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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413059/viral-exanthems-an-update-on-laboratory-testing-of-the-adult-patient
#1
REVIEW
Abraham M Korman, Ali Alikhan, Benjamin H Kaffenberger
Although classic viral exanthems of childhood are well described, they are rarely differentiated in adults. Laboratory techniques for viral identification have advanced without substantial literature to suggest how a dermatologist ought to conduct a cost-effective and diagnostic viral panel. Certain clinical features such as petechiae, vesicles, and dusky macular or morbilliform exanthems point strongly toward a viral exanthem. Differentiation of drug and viral causes of morbilliform eruptions has proven difficult...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403057/fever-in-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-pediatric-cases-laboratory-work-up-and-antibiotic-therapy
#2
Maren Paulmann, Maja Mockenhaupt
Fever is a symptom that often accompanies skin eruptions, especially in children. It can be a sign of an infectious condition presenting with exanthems or it may precede an exanthematous eruption. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe reactions affecting skin and mucosa with blisters and erosions. High fever occurs in these conditions, frequently before the skin and/or mucosa is affected.
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345391/a-retrospective-study-on-rapid-plasma-reagin-testing-in-patients-with-pityriasis-rosea
#3
Pierre Halteh, Shari R Lipner
Pityriasis rosea (PR) is an acute self-limited exanthem characterized by oval erythematous patches with scale and may be difficult to differentiate from secondary syphilis. A rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test can be used to rule in secondary syphilis with high sensitivity and specificity. A retrospective study was performed on patients at Weill Cornell Medicine, who were diagnosed with PR from 2000 to 2016 and also received RPR testing at the time of diagnosis. The objective was to assess the frequency of secondary syphilis when the initial clinical impression was PR...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315874/multiple-drug-hypersensitivity
#4
Werner J Pichler, Yuttana Srinoulprasert, James Yun, Oliver Hausmann
Multiple drug hypersensitivity (MDH) is a syndrome that develops as a consequence of massive T-cell stimulations and is characterized by long-lasting drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) to different drugs. The initial symptoms are mostly severe exanthems or drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Subsequent symptoms due to another drug often appear in the following weeks, overlapping with the first DHR, or months to years later after resolution of the initial presentation. The second DHR includes exanthema, erythroderma, DRESS, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), hepatitis, and agranulocytosis...
2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214315/exanthem-und-ekzem-bei-einem-anderthalbj%C3%A3-hrigen-jungen
#5
Frederieke Thielking, Regina Fölster-Holst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194482/-paraviral-exanthems
#6
REVIEW
R Fölster-Holst, V Zawar, A Chuh
Paraviral exanthems are distinct skin diseases due to infections with different viruses. Although no virus has been identified so far in some exanthems, the main age of manifestation, the clinical course of the exanthem, and the extracutaneous symptoms are suggestive for a viral genesis. While many viral infections are a direct result of the infection, paraviral exanthems reflect the response of the immune system to the infectious pathogens. Viruses cannot be identified in the skin. Typical paraviral exanthems include Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, pityriasis rosea, pityriasis lichenoides, papular-purpuric gloves and sock syndrome, and asymmetrical periflexural exanthema...
February 13, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094164/disorders-characterized-by-predominant-or-exclusive-dermal-inflammation
#7
Mark R Wick
Some cutaneous inflammatory disorders are typified by a predominant or exclusive localization in the dermis. They can be further subdivided by the principal cell types into lymphocytic, neutrophilic, and eosinophilic infiltrates, and mixtures of them are also seen in a proportion of cases. This review considers such conditions. Included among the lymphoid lesions are viral exanthems, pigmented purpuras, gyrate erythemas, polymorphous light eruption, lupus tumidus, and cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Neutrophilic infiltrates are represented by infections, Sweet syndrome, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa, as well as a group of so-called "autoinflammatory" dermatitides comprising polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
December 14, 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038854/-tache-noire-diagnostic-clue-in-a-febrile-exanthem
#8
Virginia Velasco-Tamariz, Fátima Tous-Romero, Alba Calleja-Algarra, Lidia Maroñas-Jiménez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996140/image-gallery-a-case-of-unilateral-laterothoracic-exanthem
#9
S H Woo, J Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992394/the-conundrum-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-atypical-fulminant-measles-in-a-leukemia-survivor-on-maintenance-chemotherapy
#10
James Guoxian Huang, Allen Eng Juh Yeoh, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah, Mas Isa Suhaila
We report the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in an unusually fulminant presentation of measles, presenting as severe necrotizing bronchiolitis with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in the absence of classical clinical features in an immunocompromised host on maintenance chemotherapy. Our patient had presented with features of a viral pneumonitis without the classical exanthem, in combination with HLH. Although rhinovirus-induced HLH was highly unusual, the positive rhinovirus swab result had distracted us from the eventual diagnosis...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990380/kawasaki-disease-for-dermatologists
#11
REVIEW
Aman Gupta, Surjit Singh
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that mostly affects children below the age of 5. The vasculitis involves arteries of medium size, especially the coronaries. Various etiologies have been proposed including association with micro-organisms, bacterial superantigens, and genetic factors, however, the exact cause remains unknown. There is no specific laboratory test for KD. Diagnosis is clinical and depends upon the presence of fever for ≥5 days and 4 or more of five principal features, viz. polymorphous exanthem, extremity changes, mucosal changes involving the lips and oral cavity, bilateral bulbar conjunctival injection, and unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy...
November 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845968/epidemiology-of-zika
#12
Carmen C Deseda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) is the latest 'emerging virus' that has affected the Americas. First identified in the mid-20th century in Uganda, it was described as a vector arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) and subsequently found capable of producing illness in humans. The illness was not different from other flavivirus infections and caused a relatively mild disease characterized by low-grade fever, nonspecific exanthem, nonpurulent conjunctivitis, and mild to moderate arthralgia...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701670/annular-eruptive-pseudoangiomatosis-and-adenovirus-infection-a-novel-clinical-variant-of-paraviral-exanthems-and-a-novel-virus-association
#13
Antonio Chuh, Rüdiger Panzer, Ann-Christine Rosenthal, Ehrhardt Proksch, Werner Kempf, Vijay Zawar, Helmuth Fickenscher, Regina Fölster-Holst
Eruptive pseudoangiomatosis is a distinct exanthem thought to be caused by viruses. The usual rash configu-ration is erythematous papules and macules. An association with echovirus infection has been reported. We present here one adult and one child with this exanthem, supported by clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings. Both patients presented with prodromal symptoms, widespread angioma-like macules in annular configuration, blanchable telangiectasia, followed by spontaneous remission in 6-8 weeks...
March 10, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648817/monitoring-of-human-herpesviruses-6-and-7-dna-in-saliva-samples-during-the-acute-and-convalescent-phases-of-exanthem-subitum
#14
Yuki Miyazaki, Hikaru Namba, Sadayoshi Torigoe, Masahiro Watanabe, Nobuko Yamashita, Hirohito Ogawa, Tsuneo Morishima, Masao Yamada
The amounts of the DNAs of human herpesviruses-6 (HHV-6) and -7 (HHV-7) in saliva samples were monitored during the acute and convalescent phases of exanthem subitum (ES) to elucidate the kinetics of virus shedding after ES. A total of 247 saliva samples were collected from 17 children (5 males and 12 females: 8-31 months old at onset). The monitoring period ranged from 152 to 721 days after onset, and in 15 children it was longer than 1 year. Among the 17 cases, 16 were attributed to HHV-6B, while a single case was attributed to HHV-7...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598870/fatal-encephalitis-associated-with-zika-virus-infection-in-an-adult
#15
Cristiane N Soares, Patrícia Brasil, Raquel Medialdea Carrera, Patricia Sequeira, Ana Bispo de Filippis, Vitor A Borges, Fernando Theophilo, Mark A Ellul, Tom Solomon
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in the Americas in 2015, when an outbreak of an exanthematous illness occurred in Brazil. Subsequentely, there was an increase of microcephaly cases, suggesting an association between ZIKV and this neurological complication. Currently, ZIKV has been recognised as causing a wide range of neurological complications including Guillain Barré syndrome, and myelitis. OBJECTIVES: In this report, we describe the first fatal case of encephalitis in a 47 years old non pregnant woman, infected during the Brazilian zika epidemic of 2016...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344566/got-the-travel-bug-a-review-of-common-infections-infestations-bites-and-stings-among-returning-travelers
#16
REVIEW
Matthew P Vasievich, Jose Dario Martinez Villarreal, Kenneth J Tomecki
The popularity of international travel continues to increase among Americans, even though they often experience subsequent illness on return from their journey. The pathogens responsible are not necessarily endemic to the destination itself but are often the result of poor sanitary conditions or activities engaged in while away. Skin disease ranks third among all medical concerns in returning travelers. This review addresses the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of the most common skin diseases in returning travelers: insect bites and bedbugs, cutaneous larva migrans, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis, leishmaniasis, viral exanthems, and marine envenomation...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272160/lateralized-exanthem-mimicking-figurate-inflammatory-dermatosis-of-infancy-after-methimazole-therapy
#17
T Arrigo, P M Cutroneo, M Vaccaro, D Impollonia, V Squadrito, A Mecchio, C Salpietro, D Altavilla
We reported a case of an 11-year-old girl admitted to our hospital for goiter, tachycardia, sweating, and visible and palpable thyroid. Thyroid function tests revealed a low thyrotropin level (<0.004 mIU/L) and elevated free thyroxine level (3.4 ng/ dL) diagnosed with Graves' disease and treated with methimazole. This anti-thyroid drug is recommended as first-line treatment in children with Graves' disease because it produces minor adverse effects with respect to propylthiouracil. She developed a lateralized exanthem mimicking figurate inflammatory dermatosis of infancy after methimazole therapy...
December 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251524/early-diagnosis-of-post-varicella-necrotising-fasciitis-a-medical-and-surgical-emergency
#18
Rose Xavier, Bobby Abraham, Vinod Jacob Cherian, Jobin I Joseph
Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is an extremely rare complication of a rather common paediatric viral exanthem varicella. Delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Laboratory risk indicator of NF score aids in early clinical diagnosis in suspected cases of post-varicella NF thus enabling timely intervention. Surgery delayed for more than 24 hours, is an independent risk factor for death. Surgical debridement with good antibiotic coverage is the definitive treatment for NF.
January 2016: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144956/paraviral-exanthems
#19
Regina Fölster-Holst, Vijay P Zawar, Antonio Chuh
INTRODUCTION: Paraviral exanthems are skin diseases suspected to be caused by viruses, with a single virus-exanthem relationship not universally accepted. Although most paraviral exanthems are self-remitting, accurate diagnoses are important as some patients might develop complications. Some of the differential diagnoses might cause serious complications, and some paraviral exanthems might lead to complications for at-risk groups such as pregnant women. Moreover, some paraviral exanthems might be symptomatic such as the development of severe pruritus, with relief of such being crucial in the plan of management...
June 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103975/pityriasis-rosea-gianotti-crosti-syndrome-asymmetric-periflexural-exanthem-papular-purpuric-gloves-and-socks-syndrome-eruptive-pseudoangiomatosis-and-eruptive-hypomelanosis-do-their-epidemiological-data-substantiate-infectious-etiologies
#20
REVIEW
Antonio Chuh, Vijay Zawar, Gabriel F Sciallis, Werner Kempf, Albert Lee
Many clinical and laboratory-based studies have been reported for skin rashes which may be due to viral infections, namely pityriasis rosea (PR), Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS), asymmetric periflexural exanthem/unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (APE/ULE), papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS), and eruptive pseudo-angiomatosis (EP). Eruptive hypomelanosis (EH) is a newly discovered paraviral rash. Novel tools are now available to investigate the epidemiology of these rashes. To retrieve epidemiological data of these exanthema and analyze whether such substantiates or refutes infectious etiologies...
March 21, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
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