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Cellular theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327719/the-histomorphological-spectrum-of-restrictive-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-and-implications-for-prognosis
#1
Jan H von der Thüsen, Elly Vandermeulen, Robin Vos, Birgit Weynand, Erik K Verbeken, Stijn E Verleden
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction continues to be the main contributor to poor long-term allograft survival after lung transplantation. The restrictive phenotype of chronic lung allograft dysfunction carries a particularly poor prognosis. Little is known about the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction. In this study, we performed histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis of restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction lungs. Explant lung tissue from 21 restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction patients was collected and histopathologic patterns of rejection, fibrosis and vascular changes were scored after routine histochemical stains and additional immunohistochemistry for endothelial markers and C4d...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327490/fetal-subcutaneous-cells-have-potential-for-autologous-tissue-engineering
#2
Åsa Ekblad, Magnus Westgren, Magdalena Fossum, Cecilia Götherström
BACKGROUND: Major congenital malformations affect up to 3% of newborns. Infants with prenatally diagnosed soft tissue defects should benefit from having autologous tissue readily available for surgical implantation in the perinatal period. In this study, we investigate fetal subcutaneous cells (fSC) as cellular source for tissue engineering. METHODS: Fetal subcutaneous biopsies were collected from elective terminations at gestational week 20-21. Cells were isolated, expanded and characterized in vitro...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319080/process-morphology-scaling-relations-quantify-self-organization-in-capillary-densified-nanofiber-arrays
#3
Ashley L Kaiser, Itai Y Stein, Kehang Cui, Brian L Wardle
Capillary-mediated densification is an inexpensive and versatile approach to tune the application-specific properties and packing morphology of bulk nanofiber (NF) arrays, such as aligned carbon nanotubes. While NF length governs elasto-capillary self-assembly, the geometry of cellular patterns formed by capillary densified NFs cannot be precisely predicted by existing theories. This originates from the recently quantified orders of magnitude lower than expected NF array effective axial elastic modulus (E), and here we show via parametric experimentation and modeling that E determines the width, area, and wall thickness of the resulting cellular pattern...
January 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317061/modelling-information-flow-along-the-human-connectome-using-maximum-flow
#4
Youngwook Lyoo, Jieun E Kim, Sujung Yoon
The human connectome is a complex network that transmits information between interlinked brain regions. Using graph theory, previously well-known network measures of integration between brain regions have been constructed under the key assumption that information flows strictly along the shortest paths possible between two nodes. However, it is now apparent that information does flow through non-shortest paths in many real-world networks such as cellular networks, social networks, and the internet. In the current hypothesis, we present a novel framework using the maximum flow to quantify information flow along all possible paths within the brain, so as to implement an analogy to network traffic...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305106/diabetic-nephropathy-is-there-a-role-for-oxidative-stress
#5
REVIEW
Manpreet K Sagoo, Luigi Gnudi
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Studies in experimental animal models of diabetes strongly implicate oxidant species as a major determinant in the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease. The translation, in the clinical setting, of these concepts have been quite disappointing, and new theories have challenged the concepts that oxidative stress per se plays a role in the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease. The concept of mitochondrial hormesis has been introduced to explain this apparent disconnect...
January 2, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302578/epigenomic-hard-drive-imprinting-a-hidden-code-beyond-the-biological-death-of-cancer-patients
#6
REVIEW
Pritish Nilendu, Nilesh Kumar Sharma
Several genetic and epigenetic theories have been suggested to explain the intricacies of life and death. However, several questions remain unsettled regarding cellular death events, particularly of living tissue in the case of cancer patients, such as the fate and adaptation of cancer cells after biological death. It is possible that cancer cells can display the intent to communicate with the external environment after biological death by means of molecular, genetic, and epigenetic pathways. Whether these cancer cells contain special information in the form of coding that may help them survive beyond the biological death of cancer patients is unknown...
December 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296224/dormant-glioblastoma-cells-acquire-stem-cell-characteristics-and-are-differentially-affected-by-temozolomide-and-at101-treatment
#7
Vivian Adamski, Annika Hempelmann, Charlotte Flüh, Ralph Lucius, Michael Synowitz, Kirsten Hattermann, Janka Held-Feindt
Cellular dormancy is defined as a state in which cells enter quiescence driven by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, and striking parallels exist between the concept of cellular dormancy in malignancies and the cancer stem cell theory. We showed now that the proven dormancy markers insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5, ephrin receptor A5 and histone cluster 1 H2B family member K were expressed in human glioblastomas in situ, were located in single tumor cells, and could be co-stained with each other and with the stem cell markers krüppel-like factor 4, octamer binding transcription factor 4 and sex determining region Y-box 2...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295934/computational-modeling-of-three-dimensional-ecm-rigidity-sensing-to-guide-directed-cell-migration
#8
Min-Cheol Kim, Yaron R Silberberg, Rohan Abeyaratne, Roger D Kamm, H Harry Asada
Filopodia have a key role in sensing both chemical and mechanical cues in surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). However, quantitative understanding is still missing in the filopodial mechanosensing of local ECM stiffness, resulting from dynamic interactions between filopodia and the surrounding 3D ECM fibers. Here we present a method for characterizing the stiffness of ECM that is sensed by filopodia based on the theory of elasticity and discrete ECM fiber. We have applied this method to a filopodial mechanosensing model for predicting directed cell migration toward stiffer ECM...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289312/diffusion-of-cytokines-in-live-lymph-node-tissue-using-microfluidic-integrated-optical-imaging
#9
A E Ross, R R Pompano
Communication and drug efficacy in the immune system rely heavily on diffusion of proteins such as cytokines through the tissue matrix. Available methods to analyze diffusion in tissue require microinjection or saturating the tissue in protein, which may alter local transport properties due to damage or rapid cellular responses. Here, we developed a novel, user-friendly method - Microfluidic Integrated Optical Imaging (micro-IOI) - to quantify the effective diffusion coefficient of bioactive proteins in live tissue samples ex vivo...
February 13, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276365/patterned-plasmonic-surfaces-theory-fabrication-and-applications-in-biosensing
#10
Hamid T Chorsi, Ying Zhu, John X J Zhang
Low-profile patterned plasmonic surfaces are synergized with a broad class of silicon microstructures to greatly enhance near-field nanoscale imaging, sensing, and energy harvesting coupled with far-field free-space detection. This concept has a clear impact on several key areas of interest for the MEMS community, including but not limited to ultra-compact microsystems for sensitive detection of small number of target molecules, and "surface" devices for optical data storage, micro-imaging and displaying. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art in plasmonic theory as well as derive design guidance for plasmonic integration with microsystems, fabrication techniques, and selected applications in biosensing, including refractive-index based label-free biosensing, plasmonic integrated lab-on-chip systems, plasmonic near-field scanning optical microscopy and plasmonics on-chip systems for cellular imaging...
August 2017: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275161/aging-inflammation-and-the-environment
#11
REVIEW
Arsun Bektas, Shepherd H Schurman, Ranjan Sen, Luigi Ferrucci
The aging process is driven by interrelated mechanisms that lead to the emergence of characteristic phenotypes that include changes in body composition, energy production and utilization imbalance, homeostatic dysregulation, and neurodegeneration and loss of neuroplasticity. Mainstream theories of aging all recognize that the aging phenotypes result from an imbalance between stressors and stress buffering mechanisms and a resultant loss of compensatory reserve leading to accumulation of unrepaired damage. This in turn results in increased disease susceptibility, reduced functional reserve, reduced healing capacity and stress resistance, unstable health and finally failure to thrive...
December 21, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247198/cell-shape-information-is-transduced-through-tension-independent-mechanisms
#12
Amit Ron, Evren U Azeloglu, Rhodora C Calizo, Mufeng Hu, Smiti Bhattacharya, Yibang Chen, Gomathi Jayaraman, Sunwoo Lee, Susana R Neves-Zaph, Hong Li, Ronald E Gordon, John C He, James C Hone, Ravi Iyengar
The shape of a cell within tissues can represent the history of chemical and physical signals that it encounters, but can information from cell shape regulate cellular phenotype independently? Using optimal control theory to constrain reaction-diffusion schemes that are dependent on different surface-to-volume relationships, we find that information from cell shape can be resolved from mechanical signals. We used microfabricated 3-D biomimetic chips to validate predictions that shape-sensing occurs in a tension-independent manner through integrin β3 signaling pathway in human kidney podocytes and smooth muscle cells...
December 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242179/individual-differences-in-the-relationship-between-attachment-and-nomophobia-among-college-students-the-mediating-role-of-mindfulness
#13
Ibrahim Arpaci, Mustafa Baloğlu, Hatice İrem Özteke Kozan, Şahin Kesici
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in nomophobia, which is defined as the fear of being out of cellular phone contact, or "feelings of discomfort or anxiety experienced by individuals when they are unable to use their mobile phones or utilize the affordances these devices provide". However, only limited research can be found in terms of its determinants at present. Contemporary literature suggests that the relationships among attachment styles, mindfulness, and nomophobia have not been investigated...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238546/receptor-uptake-arrays-for-vitamin-b12-siderophores-and-glycans-shape-bacterial-communities
#14
REVIEW
Steven A Frank
Molecular variants of vitamin B12, siderophores, and glycans occur. To take up variant forms, bacteria may express an array of receptors. The gut microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron has three different receptors to take up variants of vitamin B12 and 88 receptors to take up various glycans. The design of receptor arrays reflects key processes that shape cellular evolution. Competition may focus each species on a subset of the available nutrient diversity. Some gut bacteria can take up only a narrow range of carbohydrates, whereas species such as B...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233730/cyclic-concatenated-genetic-encoder-a-mathematical-proposal-for-biological-inferences
#15
M E Duarte-González, O Y Echeverri, J M Guevara, R Palazzo
The organization of the genetic information and its ability to be conserved and translated to proteins with low error rates have been the subject of study by scientists from different disciplines. Recently, it has been proposed that living organisms display an intra-cellular transmission system of genetic information, similar to a model of digital communication system, in which there is the ability to detect and correct errors. In this work, the concept of Concatenated Genetic Encoder is introduced and applied to the analysis of protein sequences as a tool for exploring evolutionary relationships...
December 9, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233220/a-new-paradigm-for-atomically-detailed-simulations-of-kinetics-in-biophysical-systems
#16
Ron Elber
The kinetics of biochemical and biophysical events determined the course of life processes and attracted considerable interest and research. For example, modeling of biological networks and cellular responses relies on the availability of information on rate coefficients. Atomically detailed simulations hold the promise of supplementing experimental data to obtain a more complete kinetic picture. However, simulations at biological time scales are challenging. Typical computer resources are insufficient to provide the ensemble of trajectories at the correct length that is required for straightforward calculations of time scales...
January 2017: Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218307/calreticulin-challenges-posed-by-the-intrinsically-disordered-nature-of-calreticulin-to-the-study-of-its-function
#17
Lilian Varricchio, Mario Falchi, Massimiliano Dall'Ora, Caterina De Benedittis, Alessandra Ruggeri, Vladimir N Uversky, Anna Rita Migliaccio
Calreticulin is a Ca2+-binding chaperone protein, which resides mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum but also found in other cellular compartments including the plasma membrane. In addition to Ca2+, calreticulin binds and regulates almost all proteins and most of the mRNAs deciding their intracellular fate. The potential functions of calreticulin are so numerous that identification of all of them is becoming a nightmare. Still the recent discovery that patients affected by the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative disorders essential thrombocytemia or primary myelofibrosis not harboring JAK2 mutations carry instead calreticulin mutations disrupting its C-terminal domain has highlighted the clinical need to gain a deeper understanding of the biological activity of this protein...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214802/tmao-counteracts-urea-denaturation-by-inhibiting-protein-urea-preferential-interaction
#18
Pritam Ganguly, Pablo Boserman, Nico F A van der Vegt, Joan-Emma Shea
Osmolytes are small organic molecules that can modulate the stability and function of cellular proteins by altering the chemical environment of the cell. Some of these osmolytes work in conjunction, via mechanisms that are poorly understood. An example is the naturally-occurring protein-protective osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) that stabilizes cellular proteins in marine organisms against the detrimental denaturing effects of another naturally occurring osmolyte, urea. From a computational standpoint, our understanding of this counteraction mechanism is hampered by the fact that existing force fields fail to capture the correct balance of TMAO and urea interactions in ternary solutions...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210337/death-following-ceftazidime-induced-kounis-syndrome
#19
Idg Kitulwatte, S Gangahawatte, Ulms Perera, Pas Edirisinghe
Kounis syndrome, also known as allergic myocardial infarction or allergic angina syndrome, coincides with chest pain and allergic reactions. It involves the activation of interrelated inflammatory cells following allergic, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. We report a case of Kounis syndrome complicated by an injection of ceftazidime. A 52-year-old man developed shortness of breath and hypotension, leading to immediate unconsciousness, after a ceftazidime injection. Despite intensive care management, he showed no improvement and died approximately 19 h after ceftazidime administration...
December 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207549/9-vinylanthracene-based-fluorogens-synthesis-structure-property-relationships-and-applications
#20
Mengjie Liu, Sawaros Onchaiya, Lewis Yi Fong Tan, Mohammad A Haghighatbin, Tracey Luu, Tze Cin Owyong, Roozbeh Hushiarian, Conor F Hogan, Trevor A Smith, Yuning Hong
Fluorescent dyes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties exhibit intensified emission upon aggregation. They are promising candidates to study biomolecules and cellular changes in aqueous environments when aggregation formation occurs. Here, we report a group of 9-position functionalized anthracene derivatives that were conveniently synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed Heck reaction. Using fluorometric analyses, these dyes were confirmed to show AIE behavior upon forming aggregates at high concentrations, in viscous solvents, and when poorly solubilized...
December 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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