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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806599/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-striatum-and-prefrontal-cortex-predicts-reading-performance-in-school-age-children
#1
Sarael Alcauter, Liliana García-Mondragón, Zeus Gracia-Tabuenca, Martha B Moreno, Juan J Ortiz, Fernando A Barrios
The current study investigated the neural basis of reading performance in 60 school-age Spanish-speaking children, aged 6 to 9years. By using a data-driven approach and an automated matching procedure, we identified a left-lateralized resting state network that included typical language regions (Wernicke's and Broca's regions), prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyri, superior and middle temporal gyri, cerebellum, and subcortical regions, and explored its relevance for reading performance (accuracy, comprehension and speed)...
August 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797973/frontal-fibers-connecting-the-superior-frontal-gyrus-to-broca-s-area-a-cortico-cortical-evoked-potential-study
#2
Satoshi Ookawa, Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoko Ochi, Yukinori Akiyama, Tamaki Kobayashi, Yukihiro Yamao, Takayuki Kikuchi, Riki Matsumoto, Takeharu Kunieda, Nobuhiro Mikuni
BACKGROUND: The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca's area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). METHOD: Eight patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language dominant side were enrolled in this study...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797920/prefrontal-activation-during-a-working-memory-task-differs-between-patients-with-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-a-preliminary-exploratory-study
#3
Yue Zhu, Wenxiang Quan, Huali Wang, Yantao Ma, Jun Yan, Hua Zhang, Wentian Dong, Xin Yu
BACKGROUND: To identify bipolar disorder during the initial stages of a depressive episode has always been a great clinical challenge. Patterns of functional brain activity may underlie the differences in the neural mechanisms of bipolar depression (BD) and unipolar depression (UD). This study aimed to investigate the differences in neural activity between BD and UD patients during executive task. METHODS: We performed a 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) scan in 39 patients with BD, 35 patients with UD, and 36 healthy controls (HCs)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796033/rtms-treatments-combined-with-speech-training-for-a-conduction-aphasia-patient-a-case-report-with-mri-study
#4
Hui Zhang, Ying Chen, Ruiping Hu, Liqing Yang, Mengxing Wang, Jilei Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Yi Wu, Xiaoxia Du
RATIONALE: To date, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms of the functional recovery of language after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in aphasia. Our aim was to investigate the mechanism that underlies rTMS and speech training in a case report. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who was initially diagnosed with conduction aphasia following a left hemisphere stroke. INTERVENTIONS: The rTMS location comprised the left Broca area, and a frequency of 5 Hz for 20 min/d for 10 days during a 2-week period was used...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780063/reorganization-of-language-centers-in-patients-with-brain-tumors-located-in-eloquent-speech-areas-a-pre-and-postoperative-preliminary-fmri-study
#5
Katarzyna Gębska-Kośla, Bartosz Bryszewski, Dariusz J Jaskólski, Jan Fortuniak, Maciej Niewodniczy, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Agata Majos
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine in pre- and postsurgical fMRI studies the rearrangement of the Broca's and Wernicke's areas and the lateralization index for these areas in patients with brain tumors located near speech centers. Impact of the surgical treatment on the brain plasticity was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre- and postoperative fMRI examinations were performed in 10 patients with low grade glial, left-sided brain tumors located close to the Broca's (5 patients) or Wernicke's area (5 patients)...
July 29, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777693/beyond-descriptive-neurology-broca-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-cortical-function
#6
Richard Leblanc
Pierre-Paul Broca's studies in neurobiology remain of interest. I review a previously neglected aspect of Broca's work in which he presages the use of modern scanning techniques. Broca's goal was to correlate cerebral metabolism to regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using a novel method, to which he referred as cerebral thermometry. Broca attempted to measure changes in temperatures from the ischemic area and across the watershed regions during a stroke, and the increased CBF produced by performing a cognitive task such as reading aloud...
August 4, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759567/functional-neural-circuits-that-underlie-developmental-stuttering
#7
Jianping Qiao, Zhishun Wang, Guihu Zhao, Yuankai Huo, Carl L Herder, Chamonix O Sikora, Bradley S Peterson
The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically developing (TD) fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM) to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754657/recombination-at-subtelomeres-is-regulated-by-physical-distance-double-strand-break-resection-and-chromatin-status
#8
Amandine Batté, Clémentine Brocas, Hélène Bordelet, Antoine Hocher, Myriam Ruault, Adouda Adjiri, Angela Taddei, Karine Dubrana
Homologous recombination (HR) is a conserved mechanism that repairs broken chromosomes via intact homologous sequences. How different genomic, chromatin and subnuclear contexts influence HR efficiency and outcome is poorly understood. We developed an assay to assess HR outcome by gene conversion (GC) and break-induced replication (BIR), and discovered that subtelomeric double-stranded breaks (DSBs) are preferentially repaired by BIR despite the presence of flanking homologous sequences. Overexpression of a silencing-deficient SIR3 mutant led to active grouping of telomeres and specifically increased the GC efficiency between subtelomeres...
July 28, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754068/a-new-head-mounted-display-based-augmented-reality-system-in-neurosurgical-oncology-a-study-on-phantom
#9
Fabrizio Cutolo, Antonio Meola, Marina Carbone, Sara Sinceri, Federico Cagnazzo, Ennio Denaro, Nicola Esposito, Mauro Ferrari, Vincenzo Ferrari
PURPOSE: Benefits of minimally invasive neurosurgery mandate the development of ergonomic paradigms for neuronavigation. Augmented Reality (AR) systems can overcome the shortcomings of commercial neuronavigators. The aim of this work is to apply a novel AR system, based on a head-mounted stereoscopic video see-through display, as an aid in complex neurological lesion targeting. Effectiveness was investigated on a newly designed patient-specific head mannequin featuring an anatomically realistic brain phantom with embedded synthetically created tumors and eloquent areas...
December 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740768/fmri-after-phalloplasty-with-nerve-anastomosis-in-a-trans-man-patient
#10
Roberto Doria-Medina, Åsa Carlsson, Emma H Jönsson, Lars Jönsson, Andri Thorarinsson, Mattias Lidén, Gennaro Selvaggi
We report on a case of a trans-man patient, who underwent penile reconstruction with the use of a radial forearm flap, urethroplasty, vaginectomy and scrotoplasty, insertion of testicle implants, and penile erection implants, similar to previously described methods. One of the requirements for an ideal phalloplasty is the preservation of erogenous sensitivity, which is often demanded by the patients for fulfilling their sexual well-being. For the first time known to us, we use a functional magnetic resonance imaging following radial forearm flap phalloplasty with nerve anastomosis to assess the cortical activation after clitoral stimulation...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727877/genetic-predisposition-to-breast-cancer-due-to-mutations-other-than-brca1-and-brca2-founder-alleles-among-ashkenazi-jewish-women
#11
Tom Walsh, Jessica B Mandell, Barbara M Norquist, Silvia Casadei, Suleyman Gulsuner, Ming K Lee, Mary-Claire King
Importance: Among Ashkenazi Jewish women, 3 mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 severely increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer. However, among Ashkenazi Jewish patients with breast cancer who do not carry one of these founder mutations, the likelihood of carrying another pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 or another breast cancer gene is not known. This information would be valuable to the patient and family for cancer prevention and treatment. Objective: To determine the frequency of cancer-predisposing mutations other than the BRCA1 and BRCA2 founder alleles among patients of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry with breast cancer...
July 20, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717525/differential-effects-of-awake-glioma-surgery-in-critical-language-areas-on-cognition-4-case-studies
#12
Djaina Satoer, Elke De Witte, Marion Smits, Roelien Bastiaanse, Arnaud Vincent, Peter Mariën, Evy Visch-Brink
Awake surgery with electrocorticosubcortical stimulation is the golden standard treatment for gliomas in eloquent areas. Preoperatively, mostly mild cognitive disturbances are observed with postoperative deterioration. We describe pre- and postoperative profiles of 4 patients (P1-P4) with gliomas in "critical" language areas ("Broca," "Wernicke," and the arcuate fasciculus) undergoing awake surgery to get insight into the underlying mechanism of neuroplasticity. Neuropsychological examination was carried out preoperatively (at T1) and postoperatively (at T2, T3)...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665385/-dynamics-of-functional-mri-and-speech-function-in-patients-after-resection-of-frontal-and-temporal-lobe-tumors
#13
S B Buklina, A I Batalov, A S Smirnov, A A Poddubskaya, D I Pitskhelauri, G L Kobyakov, V Yu Zhukov, S A Goryaynov, A S Kulikov, A A Ogurtsova, A V Golanov, M D Varyukhina, I N Pronin
RATIONALE: There are no studies on application of functional MRI (fMRI) for long-term monitoring of the condition of patients after resection of frontal and temporal lobe tumors. PURPOSE: The study purpose was to correlate, using fMRI, reorganization of the speech system and dynamics of speech disorders in patients with left hemisphere gliomas before surgery and in the early and late postoperative periods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 20 patients with left hemisphere gliomas were dynamically monitored using fMRI and comprehensive neuropsychological testing...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659792/the-serotonin-receptor-6-antagonist-idalopirdine-and-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-donepezil-have-synergistic-effects-on-brain-activity-a-functional-mri-study-in-the-awake-rat
#14
Craig F Ferris, Praveen Kulkarni, Jason R Yee, Mark Nedelman, Inge E M de Jong
The 5-HT6 receptor is a promising target for cognitive disorders, in particular for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other CNS disorders. The high-affinity and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine (Lu AE58054) is currently in development for mild-moderate AD as adjunct therapy to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). We studied the effects of idalopirdine alone and in combination with the AChEI donepezil on brain activity using BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the awake rat...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658048/increased-activation-of-the-hippocampus-during-a-chinese-character-subvocalization-task-in-adults-with-cleft-lip-and-palate-palatoplasty-and-speech-therapy
#15
Wenjing Zhang, Chunlin Li, Long Chen, Xiyue Xing, Xiangyang Li, Zhi Yang, Haiyan Zhang, Renji Chen
This study aimed to explore brain activation in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) using a Chinese character subvocalization task, in which the stimuli were selected from a clinical articulation evaluation test. CLP is a congenital disability. Individuals with CLP usually have articulation disorder caused by abnormal lip and palate structure. Previous studies showed that primary somatosensory and motor areas had a significant difference in activation in patients with CLP. However, whether brain activation was restored to a normal level after palatoplasty and speech rehabilitation is not clear...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626411/dissociated-crossed-speech-areas-in-a-tumour-patient
#16
Jörg Mauler, Irene Neuner, Georg Neuloh, Bruno Fimm, Frank Boers, Martin Wiesmann, Hans Clusmann, Karl-Josef Langen, N Jon Shah
In the past, the eloquent areas could be deliberately localised by the invasive Wada test. The very rare cases of dissociated crossed speech areas were accidentally found based on the clinical symptomatology. Today functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based imaging can be employed to non-invasively localise the eloquent areas in brain tumour patients for therapy planning. A 41-year-old, left-handed man with a low-grade glioma in the left frontal operculum extending to the insular cortex, tension headaches, and anomic aphasia over 5 months underwent a pre-operative speech area localisation fMRI measurement, which revealed the evidence of the transhemispheric disposition, where the dominant Wernicke speech area is located on the left and the Broca's area is strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619652/frontal-temporal-and-parietal-systems-synchronize-within-and-across-brains-during-live-eye-to-eye-contact
#17
Joy Hirsch, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Yumie Ono
Human eye-to-eye contact is a primary source of social cues and communication. In spite of the biological significance of this interpersonal interaction, the underlying neural processes are not well-understood. This knowledge gap, in part, reflects limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, including solitary confinement in the bore of a scanner and minimal tolerance of head movement that constrain investigations of natural, two-person interactions. However, these limitations are substantially resolved by recent technical developments in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive spectral absorbance technique that detects changes in blood oxygen levels in the brain by using surface-mounted optical sensors...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617318/occurrence-of-penicillium-brocae-and-penicillium-citreonigrum-which-produce-a-mutagenic-metabolite-and-a-mycotoxin-citreoviridin-respectively-in-selected-commercially-available-rice-grains-in-thailand
#18
Nozomi Shiratori, Naoki Kobayashi, Phitsanu Tulayakul, Yoshitsugu Sugiura, Masahiko Takino, Osamu Endo, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi
Commercially available rice grains in Thailand were examined to isolate the monoverticillate Penicillium species responsible for toxic yellowed rice. Penicillium species were obtained from seven out of 10 rice samples tested. Among them, one Penicillium citreonigrum isolate and six Penicillium brocae isolates were morphologically identified. The P. citreonigrum isolate produced the mycotoxin citreoviridin on a yeast extract sucrose broth medium. Mycotoxin surveys showed that citreoviridin was not detected in any samples, but one out of 10 rice samples tested was positive for aflatoxin B₁ at a level of 5...
June 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602661/brain-arteriovenous-malformations-located-in-language-area-surgical-outcomes-and-risk-factors-for-postoperative-language-deficits
#19
Yuming Jiao, Fuxin Lin, Jun Wu, Hao Li, Xin Chen, Zhicen Li, Ji Ma, Yong Cao, Shuo Wang, Jizong Zhao
OBJECT: Case selection for surgical treatment of language area brain arteriovenous malformations (L-BAVMs) remains difficult. This study aimed to determine the surgical outcomes and risk factors for postoperative language deficits (LD) in patients with L-BAVMs. METHODS: Patients with L-BAVMs who underwent microsurgical resection between September 2012 and June 2016 were reviewed. All patients had undergone preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
June 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591836/focal-cortical-anomalies-and-language-impairment-in-16p11-2-deletion-and-duplication-syndrome
#20
Karen Blackmon, Thomas Thesen, Sophie Green, Emma Ben-Avi, Xiuyuan Wang, Benjamin Fuchs, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky
Individuals with copy number variants (CNV) in the 16p11.2 chromosomal region are at high risk for language disorders. We investigate whether the extent and location of focal cortical anomalies are associated with language impairment in individuals with 16p11.2 CNVs. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans from 30 16p11.2 deletion (16p-del), 25 16p11.2 duplication (16p-dup), and 90 noncarrier controls (NCC) were analyzed to derive personalized cortical anomaly maps through single-case cortical thickness (CT) comparison to age-matched normative samples...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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