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Cellular theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792817/macroscopic-theory-for-evolving-biological-systems-akin-to-thermodynamics
#1
Kunihiko Kaneko, Chikara Furusawa
We present a macroscopic theory to characterize the plasticity, robustness, and evolvability of biological responses and their fluctuations. First, linear approximation in intracellular reaction dynamics is used to demonstrate proportional changes in the expression of all cellular components in response to a given environmental stress, with the proportion coefficient determined by the change in growth rate as a consequence of the steady growth of cells. We further demonstrate that this relationship is supported through adaptation experiments of bacteria, perhaps too well as this proportionality is held even across cultures of different types of conditions...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790601/a-method-for-partitioning-the-information-contained-in-a-protein-sequence-between-its-structure-and-function
#2
Andrea Possenti, Michele Vendruscolo, Carlo Camilloni, Guido Tiana
Proteins employ the information stored in the genetic code and translated into their sequences to carry out well-defined functions in the cellular environment. The possibility to encode for such functions is controlled by the balance between the amount of information supplied by the sequence and that left after that the protein has folded into its structure. We study the amount of information necessary to specify the protein structure, providing an estimate that keeps into account the thermodynamic properties of protein folding...
May 23, 2018: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768636/water-related-mechanisms-proposed-for-storing-and-transmitting-homeopathic-information-putative-links-with-biological-responses
#3
José Roberto Pereira Guedes, Leoni Villano Bonamin, Vera Luiza Capelozzi
INTRODUCTION:  There are two critical pillars of homeopathy that contrast with the dominant scientific approach: the similitude principle and the potentization of serial dilutions. Three main hypotheses about the mechanisms of action are in discussion: nanobubbles-related hormesis; vehicle-related electric resonance; and quantum non-locality. OBJECTIVES:  The aim of this paper is to review and discuss some key points of such properties: the imprint of supramolecular structures based on the nanoparticle-allostatic, cross-adaptation-sensitization (NPCAS) model; the theory of non-molecular electromagnetic transfer of information, based on the coherent water domains model, and relying (like the NPCAS model) on the idea of local interactions; and the hypothesis of quantum entanglement, based on the concept of non-locality...
May 16, 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768047/glucocorticoid-activated-ire1%C3%AE-xbp-1s-signaling-an-autophagy-associated-protective-pathway-against-endotheliocyte-damage
#4
Yanchun Gao, Hongyi Zhu, Fan Yang, Qiyang Wang, Yong Feng, Changqing Zhang
Glucocorticoid-induced endothelial injury has been reported in several diseases. Although there are several theories, the exact mechanism underlying the role of glucocorticoids in this process remains unclear. Autophagy has been reported to occur as a response to different stimuli and can affect cell survival and function. In this study, we found that glucocorticoids induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endotheliocytes. Furthermore, we discovered that glucocorticoids induced autophagy in these cells and the inositol requiring protein 1 (IRE1α)/X-box binding protein 1s (XBP-1s) axis, one of the downstream signaling pathways of ER stress, was associated with the glucocorticoid-induced autophagy...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760781/understanding-aneuploidy-in-cancer-through-the-lens-of-system-inheritance-fuzzy-inheritance-and-emergence-of-new-genome-systems
#5
REVIEW
Christine J Ye, Sarah Regan, Guo Liu, Sarah Alemara, Henry H Heng
Background: In the past 15 years, impressive progress has been made to understand the molecular mechanism behind aneuploidy, largely due to the effort of using various -omics approaches to study model systems (e.g. yeast and mouse models) and patient samples, as well as the new realization that chromosome alteration-mediated genome instability plays the key role in cancer. As the molecular characterization of the causes and effects of aneuploidy progresses, the search for the general mechanism of how aneuploidy contributes to cancer becomes increasingly challenging: since aneuploidy can be linked to diverse molecular pathways (in regards to both cause and effect), the chances of it being cancerous is highly context-dependent, making it more difficult to study than individual molecular mechanisms...
2018: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749540/personalized-regulation-of-glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells-based-on-biomedical-technologies-from-theory-to-experiment-review
#6
Igor Bryukhovetskiy, Arina Ponomarenko, Irina Lyakhova, Sergey Zaitsev, Yulia Zayats, Maria Korneyko, Marina Eliseikina, Polina Mischenko, Valerie Shevchenko, Hari Shanker Sharma, Aruna Sharma, Yuri Khotimchenko
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive brain tumors. GBM represents >50% of primary tumors of the nervous system and ~20% of intracranial neoplasms. Standard treatment involves surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, the prognosis of GBM is usually poor, with a median survival of 15 months. Resistance of GBM to treatment can be explained by the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) among the GBM cell population. At present, there are no effective therapeutic strategies for the elimination of CSCs...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748677/effect-of-iron-doping-on-protein-molecular-conductance
#7
Nikolai Lebedev, Igor Griva, Anders Blom, Leonard M Tender
Protein molecular conductance has attracted attention from researchers for the possibility of constructing innovative flexible biocompatible nanoscale electronic devices and smart hybrid materials. Due to protein complexity, most evaluations of protein conductivity are based on the simple estimation of protein's molecular orbital energy levels and spatial distributions without analysing its protein interaction with electrodes and the calculation of the rates of electron transfer (ET). In the present work, we included in our density functional theory (DFT) analysis an approach based on the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) allowing for calculation from the first principles the molecular interaction with electrodes and thus the role of electrode materials, Fermi level, the thermal distribution of electronic energy levels, and the coupling efficiency between the molecule and the electrodes...
May 11, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746849/characterisation-of-re-entrant-circuit-or-rotational-activity-in-vitro-using-the-hl1-6-myocyte-cell-line
#8
Charles Houston, Konstantinos N Tzortzis, Caroline Roney, Andrea Saglietto, David S Pitcher, Chris Cantwell, Rasheda A Chowdhury, Fu Siong Ng, Nicholas S Peters, Emmanuel Dupont
Fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia observed in clinical practice. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying its initiation and maintenance remains incomplete. Functional re-entries are potential drivers of the arrhythmia. Two main concepts are still debated, the "leading circle" and the "spiral wave or rotor" theories. The homogeneous subclone of the HL1 atrial-derived cardiomyocyte cell line, HL1-6, spontaneously exhibits re-entry on a microscopic scale due to its slow conduction velocity and the presence of triggers, making it possible to examine re-entry at the cellular level...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745903/system-based-strategies-for-p53-recovery
#9
Muhammad Rizwan Azam, Sahar Fazal, Mukhtar Ullah, Aamer I Bhatti
The authors have proposed a systems theory-based novel drug design approach for the p53 pathway. The pathway is taken as a dynamic system represented by ordinary differential equations-based mathematical model. Using control engineering practices, the system analysis and subsequent controller design is performed for the re-activation of wild-type p53. p53 revival is discussed for both modes of operation, i.e. the sustained and oscillatory. To define the problem in control system paradigm, modification in the existing mathematical model is performed to incorporate the effect of Nutlin...
June 2018: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738099/contrasting-duplication-patterns-reflect-functional-diversities-of-ubiquitin-and-ubiquitin-like-protein-modifiers-in-plants
#10
Zhihua Hua, Paymon Doroodian, William Vu
Ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like proteins, collectively forming the ubiquiton family, regulate nearly all aspects of cellular processes via posttranslational modifications. Studies devoted to specific members suggested a large expansion of this family in plants. However, lack of its systematic analysis hinders the comparison of individual members at both evolutionary history and functional divergence levels, which may provide new insight into biological functions. In this work, we first retrieved in total 5,856 members of 17 known ubiquiton subfamilies in 50 plant genomes by searching both prior annotations and missing loci in each genome...
May 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736183/universality-of-clone-dynamics-during-tissue-development
#11
Steffen Rulands, Fabienne Lescroart, Samira Chabab, Christopher J Hindley, Nicole Prior, Magdalena K Sznurkowska, Meritxell Huch, Anna Philpott, Cedric Blanpain, Benjamin D Simons
The emergence of complex organs is driven by the coordinated proliferation, migration and differentiation of precursor cells. The fate behaviour of these cells is reflected in the time evolution their progeny, termed clones, which serve as a key experimental observable. In adult tissues, where cell dynamics is constrained by the condition of homeostasis, clonal tracing studies based on transgenic animal models have advanced our understanding of cell fate behaviour and its dysregulation in disease (1, 2). But what can be learned from clonal dynamics in development, where the spatial cohesiveness of clones is impaired by tissue deformations during tissue growth? Drawing on the results of clonal tracing studies, we show that, despite the complexity of organ development, clonal dynamics may converge to a critical state characterized by universal scaling behaviour of clone sizes...
May 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722534/role-of-seroalbumin-in-the-cytotoxicity-of-cis-dichloro-pt-ii-complexes-with-n-n-donor-ligands-bearing-functionalized-tails
#12
Cristina Pérez-Arnaiz, Jorge Leal, Natalia Busto, María C Carrión, Ana R Rubio, Imanol Ortiz, Giampaolo Barone, Borja Díaz de Greñu, Javier Santolaya, José M Leal, Mónica Vaquero, Félix A Jalón, Blanca R Manzano, Begoña García
Given the potent anticancer properties of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) and knowing its mode of action, we synthesized four new cis-[PtCl2 (N^N)] organoplatinum complexes, two with N-substituted pbi ligands (pbiR = 1-R-2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole) (namely, 1 and 2) and two more with 4,4'-disubstituted bpy ligands (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) (namely, 3 and 4). We explored their cytotoxicity and ability to bind to deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP), DNA, and albumin models. By 1 H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, circular dichroism, agarose gel electrophoresis, differential scanning calorimetry measurements, and density functional theory calculations, we verified that only 3 can form aquacomplex species after dimethyl sulfoxide solvation; surprisingly, 1, 2, and 3 can bind covalently to DNA, whereas 4 can form a noncovalent complex...
May 3, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721582/darunavir-concentration-in-pbmcs-may-be-a-better-indicator-of-drug-exposure-in-hiv-patients
#13
Daisuke Nagano, Takuya Araki, Kunio Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki Ogawa, Fumito Gohda, Hideki Uchiumi, Hiroshi Handa, Tomonori Nakamura, Koujirou Yamamoto
PURPOSE: The clinical efficacies of some antiretroviral drugs are known to not depend on its concentration in blood. To establish a method of dosage adjustment for darunavir (DRV) based on pharmacokinetic theory, we analyzed the correlation between DRV levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma. METHODS: The concentrations of DRV and ritonavir (RTV) in plasma and PBMCs of 31 samples obtained from 19 patients were analyzed. An in vitro kinetic study using MOLT-4 cells was performed to assess the contribution of RTV to the intracellular accumulation of DRV...
May 2, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710717/behavioral-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Nicole Cortés, Víctor Andrade, Ricardo B Maccioni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent type of dementia in the elderly, severely affecting functional and executive skills of subjects suffering from this disease. Moreover, the distress of caregivers as well as the social implications constitute a critical issue for families. Furthermore, cognitive impairment, along with behavioral disorders and neuropsychiatric symptoms are characteristics of AD. Although these are present with variations in prevalence, intensity, and progression, an important core of them is visible before cognitive impairment, especially depression and apathy, which affect at least 50% of patients...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700012/cellular-kinetics-of-med12-mutant-uterine-leiomyoma-growth-and-regression-in-vivo
#15
Vanida Ann Serna, Xin Wu, Wenan Qiang, Justin Thomas, Michael Blumenfeld, Takeshi Kurita
Cellular mechanisms of uterine leiomyoma (LM) formation have been studied primarily utilizing in vitro models. However, recent studies established that the cells growing in the primary cultures of MED12 mutant LM (MED12-LM) do not carry causal mutations. To improve the accuracy of LM research, we addressed the cellular mechanisms of LM growth and regression utilizing a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model, which faithfully replicates the patient tumors in situ. The growth and maintenance of MED12-LMs depend on 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4)...
April 26, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697054/incorporating-drug-delivery-into-an-imaging-driven-mechanics-coupled-reaction-diffusion-model-for-predicting-the-response-of-breast-cancer-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-theory-and-preliminary-clinical-results
#16
Angela M Jarrett, David A Hormuth Ii, Stephanie L Barnes, Xinzeng Feng, Wei Huang, Thomas E Yankeelov
Clinical methods for assessing tumor response to therapy are largely rudimentary, monitoring only temporal changes in tumor size. Our goal is to predict the response of breast tumors to therapy using a mathematical model that utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data obtained non-invasively from individual patients. We extended a previously established, mechanically coupled, reaction-diffusion model for predicting tumor response initialized with patient-specific diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI) data by including the effects of chemotherapy drug delivery, which is estimated using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI data...
April 26, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691871/a-theoretical-model-of-resilience-capacity-drawn-from-the-words-of-adult-children-of-alcoholics
#17
Sihyun Park, Karen G Schepp
BACKGROUND: Resilience can be defined as exhibiting positive outcomes after serious threats to one's adaptation or development. AIMS: This study aimed to suggest a theoretical model of resilience capacity by validating and extending one of the existing nursing theories of resilience-the society-to-cell model developed by Szanton and Gill. To do so, we conducted a qualitative study exploring the factors and conditions influencing adaptation in children of alcoholics (i...
April 25, 2018: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687041/meta-inflammation-and-cardiometabolic-disease-in-obesity-can-heat-therapy-help
#18
REVIEW
Brett R Ely, Zachary S Clayton, Carrie E McCurdy, Joshua Pfeiffer, Christopher T Minson
Obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The current theory linking metabolic disease and obesity involves ischemic adipose tissue initiating an inflammatory cascade that results in systemic insulin resistance and may eventually lead to type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetes and associated metabolic dysfunction increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and fatal cardiovascular events. By targeting key steps in this process, ischemia and inflammation, this cascade may be prevented or reversed and thus metabolic and cardiovascular health may be preserved in obesity...
2018: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684167/reproduction-in-domestic-ruminants-during-the-past-50-years-discovery-to-application
#19
Michael F Smith, Rodney D Geisert, John J Parrish
The study of reproductive physiology in domestic ruminants has progressed from the whole animal to the molecular level in an amazingly short period of time. The volume of information on this subject is enormous; therefore, we have focused on domestic ruminants, with an emphasis on cattle. To date, artificial insemination (AI) is perhaps the most powerful technique that reproductive physiologists and geneticists have provided the livestock industry for genetic improvement. Early efforts to establish AI as a tool were initiated in Russia around 1899 and since that time major advances in methods of semen collection, evaluation of male fertility, cryopreservation of sperm, sex-sorted semen, and estrous cycle control have occurred...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679977/ab-initio-characterization-of-coupling-strength-for-all-types-of-dangling-bond-pairs-on-the-hydrogen-terminated-si-100-2-%C3%A3-1-surface
#20
Zahra Shaterzadeh-Yazdi, Barry C Sanders, Gino A DiLabio
Recent work has suggested that coupled silicon dangling bonds sharing an excess electron may serve as building blocks for quantum-cellular-automata cells and quantum computing schemes when constructed on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces. In this work, we employ ab initio density-functional theory to examine the details associated with the coupling between two dangling bonds sharing one excess electron and arranged in various configurations on models of phosphorous-doped hydrogen-terminated silicon (100) surfaces...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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