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Public health , preventive medicine

(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), this paper deals with the education of PRM physicians in Europe. To acquire the wide field of competence needed, specialists in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine have to undergo a well organised and appropriately structured training of adequate duration. In fact they are required to develop not only medical knowledge, but also competence in patient care, specific procedural skills, and attitudes towards interpersonal relationship and communication, profound understanding of the main principles of medical ethics and public health, ability to apply policies of care and prevention for disabled people, capacity to master strategies for reintegration of disabled people into society, apply principles of quality assurance and promote a practice-based continuous professional development...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Francisco Soto Mas, Holly E Jacobson
Health literacy is a priority issue in both medicine and public health, as it refers to the capacity to obtain and understand basic health information and services and to make appropriate health decisions. Health literacy has been associated with a variety of health care and health outcomes such as hospital admissions, use of preventive services, management of chronic conditions, and mortality. There is also evidence of the connection between low health literacy and health disparities. Despite federal and private efforts, improving health literacy has proven to be an enormous challenge...
March 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
M Fernández-Prada, O D Rodríguez-Fonseca, A M Brandy-García, P Alonso-Penanes, I Huerta-González, F Fernández-Noval
OBJECTIVE: Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases associated morbidity and mortality. Vaccination against HBV has been shown to be the most effective method to prevent this situation. Standard vaccination schemes used in this population do not appear to be effective enough. The objective is to identify the response rate following the use of AS04C-adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine in HIV patients as well as the possible associated adverse reactions...
March 19, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Andreas Ströhle
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics...
March 21, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Mads Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The atrocities in Syria have been covered in the four general medical weekly journals in the USA and the UK. Medical journal articles addressing political determinants of public health have rightly described and criticised the international community's failure to enforce humanitarian law while urging global bodies of power to ensure protection of civilians and civilian infrastructure and medical services. Discussions of the political influences on health of people in the occupied Palestinian territory (West Bank and Gaza Strip) seem to be considered politically out-of-bounds by some medical journals...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Elise Juzda Smith
This article focuses on the consolidation of naval hygiene practices during the Victorian era, a period of profound medical change that coincided with the fleet's transition from sail to steam. The ironclads of the mid- to late- nineteenth century offered ample opportunities to improve preventive medicine at sea, and surgeons capitalised on new steam technologies to provide cleaner, dryer, and airier surroundings below decks. Such efforts reflected the sanitarian idealism of naval medicine in this period, inherited from the eighteenth-century pioneers of the discipline...
April 2018: Medical History
Matthew J Gurka, Stephanie L Filipp, Mark D DeBoer
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes remain significant public health concerns. Targeting of prevention efforts by geographical location has been suggested by the Institute of Medicine to coincide with the presence of area-based risk. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a stronger risk factor than is obesity for the prediction of future CVD and diabetes, yet its prevalence has not previously been described geographically. Our objective is to determine geographical variation in the prevalence of obesity, MetS, and diabetes among US adults...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Kednapa Thavorn, Howsikan Kugathasan, Darrell H S Tan, Nasheed Moqueet, Stefan D Baral, Becky Skidmore, Derek MacFadden, Anna Simkin, Sharmistha Mishra
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals is an efficacious and effective intervention to decrease the risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) acquisition. Yet drug and delivery costs prohibit access in many jurisdictions. In the absence of guidelines for the synthesis of economic evaluations, we developed a protocol for a systematic review of economic evaluation studies for PrEP by drawing on best practices in systematic reviews and the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations...
March 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Daeho Kim, Sanghyun Hong, Hongjun Na, Jihwan Chun, Robin B Guevarra, You-Tae Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Hyeun Bum Kim, Ju-Hoon Lee
Bellflower root ( Platycodon grandiflorum ), which belongs to the Campanulaceae family, is a perennial grass that grows naturally in Korea, northeastern China, and Japan. Bellflower is widely consumed as both food and medicine due to its high nutritional value and potential therapeutic effects. Since foodborne disease outbreaks often come from vegetables, understanding the public health risk of microorganisms on fresh vegetables is pivotal to predict and prevent foodborne disease outbreaks.We investigated the microbial communities on the bellflower root (n=10)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
(no author information available yet)
Tetanus is an acute specific infection caused by obligate anaerobes, which is still a serious public health problem. Tetanus bacterium is an obligate anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in nature, which can exist in dust, soil, human or animal excrement. The bacteria invade the body primarily through the skin or mucosal wounds, and most commonly in trauma and burn patients, unclean newborns, and unsafe surgical instruments. Exotoxin produced by tetanus bacteria can cause temporary changes in the central nervous system, manifested as systemic skeletal muscle persistence and paroxysmal spasm, severe cases of laryngospasm, asphyxia, lung infections and organ failure, which is a very serious and potentially fatal disease...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Lauren H Supplee, Jenita Parekh, Makedah Johnson
Precision medicine and precision public health focus on identifying and providing the right intervention to the right population at the right time. Expanding on the concept, precision prevention science could allow the field to examine prevention programs to identify ways to make them more efficient and effective at scale, including addressing issues related to engagement and retention of participants. Research to date on engagement and retention has often focused on demographics and risk factors. The current paper proposes using McCurdy and Daro (Family Relations, 50, 113-121, 2001) model that posits a complex mixture of individual, provider, program, and community-level factors synergistically affect enrollment, engagement, and retention...
March 12, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Ross Arena, Amy McNeil, Steven Street, Samantha Bond, Deepika R Laddu, Carl J Lavie, Andrew P Hills
Noncommunicable and chronic disease are interchangeable terms. According to the World Health Organization, "they are of long duration and generally slow progression. The 4 main types of chronic diseases are cardiovascular diseases (ie, heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma), and diabetes." We have known about the benefits of physical activity (PA) for thousands of years. Perhaps our approach, from public health messaging to the individual clinical encounter, as to how PA and exercise are discussed and prescribed can be improved upon, with the ultimate goal of increasing the likelihood that an individual moves more; ultimately moving more should be the goal...
April 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
V Ayano Ogawa, Cecilia M Shah, James M Hughes, Lonnie J King
Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to global health security. While the global community has made recent advances to mitigate the threat of antimicrobial resistance, we continue to face challenges in creating solutions and concrete actions that will yield the greatest immediate impact. To examine the critical areas in human, animal and environmental health that contribute to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, the Forum on Microbial Threats of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine hosted a public workshop on June 20-21, 2017 in Washington, DC...
March 9, 2018: EcoHealth
Janice Hegewald, Wera Berge, Philipp Heinrich, Ronny Staudte, Alice Freiberg, Julia Scharfe, Maria Girbig, Albert Nienhaus, Andreas Seidler
The physical load ensuing from the repositioning and moving of patients puts health care workers at risk of musculoskeletal complaints. Technical equipment developed to aid with patient handling should reduce physical strain and workload; however, the efficacy of these aids in preventing musculoskeletal disorders and complaints is still unclear. A systematic review of controlled intervention studies was conducted to examine if the risk of musculoskeletal complaints and disorders is reduced by technical patient handling equipment...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
V Szabóová, V Švihrová, J Švihra, L Rišková, H Hudečková
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the work was to validate the Slovak version of the CPC-28 questionnaire (Beliefs about Papanicolaou and Cervical Cancer). DESIGN: Original study. SETTING: Department of Public Health, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, in co-operation with gynaecological centers in University Hospital Martin and district Martin, Slovakia. METHODS: The original English version of the CPC-28 questionnaire was translated into Slovak language...
2018: Ceská Gynekologie
Rachel A Millstein, Lisa M Quintiliani, Angela L Sharpe
Chronic diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. Most chronic diseases have behavioral risk factors that can improve health and quality of life and reduce financial burdens. Improved methods of measurement and behavioral interventions are rapidly progressing. These changes require sufficient funding to maximize effectiveness. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) helps to coordinate and support behavioral and social science research initiatives that are designed to promote public health and reduce chronic disease burden throughout the NIH...
March 1, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
(no author information available yet)
In recent years, wide ranging biomedical innovation has provided powerful new approaches for prevention, diagnosis and management of diseases. In order to translate such innovation into effective practice, physicians must frequently update their knowledge base and skills through continuing medical education and training. Medical Professional Societies, run as not-for-profit organizations led by peers, are uniquely placed to deliver balanced, disease oriented and patient centred education. The medical industry has a major role in the development of new, improved technology, devices and medication...
February 28, 2018: European Heart Journal
Nadia Shams, Sadia Amjad, Nadeem Yousaf, Waqar Ahmed, Naresh Kumar Seetlani, Shazia Farhat
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever has emerged as an emerging public health issue during last decade bearing significant morbidity and economic burden particularly in third world countries. Current study aims to assess various domains of knowledge of indoor dengue patients.. METHODS: This descriptive crosssectional study was conducted at Medicine dept. Rawal Institute of Health Sciences Islamabad and BBH Rawalpindi over 6 months. One hundred & twenty-five adult indoor confirmed cases of dengue from lower socioeconomic class were included after ethical approval...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
(no author information available yet)
Pneumococcal disease is one of the serious global public health problems, and an important leading cause of the morbidity and mortality of children and adults in China. Currently, antibiotics are the most choices for its clinical treatment. However, antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae has become a severe problem around the world due to the wide use of antibiotics. Hence, the prevention of pneumococcal disease by using pneumococcal vaccines is of great importance. In this article, we reviewed the etiology, clinic, epidemiology, disease burden of pneumococcal disease, and the vaccinology of pneumococcal vaccines, based on the Pneumococcal Vaccines WHO Position Paper (2012) and other latest evidence globally, to introduce comprehensive knowledge of pneumococcal disease, and for the purpose to improve the capacity of the professionals working on pneumococcal disease control and prevention and to provide appropriate evidences of pneumococcal vaccine applications for people who are engaged in public health and immunization vaccination...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
X L Liu, Y L Xiao, H Q Tang, B L Chen, L H Yang, Y L Xiao, S J Lv
Objective: To analyze the status of personnel in occupational disease prevention and treatment institutions in Hunan Province, China, from 1996 to 2015, to predict staff composition using grey model (GM) (1, 1) , and to provide a scientific basis and reference for optimizing human resource planning of occupational disease prevention and treatment in other provinces and regions and promoting the service capacity of the institutions. Methods: The data of the staff in occupational disease prevention and treatment institutions in Hunan Province, China, from 1996 to 2015 were obtained from the established basic information management system...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
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