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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931245/brain-activation-in-frontotemporal-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#1
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915210/functional-brain-imaging-of-walking-while-talking-an-fnirs-study
#2
Florian G Metzger, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Florian B Haeussinger, Patrick Schneeweiss, Justin Hudak, Andreas J Fallgatter, Sabrina Schneider
Since functional imaging of whole body movements is not feasible with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study presents in vivo functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a suitable technique to measure body movement effects on fronto-temporo-parietal cortical activation in single and dual task paradigms. Previous fNIRS applications in studies addressing whole body movements were typically limited to the assessment of prefrontal brain areas. The current study investigated brain activation in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortex of both hemispheres using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with two large 4 x 4 probe-sets with 24 channels each during single and dual gait tasks...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909354/the-comprehension-of-sentences-with-unaccusative-verbs-in-aphasia-a-test-of-the-intervener-hypothesis
#3
Natalie Sullivan, Matthew Walenski, Tracy Love, Lewis P Shapiro
BACKGROUND: It is well accepted that individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have difficulty comprehending some sentences with filler-gap dependencies. While investigations of these difficulties have been conducted with several different sentence types (e.g., object relatives, Wh-questions), we explore sentences containing unaccusative verbs, which arguably have a single noun phrase (NP) that is base-generated in object position but then is displaced to surface subject position. Unaccusative verbs provide an ideal test case for a particular hypothesis about the comprehension disorder-the Intervener Hypothesis-that posits that the difficulty individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have comprehending sentences containing filler-gap dependencies results from similarity-based interference caused by the presence of an intervening NP between the two elements of a syntactic chain...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893726/glutamatergic-synaptic-integration-of-locomotion-speed-via-septoentorhinal-projections
#4
Daniel Justus, Dennis Dalügge, Stefanie Bothe, Falko Fuhrmann, Christian Hannes, Hiroshi Kaneko, Detlef Friedrichs, Liudmila Sosulina, Inna Schwarz, David Anthony Elliott, Susanne Schoch, Frank Bradke, Martin Karl Schwarz, Stefan Remy
The medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MSDB) send glutamatergic axons to medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). We found that this pathway provides speed-correlated input to several MEC cell-types in layer 2/3. The speed signal is integrated most effectively by pyramidal cells but also excites stellate cells and interneurons. Thus, the MSDB conveys speed information that can be used by MEC neurons for spatial representation of self-location.
November 28, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884462/dual-neural-network-model-for-the-evolution-of-speech-and-language
#5
REVIEW
Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Explaining the evolution of speech and language poses one of the biggest challenges in biology. We propose a dual network model that posits a volitional articulatory motor network (VAMN) originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC; including Broca's area) that cognitively controls vocal output of a phylogenetically conserved primary vocal motor network (PVMN) situated in subcortical structures. By comparing the connections between these two systems in human and nonhuman primate brains, we identify crucial biological preadaptations in monkeys for the emergence of a language system in humans...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877112/internal-cholinergic-regulation-of-learning-and-recall-in-a-model-of-olfactory-processing
#6
Licurgo de Almeida, Marco Idiart, Owen Dean, Sasha Devore, David M Smith, Christiane Linster
In the olfactory system, cholinergic modulation has been associated with contrast modulation and changes in receptive fields in the olfactory bulb, as well the learning of odor associations in olfactory cortex. Computational modeling and behavioral studies suggest that cholinergic modulation could improve sensory processing and learning while preventing pro-active interference when task demands are high. However, how sensory inputs and/or learning regulate incoming modulation has not yet been elucidated. We here use a computational model of the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex (PC) and horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) to explore how olfactory learning could regulate cholinergic inputs to the system in a closed feedback loop...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870461/sexual-dimorphism-of-broca-s-region-more-gray-matter-in-female-brains-in-brodmann-areas-44-and-45
#7
Florian Kurth, Lutz Jancke, Eileen Luders
Although a sexual dimorphism in brain structure is generally well established, evidence for sex differences in Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 is inconclusive. This may be due to the difficulty of accurately defining BA 44 and BA 45 in magnetic resonance images, given that these regions are variable in their location and extent and that they do not match well with macroanatomic landmarks. Here we set out to test for possible sex differences in the local gray matter of BA 44/45 by integrating imaging-based signal intensities with cytoarchitectonically defined tissue probabilities in a sample of 50 male and 50 female subjects...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852019/-language-functions-in-the-frontal-association-area-brain-mechanisms-that-create-language
#8
Kayako Yamamoto, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Broca's area is known to be critically involved in language processing for more than 150 years. Recent neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, enabled the subdivision of Broca's area based on both functional and anatomical aspects. Networks among the frontal association areas, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and other cortical regions in the temporal/parietal association areas, are also important for language-related information processing...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847708/the-prognosis-and-recovery-of-aphasia-related-to-stroke-lesion
#9
Bomi Sul, Joon Sung Kim, Bo Young Hong, Kyoung Bo Lee, Woo Seop Hwang, Young Kook Kim, Seong Hoon Lim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of specific brain lesions on prognosis and recovery of post-stroke aphasia, and to assess the characteristic pattern of recovery. METHODS: Total of 15 subjects with first-ever, left hemisphere stroke, who were right handed, and who completed language assessment using the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) at least twice during the subacute and chronic stages of stroke, were included. The brain lesions of the participants were evaluated using MRI-cron, SPM8, and Talairach Daemon software...
October 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816558/motor-skill-for-tool-use-is-associated-with-asymmetries-in-broca-s-area-and-the-motor-hand-area-of-the-precentral-gyrus-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#10
William D Hopkins, Adrien Meguerditchian, Olivier Coulon, Maria Misiura, Sarah Pope, Mary Catherine Mareno, Steven J Schapiro
Among nonhuman primates, chimpanzees are well known for their sophistication and diversity of tool use in both captivity and the wild. The evolution of tool manufacture and use has been proposed as a driving mechanism for the development of increasing brain size, complex cognition and motor skills, as well as the population-level handedness observed in modern humans. Notwithstanding, our understanding of the neurological correlates of tool use in chimpanzees and other primates remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed the hand preference and performance skill of chimpanzees on a tool use task and correlated these data with measures of neuroanatomical asymmetries in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the pli-de-passage fronto-parietal moyen (PPFM)...
November 2, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803287/a-neuroanatomical-predictor-of-mirror-self-recognition-in-chimpanzees
#11
E E Hecht, L M Mahovetz, T M Preuss, W D Hopkins
The ability to recognize one's own reflection is shared by humans and only a few other species, including chimpanzees. However, this ability is highly variable across individual chimpanzees. In humans, self-recognition involves a distributed, right-lateralized network including frontal and parietal regions involved in the production and perception of action. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is a system of white matter tracts linking these frontal and parietal regions. The current study measured mirror self-recognition (MSR) and SLF anatomy in 60 chimpanzees using diffusion tensor imaging...
November 1, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792887/cortico-striatal-language-pathways-dynamically-adjust-for-syntactic-complexity-a-computational-study
#12
Krisztina Szalisznyó, David Silverstein, Marc Teichmann, Hugues Duffau, Anja Smits
A growing body of literature supports a key role of fronto-striatal circuits in language perception. It is now known that the striatum plays a role in engaging attentional resources and linguistic rule computation while also serving phonological short-term memory capabilities. The ventral semantic and the dorsal phonological stream dichotomy assumed for spoken language processing also seems to play a role in cortico-striatal perception. Based on recent studies that correlate deep Broca-striatal pathways with complex syntax performance, we used a previously developed computational model of frontal-striatal syntax circuits and hypothesized that different parallel language pathways may contribute to canonical and non-canonical sentence comprehension separately...
October 25, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781971/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#13
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 26, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774713/on-the-brain-structure-heterogeneity-of-autism-parsing-out-acquisition-site-effects-with-significance-weighted-principal-component-analysis
#14
Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M H Young, Sean C L Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G M Murphy, Edward T Bullmore, John Suckling
Neuroimaging studies have reported structural and physiological differences that could help understand the causes and development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Many of them rely on multisite designs, with the recruitment of larger samples increasing statistical power. However, recent large-scale studies have put some findings into question, considering the results to be strongly dependent on the database used, and demonstrating the substantial heterogeneity within this clinically defined category. One major source of variance may be the acquisition of the data in multiple centres...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771043/tracking-the-development-of-agrammatic-aphasia-a-tensor-based-morphometry-study
#15
Jennifer L Whitwell, Joseph R Duffy, Mary M Machulda, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Matthew L Senjem, Jeffrey L Gunter, Anthony J Spychalla, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs
Agrammatic aphasia can be observed in neurodegenerative disorders and has been traditionally linked with damage to Broca's area, although there have been disagreements concerning whether damage to Broca's area is necessary or sufficient for the development of agrammatism. We aimed to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of the emergence of agrammatic aphasia utilizing a unique cohort of patients with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) that did not have agrammatism at baseline but developed agrammatic aphasia over time...
September 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752277/age-related-evolution-patterns-in-online-handwriting
#16
Gabriel Marzinotto, José C Rosales, Mounîm A El-Yacoubi, Sonia Garcia-Salicetti, Christian Kahindo, Hélène Kerhervé, Victoria Cristancho-Lacroix, Anne-Sophie Rigaud
Characterizing age from handwriting (HW) has important applications, as it is key to distinguishing normal HW evolution with age from abnormal HW change, potentially triggered by neurodegenerative decline. We propose, in this work, an original approach for online HW style characterization based on a two-level clustering scheme. The first level generates writer-independent word clusters from raw spatial-dynamic HW information. At the second level, each writer's words are converted into a Bag of Prototype Words that is augmented by an interword stability measure...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746748/the-localization-of-long-distance-dependency-components-integrating-the-focal-lesion-and-neuroimaging-record
#17
Maria M Piñango, Emily Finn, Cheryl Lacadie, R Todd Constable
In the sentence "The captain who the sailor greeted is tall," the connection between the relative pronoun and the object position of greeted represents a long-distance dependency (LDD), necessary for the interpretation of "the captain" as the individual being greeted. Whereas the lesion-based record shows preferential involvement of only the left inferior frontal (LIF) cortex, associated with Broca's aphasia, during real-time comprehension of LDDs, the neuroimaging record shows additional involvement of the left posterior superior temporal (LPST) and lower parietal cortices, which are associated with Wernicke's aphasia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746729/broca-pars-triangularis-constitutes-a-hub-of-the-language-control-network-during-simultaneous-language-translation
#18
Stefan Elmer
Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723361/three-diketopiperazine-alkaloids-with-spirocyclic-skeletons-and-one-bisthiodiketopiperazine-derivative-from-the-mangrove-derived-endophytic-fungus-penicillium-brocae-ma-231
#19
Ling-Hong Meng, Chen-Yin Wang, Attila Mándi, Xiao-Ming Li, Xue-Yi Hu, Matthias U Kassack, Tibor Kurtán, Bin-Gui Wang
Four new diketopiperazines including spirobrocazines A-C (1-3) and brocazine G (4) were characterized from the mangrove-derived Penicillium brocae MA-231. Compounds 1 and 2 had a 6/5/6/5/6 cyclic system with a rare spirocyclic center at C-2. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis, TDDFT-ECD calculations, and X-ray diffraction. Compound 4 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against both sensitive and cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells and strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus...
October 10, 2016: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722837/attention-training-improves-aberrant-neural-dynamics-during-working-memory-processing-in-veterans-with-ptsd
#20
Timothy J McDermott, Amy S Badura-Brack, Katherine M Becker, Tara J Ryan, Yair Bar-Haim, Daniel S Pine, Maya M Khanna, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with executive functioning deficits, including disruptions in working memory (WM). Recent studies suggest that attention training reduces PTSD symptomatology, but the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. We used high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG) to evaluate whether attention training modulates brain regions serving WM processing in PTSD. Fourteen veterans with PTSD completed a WM task during a 306-sensor MEG recording before and after 8 sessions of attention training treatment...
October 8, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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