinke-crystal-distribution-in-relation-to-hormonal-function-in-adult-patients-with-testicular-dysgenesis-syndrome-tds-including-cryptorchidism
#13
Rikke R Soerensen, Trine H Johannsen, Niels E Skakkebaek, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts
OBJECTIVE: Testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) comprises testicular germ cell cancer, cryptorchidism and some cases of male infertility and hypospadias, which can be linked to impairment of intrauterine gonadal development. Among histological signs of TDS, large Leydig cell (LC) clusters (micronodules) are frequently present. This study aimed to investigate possible associations of LC micronodules with the presence of Reinke crystals and hormonal function of LCs, the latter primarily reflected by serum concentrations of luteinising hormone (LH) and testosterone, in patients with TDS...
October 2016: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222195/autoantibodies-against-mono-and-tri-methylated-lysine-display-similar-but-also-distinctive-characteristics
#14
Zhiqiang Wang, Younan Ma, Fan Liu, Linjie Chen, Ruitong Gao, Wei Zhang
Autoantibodies can be either harmful or beneficial to the body. The beneficial autoantibodies play important roles in immunosurveillance, clearance of body waste and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Despite their importance, however, people's knowledge on the protective autoantibodies is still very limited. In the current study, we examined two autoantibodies that recognized epitopes with only one amino acid. One was against mono-methylated lysine (Kme) and the other was against tri-methylated lysine (Kme3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222099/morphological-study-of-tooth-development-in-podoplanin-deficient-mice
#15
Kenyo Takara, Naoki Maruo, Kyoko Oka, Chiaki Kaji, Yuji Hatakeyama, Naruhiko Sawa, Yukinari Kato, Junro Yamashita, Hiroshi Kojima, Yoshihiko Sawa
Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220481/does-max-open-up-a-new-avenue-for-meiotic-research
#16
REVIEW
Ayumu Suzuki, Masataka Hirasaki, Akihiko Okuda
Meiosis is a central event of sexual reproduction. Like somatic cells, germ cells conduct mitosis to increase their cell number, but unlike somatic cells, germ cells switch their cell division mode from mitosis to meiosis at a certain point in gametogenesis. However, the molecular basis of this switch remains elusive. In this review article, we give an overview of the onset of mammalian meiosis, including our recent finding that MYC Associated Factor X (MAX) prevents ectopic and precocious meiosis in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and germ cells, respectively...
February 20, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220447/current-management-of-refractory-germ-cell-tumors-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
J Clayton Allen, Austin Kirschner, Kristen R Scarpato, Alicia K Morgans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review current management strategies for patients with relapsed and refractory germ cell tumors (GCTs), defined as relapsed or persistent disease following at least one line of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Additionally, we discuss future directions in the management of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies involving targeted therapies have been disappointing. Nevertheless, studies of the management of refractory germ cell cancer are ongoing, with a focus on optimal utilization of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant, as well as the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in refractory germ cell tumors...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219778/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-multifunctional-placenta-specific-protein-8-in-dugesia-japonica
#18
Qiuxiang Pang, Lili Gao, Yun Bai, Hongkuan Deng, Yu Han, Wenjing Hu, Yanhui Zhang, Shanhang Yuan, Wenping Sun, Yiqian Lu, Xiufang Zhang, Baohua Liu, Bosheng Zhao
Placenta specific protein 8 (Plac8) has been well studied in vertebrates, yet little is known in invertebrates. In this study, a novel Plac8 from the planarian Dugesia japonica was identified and its functions in immune responses and development were characterized. Our results show that Djplac8 was expressed in the pharynx, epidermis and intestine of intact adult planarian. The expression of DjPlac8 increased significantly upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, and inhibited the growth of the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), suggesting the role of Plac8 in immune response...
February 17, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219352/retinoic-acid-promotes-expression-of-germline-specific-genes-in-chicken-blastoderm-cells-by-stimulating-smad1-5-phosphorylation-in-a-feeder-free-culture-system
#19
Xiaochuan Tang, Shiyong Xu, Hongpeng Zhang, Qing Chen, Rongyang Li, Wangjun Wu, Minli Yu, Honglin Liu
BACKGROUND: Producing transgenic chickens with chicken blastodermal cells (cBCs) is inefficient due to the extremely low germline transmission capacity of cBCs. As chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) have been reported as an efficient method for producing transgenic chickens, the inefficiency of cBCs could potentially be resolved by inducing them to differentiate into germ cells. However, whether chemical inducers are able to enhance cBCs germline competence in vitro is unknown and the molecular mechanisms of differentiation of chicken pluripotent cells into germ cells are poorly understood...
February 20, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218996/hypoxia-stimulated-membrane-trafficking-requires-t-plastin
#20
Marieke Wottawa, Stephanie Naas, Johannes Böttger, Gijsbert J van Belle, Wiebke Möbius, Natalia H Revelo, Doris Heidenreich, Melanie von Ahlen, Anke Zieseniss, Katharina Kröhnert, Susanne Lutz, Christof Lenz, Henning Urlaub, Silvio O Rizzoli, Dörthe M Katschinski
Traffic between the plasma membrane and the endomembrane compartments is an essential feature of eukaryotic cells. The secretory pathway sends cargoes from biosynthetic compartments to the plasma membrane. This is counterbalanced by a retrograde endocytotic route and is essential for cell homeostasis. Cells need to adapt rapidly to environmental challenges like the reduction of pO2 which, however, has not been analyzed in relation to membrane trafficking in detail. Therefore we determined changes in the plasma membrane trafficking in normoxia, hypoxia, and after reoxygenation METHODS: Membrane trafficking was analyzed by using the bulk membrane endocytosis marker FM 1-43, the newly developed membrane probe mCLING, wheat germ agglutinin as well as fluorescently labeled choleratoxin subunit B...
February 20, 2017: Acta Physiologica
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