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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453996/broca-s-region-a-causal-role-in-implicit-processing-of-grammars-with-crossed-non-adjacent-dependencies
#1
Julia Uddén, Martin Ingvar, Peter Hagoort, Karl Magnus Petersson
Non-adjacent dependencies are challenging for the language learning machinery and are acquired later than adjacent dependencies. In this transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study, we show that participants successfully discriminated between grammatical and non-grammatical sequences after having implicitly acquired an artificial language with crossed non-adjacent dependencies. Subsequent to transcranial magnetic stimulation of Broca's region, discrimination was impaired compared to when a language-irrelevant control region (vertex) was stimulated...
April 25, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428208/resting-state-seed-based-analysis-an-alternative-to-task-based-language-fmri-and-its-laterality-index
#2
K A Smitha, K M Arun, P G Rajesh, B Thomas, C Kesavadas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Language is a cardinal function that makes human unique. Preservation of language function poses a great challenge for surgeons during resection. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of resting-state fMRI in the lateralization of language function in healthy subjects to permit its further testing in patients who are unable to perform task-based fMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen healthy right-handed volunteers were prospectively evaluated with resting-state fMRI and task-based fMRI to assess language networks...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424604/mapping-critical-language-sites-in-children-performing-verb-generation-whole-brain-connectivity-and-graph-theoretical-analysis-in-meg
#3
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Brady J Williamson, Darren S Kadis
A classic left frontal-temporal brain network is known to support language processes. However, the level of participation of constituent regions, and the contribution of extra-canonical areas, is not fully understood; this is particularly true in children, and in individuals who have experienced early neurological insult. In the present work, we propose whole-brain connectivity and graph-theoretical analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) source estimates to provide robust maps of the pediatric expressive language network...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424402/-syntactic-processing-in-broca-s-area-brodmann-areas-44-and-45
#4
Atora Yamada, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424397/-spatial-cognition-and-episodic-memory-formation-in-the-limbic-cortex
#5
Yasushi Kobayashi
The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416459/the-error-of-broca-from-the-traditional-localizationist-concept-to-a-connectomal-anatomy-of-human-brain
#6
REVIEW
Hugues Duffau
Neurology, especially aphasiology, was mainly built on behavioral-structural correlations ("lesion method"). In this setting, Broca's area has been considered as the "speech area"; moreover, this observation led to localizationism. However, advances in brain mapping techniques, as functional neuroimaging and direct electrical stimulation in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas, has resulted in a paradigmatic shift regarding models of neural architecture. In fact, the brain is organized in distributed complex networks underpinning sensorimotor, visuospatial, language, cognitive and emotional functions...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409668/broca-s-area-communication-and-collaboration-in-spine-neuromonitoring-time-to-expect-more-a-lot-more-from-the-neurophysiologists
#7
Stan Skinner, Francesco Sala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409649/lexical-stress-contrast-marking-in-fluent-and-non-fluent-aphasia-in-spanish-the-relationship-between-acoustic-cues-and-compensatory-strategies
#8
Lorraine Baqué
This study sought to investigate stress production in Spanish by patients with Broca's (BA) and conduction aphasia (CA) as compared to controls. Our objectives were to assess whether: a) there were many abnormal acoustic correlates of stress as produced by patients, b) these abnormalities had a phonetic component and c) ability for articulatory compensation for stress marking was preserved. The results showed abnormal acoustic values in both BA and CA's productions, affecting not only duration but also F0 and intensity cues, and an interaction effect of stress pattern and duration on intensity cubes in BA, but not in CA or controls...
April 14, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400265/convergence-of-semantics-and-emotional-expression-within-the-ifg-pars-orbitalis
#9
Michel Belyk, Steven Brown, Jessica Lim, Sonja A Kotz
Humans communicate through a combination of linguistic and emotional channels, including propositional speech, writing, sign language, music, but also prosodic, facial, and gestural expression. These channels can be interpreted separately or they can be integrated to multimodally convey complex meanings. Neural models of the perception of semantics and emotion include nodes for both functions in the inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis (IFGorb). However, it is not known whether this convergence involves a common functional zone or instead specialized subregions that process semantics and emotion separately...
April 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396294/chronic-ambulatory-electrocorticography-from-human-speech-cortex
#10
Vikram R Rao, Matthew K Leonard, Jonathan K Kleen, Ben A Lucas, Emily A Mirro, Edward F Chang
Direct intracranial recording of human brain activity is an important approach for deciphering neural mechanisms of cognition. Such recordings, usually made in patients with epilepsy undergoing inpatient monitoring for seizure localization, are limited in duration and depend on patients' tolerance for the challenges associated with recovering from brain surgery. Thus, typical intracranial recordings, similar to most non-invasive approaches in humans, provide snapshots of brain activity in acute, highly constrained settings, limiting opportunities to understand long timescale and natural, real-world phenomena...
April 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337694/the-posterior-fossa-and-foreign-accent-syndrome-report-of-two-new-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Stefanie Keulen, Peter Mariën, Kim van Dun, Roelien Bastiaanse, Mario Manto, Jo Verhoeven
Foreign accent syndrome is a rare motor speech disorder that causes patients to speak their language with a non-native accent. In the neurogenic condition, the disorder develops after lesions in the language dominant hemisphere, often affecting Broca's area, the insula, the supplementary motor area and the primary motor cortex. Here, we present two new cases of FAS after posterior fossa lesions. The first case is a 44-year-old, right-handed, Dutch-speaking man who suffered motor speech disturbances and a left hemiplegia after a pontine infarction...
March 23, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322130/motor-recovery-in-post-stroke-patients-with-aphasia-the-role-of-specific-linguistic-abilities
#12
Valeria Ginex, Laura Veronelli, Nicola Vanacore, Eleonora Lacorte, Alessia Monti, Massimo Corbo
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is a serious consequence of stroke but aphasics patients have been routinely excluded from participation in some areas of stroke research. OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of specific linguistic and non-verbal cognitive abilities on the short-term motor recovery of patients with aphasia due to first-ever stroke to the left hemisphere after an intensive rehabilitation treatment. METHODS: 48 post-acute aphasic patients, who underwent physiotherapy and speech language therapy, were enrolled for this retrospective cohort-study...
March 21, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321956/mapping-the-brain-network-of-the-phonological-loop
#13
Costanza Papagno, Alessandro Comi, Marco Riva, Alberto Bizzi, Mirta Vernice, Alessandra Casarotti, Enrica Fava, Lorenzo Bello
The cortical and subcortical neural correlates underlying item and order information in verbal short-term memory (STM) were investigated by means of digit span in 29 patients with direct electrical stimulation during awake surgery for removal of a neoplastic lesion. Stimulation of left Broca's area interfered with span, producing significantly more item than order errors, as compared to the stimulation of the supramarginal/angular gyrus, which also interfered with span but, conversely, produced more order than item errors...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250756/evidence-of-cortical-reorganization-of-language-networks-after-stroke-with-subacute-broca-s-aphasia-a-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#14
Wei-Hong Qiu, Hui-Xiang Wu, Qing-Lu Yang, Zhuang Kang, Zhao-Cong Chen, Kui Li, Guo-Rong Qiu, Chun-Qing Xie, Gui-Fang Wan, Shao-Qiong Chen
Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that is a common consequence of stroke. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood, and as a result, current treatment options are not satisfactory. Here, we used blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the activation of bilateral cortices in patients with Broca's aphasia 1 to 3 months after stroke. Our results showed that language expression was associated with multiple brain regions in which the right hemisphere participated in the generation of language...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225156/presurgical-language-localization-with-visual-naming-associated-ecog-high-gamma-modulation-in-pediatric-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#15
Ravindra Arya, J Adam Wilson, Hisako Fujiwara, Leonid Rozhkov, James L Leach, Anna W Byars, Hansel M Greiner, Jennifer Vannest, Jason Buroker, Griffin Milsap, Brian Ervin, Ali Minai, Paul S Horn, Katherine D Holland, Francesco T Mangano, Nathan E Crone, Douglas F Rose
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study compared presurgical language localization with visual naming-associated high-γ modulation (HGM) and conventional electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) in children with intracranial electrodes. METHODS: Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial monitoring were included if able to name pictures. Electrocorticography (ECoG) signals were recorded during picture naming (overt and covert) and quiet baseline...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224285/abnormal-effective-connectivity-in-the-brain-is-involved-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#16
Baojuan Li, Long-Biao Cui, Yi-Bin Xi, Karl J Friston, Fan Guo, Hua-Ning Wang, Lin-Chuan Zhang, Yuan-Han Bai, Qing-Rong Tan, Hong Yin, Hongbing Lu
Information flow among auditory and language processing-related regions implicated in the pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia (SZ) remains unclear. In this study, we used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to quantify connections among the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inner speech monitoring), auditory cortex (auditory processing), hippocampus (memory retrieval), thalamus (information filtering), and Broca's area (language production) in 17 first-episode drug-naïve SZ patients with AVHs, 15 without AVHs, and 19 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215624/cross-cultural-consistency-and-diversity-in-intrinsic-functional-organization-of-broca-s-region
#17
Yu Zhang, Lingzhong Fan, Svenja Caspers, Stefan Heim, Ming Song, Cirong Liu, Yin Mo, Simon B Eickhoff, Katrin Amunts, Tianzi Jiang
As a core language area, Broca's region was consistently activated in a variety of language studies even across different language systems. Moreover, a high degree of structural and functional heterogeneity in Broca's region has been reported in many studies. This raised the issue of how the intrinsic organization of Broca's region effects by different language experiences in light of its subdivisions. To address this question, we used multi-center resting-state fMRI data to explore the cross-cultural consistency and diversity of Broca's region in terms of its subdivisions, connectivity patterns and modularity organization in Chinese and German speakers...
February 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205280/within-and-between-session-reproducibility-of-gaba-measurements-with-mr-spectroscopy
#18
Maiken K Brix, Lars Ersland, Kenneth Hugdahl, Gerard E Dwyer, Renate Grüner, Ralph Noeske, Mona K Beyer, Alexander R Craven
PURPOSE: The reproducibility of the MEGA-PRESS (MEshcher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) MR spectroscopy sequence for the measurement of gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) is addressed, focusing on optimizing the number of repetitions at two voxel locations in the human brain and associated possibilities in analysis tools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two 20-min MEGA-PRESS acquisitions were run (echo time = 68 ms, repetition time = 1800 ms, repetitions = 328): one from a 21 mL volume in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and one from a 22 mL volume in the left Broca's area in 21 healthy male volunteers (age 32 years ± 6[SD])...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195438/from-rest-to-language-task-task-activation-selects-and-prunes-from-broader-resting-state-network
#19
Gaelle E Doucet, Xiaosong He, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC...
February 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180072/the-diminishing-dominance-of-the-dominant-hemisphere-language-fmri-in-focal-epilepsy
#20
Chris Tailby, David F Abbott, Graeme D Jackson
"Which is the dominant hemisphere?" is a question that arises frequently in patients considered for neurosurgery. The concept of the dominant hemisphere implies uniformity of language lateralisation throughout the brain. It is increasingly recognised that this is not the case in the healthy control brain, and it is especially not so in neurological diseases such as epilepsy. In the present work we adapt our published objective lateralisation method (based on the construction of laterality curves) for use with sub-lobar cortical, subcortical and cerebellar regions of interest (ROIs)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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