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Cellular theory

J H Geesink, D K F Meijer
Solitons, as self-reinforcing solitary waves, interact with complex biological phenomena such as cellular self-organization. A soliton model is able to describe a spectrum of electromagnetism modalities that can be applied to understand the physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by endogenous and exogenous electromagnetic fields and is compatible with quantum coherence. A bio-soliton model is proposed, that enables to predict which eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and which are, in contrast, detrimental for living cells...
2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
Marc Mason Himmelberg, Ryan J H West, Christopher J H Elliott, Alex R Wade
The excitotoxic theory of Parkinson's disease (PD) hypothesises that a pathophysiological degeneration of dopaminergic neurons stems from neural hyperactivity at early stages of disease, leading to mitochondrial stress and cell death. Recent research has harnessed the visual system of Drosophila PD models to probe this hypothesis. Here, we investigate whether abnormal visual sensitivity and excitotoxicity occur in early-onset PD Drosophila models DJ-1Δ72, DJ1-Δ93, and PINK15. We used an electroretinogram to record steady state visually evoked potentials driven by temporal contrast stimuli...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Qiuhong Zhang, Sanjana Gupta, David L Schipper, Gabriel J Kowalczyk, Allison E Mancini, James R Faeder, Robin E C Lee
Although cytokine-dependent dynamics of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) are known to encode information that regulates cell fate decisions, it is unclear whether single-cell responses are switch-like or encode more information about cytokine dose. Here, we measure the dynamic subcellular localization of NF-κB in response to a range of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) stimulation conditions to determine the prevailing mechanism of single-cell dose discrimination. Using an information theory formalism that accounts for signaling dynamics and non-responsive cell subpopulations, we find that the information transmission capacity of single cells exceeds that predicted from a switch-like response...
November 7, 2017: Cell Systems
Patrícia Ramos, Marcos Schmitz, Sibele Gama, Aline Portantiolo, Michael Gonzalez Durruthy, Ana Paula de Souza Votto, Luisa Rodrigues Cornetet, Karina Dos Santos Machado, Adriano Wehrli, Mariana Zancan Tonel, Solange Binotto Fagan, João Sarkis Yunes, José Maria Monserrat
Saxitoxins (STXs) are potent neurotoxins that block voltage-gated channels in neurons and induce cytotoxicity. These toxins not only can generate reactive oxygen species but also can alter antioxidant levels, promoting oxidative stress. Under this pro-oxidant situation, the use of the antioxidant lipoic acid (LA) can represent a chemoprotective alternative to minimize the deleterious effects induced by neurotoxins as STXs. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a well-known ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that plays a crucial role in the extrusion of toxic substances, decreasing their accumulation and potential intracellular effects in virtue of its broad substrate specificity, its expression in many excretory tissues and its large efflux capacity...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology
Hashim Islam, Brittany A Edgett, Brendon J Gurd
The transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is proposed to coordinate skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis through the integrated induction of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded gene transcription. This paradigm is based largely on experiments demonstrating PGC-1α's ability to co-activate various nuclear transcription factors that increase the expression of mitochondrial genes, as well PGC-1α's direct interaction with mitochondrial transcription factor A within mitochondria to increase the transcription of mitochondrial DNA...
November 7, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
W B Sherwin, A Chao, L Jost, P E Smouse
Information or entropy analysis of diversity is used extensively in community ecology, and has recently been exploited for prediction and analysis in molecular ecology and evolution. Information measures belong to a spectrum (or q profile) of measures whose contrasting properties provide a rich summary of diversity, including allelic richness (q=0), Shannon information (q=1), and heterozygosity (q=2). We present the merits of information measures for describing and forecasting molecular variation within and among groups, comparing forecasts with data, and evaluating underlying processes such as dispersal...
December 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Gaowei Wang, Ruoshi Yuan, Xiaomei Zhu, Ping Ao
In light of ever apparent limitation of the current dominant cancer mutation theory, a quantitative hypothesis for cancer genesis and progression, endogenous molecular-cellular network hypothesis has been proposed from the systems biology perspective, now for more than 10 years. It was intended to include both the genetic and epigenetic causes to understand cancer. Its development enters the stage of meaningful interaction with experimental and clinical data and the limitation of the traditional cancer mutation theory becomes more evident...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Michael G Cortes, Jimmy T Trinh, Lanying Zeng, Gábor Balázsi
Gene regulatory networks are largely responsible for cellular decision-making. These networks sense diverse external signals and respond by adjusting gene expression, enabling cells to reach environment-dependent decisions crucial for their survival or reproduction. However, information-carrying signals may arrive at variable times. Besides the intrinsic strength of these signals, their arrival time (timing) may also carry information about the environment and can influence cellular decision-making in ways that are poorly understood...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Milka Doktorova, Frederick A Heberle, Richard L Kingston, George Khelashvili, Michel A Cuendet, Yi Wen, John Katsaras, Gerald W Feigenson, Volker M Vogt, Robert A Dick
Binding of the retroviral structural protein Gag to the cellular plasma membrane is mediated by the protein's matrix (MA) domain. Prominent among MA-PM interactions is electrostatic attraction between the positively charged MA domain and the negatively charged plasma membrane inner leaflet. Previously, we reported that membrane association of HIV-1 Gag, as well as purified Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) MA and Gag, depends strongly on the presence of acidic lipids and is enhanced by cholesterol (Chol). The mechanism underlying this enhancement was unclear...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Michal W Zielinski, Locksley E McGann, John A Nychka, Janet A W Elliott
The prediction of nonideal chemical potentials in aqueous solutions is important in fields such as cryobiology, where models of water and solute transport-that is, osmotic transport-are used to help develop cryopreservation protocols and where solutions contain many varied solutes and are generally highly concentrated and thus thermodynamically nonideal. In this work, we further the development of a nonideal multisolute solution theory that has found application across a broad range of aqueous systems. This theory is based on the osmotic virial equation and does not depend on multisolute data...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Gang Zhou, Olivier Latchoumanin, Mary Bagdesar, Lionel Hebbard, Wei Duan, Christopher Liddle, Jacob George, Liang Qiao
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be a principal cellular source for tumour progression and therapeutic drug resistance as they are capable of self-renewal and can differentiate into cancer cells. Importantly, CSCs acquire the ability to evade the killing effects of cytotoxic agents through changes at the genetic, epigenetic and micro-environment levels. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting CSCs hold great potential as an avenue for cancer treatment. Aptamers or "chemical antibodies" are a group of single-stranded nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) oligonucleotides with distinctive properties such as smaller size, lower toxicity and less immunogenicity compared to conventional antibodies...
2017: Theranostics
Catpagavalli Asokanathan, Sharon Tierney, Christina R Ball, George Buckle, Ami Day, Simon Tanley, Adrian Bristow, Kevin Markey, Dorothy Xing, Chun-Ting Yuen
ADP-ribosyltransferase activities have been observed in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic species and viruses and are involved in many cellular processes, including cell signalling, DNA repair, gene regulation and apoptosis. In a number of bacterial toxins, mono ADP-ribosyltransferase is the main cause of host cell cytotoxicity. Several approaches have been used to analyse this biological system from measuring its enzyme products to its functions. By using a mono ADP-ribose binding protein we have now developed an ELISA method to estimate native pertussis toxin mono ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and its residual activities in pertussis vaccines as an example...
November 8, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Weiyuan Ma, Changpin Li, Yujiang Wu, Yongqing Wu
In this paper, we introduce fuzzy theory into the fractional cellular neural networks to dynamically enhance the coupling strength and propose a fractional fuzzy neural network model with interactions. Using the Lyapunov principle of fractional differential equations, we design the adaptive control schemes to realize the synchronization and obtain the synchronization criteria. Finally, we provide some numerical examples to show the effectiveness of our obtained results.
October 2017: Chaos
Elisabeth C Caparelli, Thomas J Ross, Hong Gu, Xia Liang, Elliot A Stein, Yihong Yang
Similarities on the cellular and neurochemical composition of the amygdaloid subnuclei suggests their clustering into subunits that exhibit unique functional organization. The topological principle of community structure has been used to identify functional subnetworks in neuroimaging data that reflect the brain effective organization. Here we used modularity to investigate the organization of the amygdala using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data. Our goal was to determine whether such topological organization would reliably reflect the known neurobiology of individual amygdaloid nuclei, allowing for human imaging studies to accurately reflect the underlying neurobiology...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jiaji Li, Qian Chen, Jialin Zhang, Yan Zhang, Linpeng Lu, Chao Zuo
In this work, we present an efficient quantitative phase imaging (QPI) approach using programmable annular LED illumination. As a new type of coded light source, the LED array provides flexible illumination control for noninterferometric QPI based on a traditional microscopic configurations. The proposed method modulates the transfer function of system by changing the LED illumination pattern, which provides noise-robust response of transfer function and achieves twice resolution limit of objective NA. The quantitative phase can be recovered from slightly defocused intensity images through inversion of transfer function...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Oscar F Aguilar Gutierrez, Alejandro D Rey
In vitro non-equilibrium chiral phase ordering processes of biomacromolecular solutions offer a systematic and reproducible way of generating material architectures found in Nature, such as biological plywoods. Accelerated progress in biomimetic engineering of mesoscopic plywoods and other fibrous structures requires a fundamental understanding of processing and transport principles. In this work we focus on collagen I based materials and structures to find processing conditions that lead to defect-free collagen films displaying the helicoidal plywood architecture...
November 15, 2017: Soft Matter
Dan Strehle, Paul Mollenkopf, Martin Glaser, Tom Golde, Carsten Schuldt, Josef A Käs, Jörg Schnauß
Bundled actin structures play an essential role in the mechanical response of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Although responsible for crucial cellular processes, they are rarely investigated in comparison to single filaments and isotropic networks. Presenting a highly anisotropic structure, the determination of the mechanical properties of individual bundles was previously achieved through passive approaches observing bending deformations induced by thermal fluctuations. We present a new method to determine the bending stiffness of individual bundles, by measuring the decay of an actively induced oscillation...
October 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xu Chen, Shanshan Zhang, Jifang Huang, Wanying Dong, Hui Xiao, Huanjie Shao, Jinke Cheng, Hongmei Wu, Yitao Qi
The physiological characteristics of rat and murine hippocampal neurons are widely studied, especially because of the involvement of the hippocampus in learning, memory, and neurological functions. Primary cultures of hippocampal neurons are commonly used to discover cellular and molecular mechanisms in neurobiology. By isolating and culturing individual hippocampal neurons, neuroscientists are able to investigate the activity of neurons at the individual cell and single synapse level, and to analyze properties related to cellular structure, cellular trafficking, and individual protein subcellular localization or protein-protein interaction using a variety of biochemical techniques...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Haifeng Ye, Tuochen Zheng, Wei Li, Xiaoyan Li, Xinxin Fu, Yaoqi Huang, Chuan Hu, Jia Li, Jian Huang, Zhengyv Liu, Liping Zheng, Yuehui Zheng
The fixed primordial follicles pool theory, which monopolized reproductive medicine for more than one hundred years, has been broken by the discovery, successful isolation and establishment of ovarian stem cells. It has brought more hope than ever of increasing the size of primordial follicle pool, improving ovarian function and delaying ovarian consenescence. Traditional view holds that stem cell aging contributes to the senility of body and organs. However, in the process of ovarian aging, the main factor leading to the decline of the reproductive function is the aging and degradation of ovarian stem cell nests, rather than the senescence of ovarian germ cells themselves...
October 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Edward J Hancock, Jordan Ang, Antonis Papachristodoulou, Guy-Bart Stan
Buffering, the use of reservoirs of molecules to maintain concentrations of key molecular species, and negative feedback are the primary known mechanisms for robust homeostatic regulation. To our knowledge, however, the fundamental principles behind their combined effect have not been elucidated. Here, we study the interplay between buffering and negative feedback in the context of cellular homeostasis. We show that negative feedback counteracts slow-changing disturbances, whereas buffering counteracts fast-changing disturbances...
October 18, 2017: Cell Systems
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