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Public health , preventive medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108913/religion-and-public-health-moral-tradition-as-both-problem-and-solution
#1
Michael Rozier
Despite strong religious influence in the development of medicine and medical ethics, religion has been relatively absent in the rise of preventive medicine and population health. Episodic, clinical medicine has a powerful hold on the religious imagination in health care. Nevertheless, Hebrew Scripture, elements of rabbinical teaching, and modern concepts of social justice all can be used to inspire action in health care that goes beyond clinical medicine. The Christian tradition can call upon the corporal works of mercy, virtue ethics, and Catholic social teaching, as well as the modern history Catholic sisters in the U...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105102/a-scabies-outbreak-in-a-diabetic-and-collagen-disease-ward-management-and-prevention
#2
Kenta Furuya, Hitoshi Nakajima, Yousuke Sasaki, Akira Ishiko, Yoshihisa Urita
Scabies is an infection caused by Sarcoptes scabiei. In developed countries, scabies remains an important public health problem in hospitals and care facilities among elderly or immunocompromised patients. There are a number of medical providers who have not experienced scabies and there has been confusion surrounding its management and prevention. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify the optimal approach for the management and prevention of scabies. A scabies outbreak occurred between June 2014 and October 2014 in the Toho University School of Medicine, Omori Hospital (Tokyo, Japan), and the current study investigates factors concerning the outbreak, such as disease recognition, diagnostic strategy, medical staff experience and correspondence after the outbreak occurred...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080905/plasma-protein-electrophoresis-and-select-acute-phase-proteins-in-healthy-bonnethead-sharks-sphyrna-tiburo-under-managed-care
#3
Michael W Hyatt, Cara L Field, Tonya M Clauss, Kristopher L Arheart, Carolyn Cray
Preventative health care of elasmobranchs is an important but understudied field of aquatic veterinary medicine. Evaluation of inflammation through the acute phase response is a valuable tool in health assessments. To better assess the health of bonnethead sharks ( Sphyrna tiburo ) under managed care, normal reference intervals of protein electrophoresis (EPH) and the acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin (HP), were established. Blood was collected from wild caught, captive raised bonnethead sharks housed at public aquaria...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079898/the-current-state-of-implementation-science-in-genomic-medicine-opportunities-for-improvement
#4
Megan C Roberts, Amy E Kennedy, David A Chambers, Muin J Khoury
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to identify trends and gaps in the field of implementation science in genomic medicine. METHODS: We conducted a literature review using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Genomics Knowledge Base to examine the current literature in the field of implementation science in genomic medicine. We selected original research articles based on specific inclusion criteria and then abstracted information about study design, genomic medicine, and implementation outcomes...
January 12, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060982/-ethical-dilemmas-about-disclosure-of-errors-in-medicine
#5
Sebastián Lavanderos, Juan Pedraza, Moisés Russo N, Sofía P Salas
Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System” awareness of the importance of medical errors has increased. These are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and recent studies suggest that they can be the third leading cause of death in the United States. Difficulties have been identified by health personnel to prevent, detect and disclose to patients the occurrence of a medical error, an also to report them to the appropriate authorities. Although human error cannot be eliminated, it is possible to design safety systems to mitigate their frequency and consequences...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056932/in-vivo-antimalarial-activity-of-crude-extracts-and-solvent-fractions-of-leaves-of-strychnos-mitis-in-plasmodium-berghei-infected-mice
#6
Selamawit Fentahun, Eyasu Makonnen, Tesfaye Awas, Mirutse Giday
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in the world which is responsible for death of millions particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Today, the control of malaria has become gradually more complex due to the spread of drug-resistant parasites. Medicinal plants are the unquestionable source of effective antimalarials. The present study aimed to evaluate antiplasmodial activity and acute toxicity of the plant Strychnos mitis in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. METHODS: Standard procedures were employed to investigate acute toxicity and 4-day suppressive effect of crude aqueous and hydro-methanolic extracts of the leaves of Strychnos mitis against P...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051253/antioxidant-diet-and-genotyping-as-tools-for-the-prevention-of-liver-disease
#7
R Di Francia, L Rinaldi, M Cillo, E Varriale, G Facchini, C D'Aniello, G Marotta, M Berretta
It is well-known that 75% of risk factors of chronic liver disease (CLD) are related to nutrition. These circumstances potentially progress towards liver steatosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It still represents an enormous problem for the economy of public health worldwide. Furthermore, validated prevention programs could be the solution. Recent knowledge in understanding molecular determinants of energy liver metabolism and new genetic markers offers new insights into the pathogenesis of CLD and HCC...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039181/sports-biostatistician-a-critical-member-of-all-sports-science-and-medicine-teams-for-injury-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Martí Casals, Caroline F Finch
Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted...
December 30, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031077/deployment-of-medical-relief-teams-of-the-indian-army-in-the-aftermath-of-the-nepal-earthquake-lessons-learned
#9
Ashutosh Chauhan, Bhushan Kumar Chopra
In April 2015 a 7.8-magnitude earthquake hit Nepal. As part of relief operations named Operation Maitri, the Indian Armed Forces deployed 3 field hospitals in the disaster zone. Rapid deployment of mobile surgical teams to far-flung, inaccessible areas was done by helicopters. In an operational deployment spanning 1 month, a total of 7532 patients were treated and 105 surgeries were carried out on 83 patients. One-fifth of the patients were less than 18 years of age. One-third of the patients had traumatic injuries directly attributable to the earthquake, whereas the remaining patients were treated for diseases of poor sanitation and hygiene as well as chronic illness that had been neglected owing to the collapse of the local health infrastructure...
December 29, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030408/nurses-on-the-front-lines-improving-adolescent-sexual-and-reproductive-health-across-health-care-settings
#10
Diane Santa Maria, Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Loretta Sweet Jemmott, Anne Derouin, Antonia Villarruel
: Nurses care for adolescents in a variety of settings, including communities, schools, and public health and acute care clinics, which affords them many opportunities to improve adolescents' sexual and reproductive health and reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. To ensure that adolescents have access to sexual and reproductive health care (which includes both preventive counseling and treatment) in all nursing practice sites, nurses need to gain the knowledge and hone the skills required to deliver evidence-based counseling and services to adolescents and parents...
January 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028719/identification-of-chinese-medicine-constitution-in-public-health-services
#11
Ji Wang, Ying-Shua Li, Qi Wang
Public health is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and prompting physical and mental health through evaluation, policy development and sanitary measures. The development of public health has become an important part of health care reform in China, and it requires the participation of Chinese medicine (CM) in the practice of public health. This study analyzed the problems of CM services in public health, suggested that the identification of CM constitution could propose an application paradigm of CM services in public health, and described from aspects of theory, technology and application...
December 27, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025611/evidence-and-evidence-gaps-an-introduction
#12
REVIEW
Gabriele Dreier, Jan Löhler
Background: Medical treatment requires the implementation of existing evidence in the decision making process in order to be able to find the best possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic measure for the individual patient based on the physician's own expertise. Clinical trials form the evidence base and ideally, their results are assembled, analyzed, summarized, and made available in systematic review articles. Beside planning, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials in conformity with GCP (good clinical practice), it is essential that all results of conducted studies are publicly available in order to avoid publication bias...
2016: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024981/the-new-korean-action-plan-for-containment-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#13
Sukhyun Ryu
BACKGROUND: The Korean national action plan on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was established on 11 August 2016 by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. METHODS AND RESULTS: This article briefly describes the current status of AMR in Korea and introduces six objectives of the action plan, including the prudent use of antimicrobial medicines, prevention of the spread of AMR, strengthening surveillance programmes, awareness improvement, strengthening research and development, and enhancement of international collaboration...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018878/regulatory-approval-time-for-hormonal-contraception-in-canada-the-united-states-and-the-united-kingdom-2000-2015-a-retrospective-data-analysis
#14
Christine Troskie, Judith A Soon, Arianne Y Albert, Wendy V Norman
BACKGROUND: Access to a wide range of contraceptive methods improves prevention of unintended pregnancy by ensuring the best method fit for each individual. We compared approval times of new hormonal contraceptives by Health Canada, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). METHODS: We obtained dates of applications to Health Canada, the FDA and the MHRA for contraceptive methods approved from January 2000 to January 2015...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017435/informing-vaccine-decision-making-a-strategic-multi-attribute-ranking-tool-for-vaccines-smart-vaccines-2-0
#15
Stacey Knobler, Karin Bok, Bruce Gellin
SMART Vaccines 2.0 software is being developed to support decision-making among multiple stakeholders in the process of prioritizing investments to optimize the outcomes of vaccine development and deployment. Vaccines and associated vaccination programs are one of the most successful and effective public health interventions to prevent communicable diseases and vaccine researchers are continually working towards expanding targets for communicable and non-communicable diseases through preventive and therapeutic modes...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017173/femoral-nerve-block-versus-intravenous-fentanyl-in-adult-patients-with-hip-fractures-a-systematic-review
#16
Flávia Vieira Guimarães Hartmann, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Marta Rodrigues de Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures configure an important public health issue and are associated with high mortality taxes and lose of functionality. Hip fractures refer to a fracture occurring between the edge of the femoral head and 5cm below the lesser trochanter. They are common in orthopedic emergencies. The number of proximal femoral fractures is likely to increase as the population ages. The average cost of care during the initial hospitalization for hip fracture can be estimated about US$ 7,000 per patient...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990468/prevention-and-health-promotion-from-theory-to-practice-the-interprofessional-mempe-summer-university-for-students-of-medicine-master-of-public-health-and-epidemiology
#17
Nadja Idler, Johanna Huber, Sabine von Mutius, Lena Welbergen, Martin R Fischer
Objective: During the 2015 summer semester of Munich's Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU) medical school, the pilot project "MeMPE Summer University - An Interprofessional Seminar on Prevention and Health Promotion" was implemented as a compulsory elective subject. In 90 teaching units of 45 minutes each, 20 students from the degree programs of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Master of Science Epidemiology (MeMPE) completed modules in theoretical introduction, scientific project work as well as practical assignments and conference attendance...
2016: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982292/2-nd-brazilian-consensus-on-chagas-disease-2015
#18
João Carlos Pinto Dias, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Eliane Dias Gontijo, Alejandro Luquetti, Maria Aparecida Shikanai-Yasuda, José Rodrigues Coura, Rosália Morais Torres, José Renan da Cunha Melo, Eros Antonio de Almeida, Wilson de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Silveira, Joffre Marcondes de Rezende, Fabiane Scalabrini Pinto, Antonio Walter Ferreira, Anis Rassi, Abílio Augusto Fragata, Andréa Silvestre de Sousa, Dalmo Correia, Ana Maria Jansen, Glaucia Manzan Queiroz Andrade, Constança Felícia De Paoli de Carvalho Britto, Ana Yecê das Neves Pinto, Anis Rassi, Dayse Elisabeth Campos, Fernando Abad-Franch, Silvana Eloi Santos, Egler Chiari, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Eliane Furtado Moreira, Divina Seila de Oliveira Marques, Eliane Lages Silva, José Antonio Marin-Neto, Lúcia Maria da Cunha Galvão, Sergio Salles Xavier, Sebastião Aldo da Silva Valente, Noêmia Barbosa Carvalho, Alessandra Viana Cardoso, Rafaella Albuquerque E Silva, Veruska Maia da Costa, Simone Monzani Vivaldini, Suelene Mamede Oliveira, Vera da Costa Valente, Mayara Maia Lima, Renato Vieira Alves
Chagas disease is a neglected chronic condition with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. It has considerable psychological, social, and economic impacts. The disease represents a significant public health issue in Brazil, with different regional patterns. This document presents the evidence that resulted in the Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease. The objective was to review and standardize strategies for diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of Chagas disease in the country, based on the available scientific evidence...
December 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977007/the-value-of-genetic-testing-beyond-clinical-utility
#19
Barbara Lerner, Nell Marshall, Sabine Oishi, Andrew Lanto, Martin Lee, Alison B Hamilton, Elizabeth M Yano, Maren T Scheuner
OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of genetic testing from the perspective of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical leadership. METHODS: We administered an Internet-based survey to VA clinical leaders nationwide. Respondents rated the value (on a 5-point scale) of each of six possible reasons for genetic testing. Bivariate and linear regressions identified associations between value ratings and environmental, organizational, provider, patient, and encounter characteristics...
December 15, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976667/icoh-international-code-of-ethics-for-occupational-health-professionals-historical-fortune-and-future-perspectives-in-italy
#20
Carlo Petyx, Giovanni Costa, Maurizio Manno, Antonio Valenti, Sergio Iavicoli
The Working Group responsible for the Italian translation of the third edition of the International Code of Ethics, appointed by the President of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), Dr. Jukka Takala, completed last April the revision work. The final text, already available on the ICOH website, has been printed and distributed by the Italian National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work (INAIL) at the 79th National Congress of the Italian Society of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII), in Rome...
December 13, 2016: La Medicina del Lavoro
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