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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916914/the-effects-of-protein-and-fiber-content-on-gut-structure-and-function-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Samantha C Leigh, Bao-Quang Nguyen-Phuc, Donovan P German
Chemical reactor theory (CRT) suggests that the digestive tract functions as a chemical reactor for processing food. Presumably, gut structure and function should match diet to ensure adequate nutrient and energy uptake to maintain performance. Within CRT, dietary biochemical composition is the most important factor affecting gut structure and function in vertebrates. We fed Danio rerio (zebrafish) diets ranging from high- to moderate- to low-quality (i.e., ranging from high-protein, low-fiber to low-protein, high-fiber), and observed how gut length and surface area, as well as the activity levels of digestive enzymes (amylase, maltase, trypsin, aminopeptidase, and lipase) shifted in response to these dietary changes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915495/impact-of-chemotherapy-on-metabolic-reprogramming-characterization-of-the-metabolic-profile-of-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cells-using-1-h-hr-mas-nmr-spectroscopy
#2
Roberta M Maria, Wanessa F Altei, Heloisa S Selistre-de-Araujo, Luiz A Colnago
Doxorubicin, cisplatin, and tamoxifen are part of many chemotherapeutic regimens. However, studies investigating the effect of chemotherapy on the metabolism of breast cancer cells are still limited. We used (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy to study the metabolic profile of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells either untreated (control) or treated with tamoxifen, cisplatin, and doxorubicin. (1)H HR-MAS NMR single pulse spectra evidenced signals from all mobile cell compounds, including fatty acids (membranes), water-soluble proteins, and metabolites...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911527/cellular-models-for-the-evaluation-of-the-antiobesity-effect-of-selected-phytochemicals-from%C3%A2-food-and-herbs
#3
REVIEW
Yen-Chen Tung, Pei-Hsuan Hsieh, Min-Hsiung Pan, Chi-Tang Ho
Dietary phytochemicals from food and herbs have been studied for their health benefits for a long time. The incidence of obesity has seen an incredible increase worldwide. Although dieting, along with increased physical activity, seems an easy method in theory to manage obesity, it is hard to apply in real life. Obesity treatment drugs and surgery are not successful or targeted for everyone and can have significant side effects. This low rate of success is the major reason that the overweight as well as the pharmaceutical industry seek alternative methods, including phytochemicals...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901277/repositioning-of-tak-475-in-mevalonate-kinase-disease-translating-theory-into-practice
#4
Annalisa Marcuzzi, Claudia Loganes, Claudio Celeghini, Giulio Kleiner
Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD, OMIM #610377) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic and inflammatory disease. In MKD, defective function of the enzyme mevalonate kinase (MK), due to a mutation in the MVK gene, leads to the shortage of mevalonate-derived intermediates, which results in unbalanced prenylation of proteins and altered metabolism of sterols. These defects lead to a complex multisystem inflammatory and metabolic syndrome. Although biologic therapies aimed at blocking the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) can significantly reduce inflammation, they cannot completely control the clinical symptoms that affects the nervous system...
September 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893983/mechanisms-for-restraining-camp-dependent-protein-kinase-revealed-by-subunit-quantitation-and-cross-linking-approaches
#5
Ryan Walker-Gray, Florian Stengel, Matthew G Gold
Protein phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) underlies key cellular processes, including sympathetic stimulation of heart cells, and potentiation of synaptic strength in neurons. Unrestrained PKA activity is pathological, and an enduring challenge is to understand how the activity of PKA catalytic subunits is directed in cells. We developed a light-activated cross-linking approach to monitor PKA subunit interactions with temporal precision in living cells. This enabled us to refute the recently proposed theory that PKA catalytic subunits remain tethered to regulatory subunits during cAMP elevation...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893935/tumour-virus-vaccines-hepatitis-b-virus-and-human-papillomavirus
#6
REVIEW
Margaret Stanley
Two of the most important human oncogenic viruses are hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). HBV infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982; vaccination of neonates and infants is highly effective, resulting already in decreased rates of new infections, chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma. Nonetheless, HBV remains a global public health problem with high rates of vertical transmission from mother to child in some regions. Prophylactic HPV vaccines composed of virus-like particles (VLPs) of the L1 capsid protein have been licensed since 2006/2007...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892088/pan-neuronal-calcium-imaging-with-cellular-resolution-in-freely-swimming-zebrafish
#7
Dal Hyung Kim, Jungsoo Kim, João C Marques, Abhinav Grama, David G C Hildebrand, Wenchao Gu, Jennifer M Li, Drew N Robson
Calcium imaging with cellular resolution typically requires an animal to be tethered under a microscope, which substantially restricts the range of behaviors that can be studied. To expand the behavioral repertoire amenable to imaging, we have developed a tracking microscope that enables whole-brain calcium imaging with cellular resolution in freely swimming larval zebrafish. This microscope uses infrared imaging to track a target animal in a behavior arena. On the basis of the predicted trajectory of the animal, we applied optimal control theory to a motorized stage system to cancel brain motion in three dimensions...
September 11, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883020/increased-gsnor-expression-during-aging-impairs-cognitive-function-and-decreases-s-nitrosation-of-camkii%C3%AE
#8
Yuying Zhang, Kaiyuan Wu, Wenting Su, Deng-Feng Zhang, Ping Wang, Xinhua Qiao, Qin Yao, Zengqiang Yuan, Yong-Gang Yao, Guanghui Liu, Chen Zhang, Limin Liu, Chen Chang
As the population ages, an increasing number of people suffer from age-related cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here, we found that S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), the key enzyme that metabolizes intracellular nitric oxide (NO) and regulates S-nitrosation, was significantly increased in the hippocampus of both aging humans and mice. Transgenic mice overexpressing GSNOR exclusively in neurons showed cognitive impairment in behavioral tests, including the Morris water maze, fear conditioning and the Y-maze test...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882853/neuronal-inhibition-of-the-autophagy-nucleation-complex-extends-life-span-in-post-reproductive-c-elegans
#9
Thomas Wilhelm, Jonathan Byrne, Rebeca Medina, Ena Kolundžić, Johannes Geisinger, Martina Hajduskova, Baris Tursun, Holger Richly
Autophagy is a ubiquitous catabolic process that causes cellular bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components and is generally associated with positive effects on health and longevity. Inactivation of autophagy has been linked with detrimental effects on cells and organisms. The antagonistic pleiotropy theory postulates that some fitness-promoting genes during youth are harmful during aging. On this basis, we examined genes mediating post-reproductive longevity using an RNAi screen. From this screen, we identified 30 novel regulators of post-reproductive longevity, including pha-4 Through downstream analysis of pha-4, we identified that the inactivation of genes governing the early stages of autophagy up until the stage of vesicle nucleation, such as bec-1, strongly extend both life span and health span...
September 7, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878685/oxidative-stress-mediated-atherosclerosis-mechanisms-and-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Xinyu Yang, Yang Li, Yanda Li, Xiaomeng Ren, Xiaoyu Zhang, Dan Hu, Yonghong Gao, Yanwei Xing, Hongcai Shang
Atherogenesis, the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, is a complex process that involves several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, neovascularization, vascular proliferation, apoptosis, matrix degradation, inflammation, and thrombosis. The pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis are explained differently by different scholars. One of the most common theories is the destruction of well-balanced homeostatic mechanisms, which incurs the oxidative stress. And oxidative stress is widely regarded as the redox status realized when an imbalance exists between antioxidant capability and activity species including reactive oxygen (ROS), nitrogen (RNS) and halogen species, non-radical as well as free radical species...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869497/die-another-day-inhibition-of-cell-death-pathways-by-cytomegalovirus
#11
REVIEW
Wolfram Brune, Christopher E Andoniou
Multicellular organisms have evolved multiple genetically programmed cell death pathways that are essential for homeostasis. The finding that many viruses encode cell death inhibitors suggested that cellular suicide also functions as a first line of defence against invading pathogens. This theory was confirmed by studying viral mutants that lack certain cell death inhibitors. Cytomegaloviruses, a family of species-specific viruses, have proved particularly useful in this respect. Cytomegaloviruses are known to encode multiple death inhibitors that are required for efficient viral replication...
September 2, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869494/-dicing-and-splicing-sphingosine-kinase-and-relevance-to-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Nahal Haddadi, Yiguang Lin, Ann M Simpson, Najah T Nassif, Eileen M McGowan
Sphingosine kinase (SphK) is a lipid enzyme that maintains cellular lipid homeostasis. Two SphK isozymes, SphK1 and SphK2, are expressed from different chromosomes and several variant isoforms are expressed from each of the isozymes, allowing for the multi-faceted biological diversity of SphK activity. Historically, SphK1 is mainly associated with oncogenicity, however in reality, both SphK1 and SphK2 isozymes possess oncogenic properties and are recognized therapeutic targets. The absence of mutations of SphK in various cancer types has led to the theory that cancer cells develop a dependency on SphK signaling (hyper-SphK signaling) or "non-oncogenic addiction"...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864288/a-novel-hypothesis-for-the-pathogenesis-of-glaucomatous-disc-hemorrhage
#13
REVIEW
Eun Jung Lee, Jong Chul Han, Changwon Kee
Disc hemorrhage is known to be associated with glaucoma development and progression. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of disc hemorrhage in glaucoma, including mechanical and ischemic theories. However, no theory has yet provided a clear explanation of cellular-level events and related histologic findings. Moreover, research has yet to elucidate why glaucomatous disc hemorrhage occurs around the optic disc and at the margin of the retinal nerve fiber layer defect. Understanding the pathogenic mechanism of disc hemorrhage will facilitate interpretation of its clinical importance, and provide better insight into clinical practice...
August 30, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863148/a-conceptual-and-computational-framework-for-modelling-and-understanding-the-non-equilibrium-gene-regulatory-networks-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Richard B Greaves, Sabine Dietmann, Austin Smith, Susan Stepney, Julianne D Halley
The capacity of pluripotent embryonic stem cells to differentiate into any cell type in the body makes them invaluable in the field of regenerative medicine. However, because of the complexity of both the core pluripotency network and the process of cell fate computation it is not yet possible to control the fate of stem cells. We present a theoretical model of stem cell fate computation that is based on Halley and Winkler's Branching Process Theory (BPT) and on Greaves et al.'s agent-based computer simulation derived from that theoretical model...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858861/pathways-to-brain-aging-and-their-modifiers-free-radical-induced-energetic-and-neural-decline-in-senescence-friends-model-a-mini-review
#15
Naftali Raz, Ana M Daugherty
In this mini-review, we survey the extant literature on brain aging, with the emphasis on longitudinal studies of neuroanatomy, including regional brain volumes and white matter microstructure. We assess the impact of vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory risk factors on the trajectories of change in regional brain volumes and white matter properties, as well as the relationships between neuroanatomical and physiological changes and their influence on cognitive performance. We examine these findings in the context of current biological theories of aging and propose the means of integrating noninvasive measures - spectroscopic indices of brain energy metabolism and regional iron deposits - as valuable proxies for elucidating the basic neurobiology of human brain aging...
September 1, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858377/effects-of-%C3%AE-irradiation-on-cotyledon-cell-separation-and-pectin-solubilisation-in-hard-to-cook-cowpeas
#16
Talknice Z Jombo, Amanda Minnaar, John Rn Taylor
BACKGROUND: Cowpeas stored under high temperature and humidity develop the hard-to-cook defect (HTC). This defect greatly increases cooking times and energy costs. To better understand the mechanisms involved in the HTC defect development, the effects of γ-irradiation on cotyledon cellular structure and pectin solubility in two cowpea cultivars with different susceptibility to HTC defect were investigated. RESULTS: Gamma-irradiation decreased cotyledon cell wall thickness, increased cell size intercellular spaces in both cowpea cultivars and reduced cooking time of the less HTC susceptible cultivar...
August 31, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857745/principles-of-cellular-resource-allocation-revealed-by-condition-dependent-proteome-profiling
#17
Eyal Metzl-Raz, Moshe Kafri, Gilad Yaakov, Ilya Soifer, Yonat Gurvich, Naama Barkai
Growing cells coordinate protein translation with metabolic rates. Central to this coordination is ribosome production. Ribosomes drive cell growth, but translation of ribosomal proteins competes with production of non-ribosomal proteins. Theory shows that cell growth is maximized when all expressed ribosomes are constantly translating. To examine whether budding yeast function at this limit of full ribosomal usage, we profiled the proteomes of cells growing in different environments. We find that cells produce excess ribosomal proteins, amounting to a constant ≈8% of the proteome...
August 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855098/the-bioelectric-code-an-ancient-computational-medium-for-dynamic-control-of-growth-and-form
#18
REVIEW
Michael Levin, Christopher J Martyniuk
What determines large-scale anatomy? DNA does not directly specify geometrical arrangements of tissues and organs, and a process of encoding and decoding for morphogenesis is required. Moreover, many species can regenerate and remodel their structure despite drastic injury. The ability to obtain the correct target morphology from a diversity of initial conditions reveals that the morphogenetic code implements a rich system of pattern-homeostatic processes. Here, we describe an important mechanism by which cellular networks implement pattern regulation and plasticity: bioelectricity...
August 27, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851625/reconciling-the-mitscherlich-s-law-of-diminishing-returns-with-liebig-s-law-of-the-minimum-some-results-on-crop-modeling
#19
Iuri E P Ferreira, Silvio S Zocchi, Daniel Baron
Reliable fertilizer recommendations depend on the correctness of the crop production models fitted to the data, but generally the crop models are built empirically, neglecting important physiological aspects related with response to fertilizers, or they are based in laws of plant mineral nutrition seen by many authors as conflicting theories: the Liebig's Law of the Minimum and Mitscherlich's Law of Diminishing Returns. We developed a new approach to modelling the crop response to fertilizers that reconcile these laws...
August 26, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836397/stochastic-cell-fate-and-longevity-of-offspring
#20
Faezeh Dorri, Hamid Pezeshk, Mehdi Sadeghi
OBJECTIVE: Cellular decision-making is a key process in which cells with similar geneticand environmental background make dissimilar decisions. This stochastic process, which happens in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells including stem cells, causes cellular diversity and phenotypic variation. In addition, fitness predicts and describes changes in the genetic composition of populations throughout the evolutionary history. Fitness may thus be defined as the ability to adapt and produce surviving offspring...
October 2017: Cell Journal
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