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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626411/dissociated-crossed-speech-areas-in-a-tumour-patient
#1
Jörg Mauler, Irene Neuner, Georg Neuloh, Bruno Fimm, Frank Boers, Martin Wiesmann, Hans Clusmann, Karl-Josef Langen, N Jon Shah
In the past, the eloquent areas could be deliberately localised by the invasive Wada test. The very rare cases of dissociated crossed speech areas were accidentally found based on the clinical symptomatology. Today functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based imaging can be employed to non-invasively localise the eloquent areas in brain tumour patients for therapy planning. A 41-year-old, left-handed man with a low-grade glioma in the left frontal operculum extending to the insular cortex, tension headaches, and anomic aphasia over 5 months underwent a pre-operative speech area localisation fMRI measurement, which revealed the evidence of the transhemispheric disposition, where the dominant Wernicke speech area is located on the left and the Broca's area is strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619652/frontal-temporal-and-parietal-systems-synchronize-within-and-across-brains-during-live-eye-to-eye-contact
#2
Joy Hirsch, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Yumie Ono
Human eye-to-eye contact is a primary source of social cues and communication. In spite of the biological significance of this interpersonal interaction, the underlying neural processes are not well-understood. This knowledge gap, in part, reflects limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, including solitary confinement in the bore of a scanner and minimal tolerance of head movement that constrain investigations of natural, two-person interactions. However, these limitations are substantially resolved by recent technical developments in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive spectral absorbance technique that detects changes in blood oxygen levels in the brain by using surface-mounted optical sensors...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617318/occurrence-of-penicillium-brocae-and-penicillium-citreonigrum-which-produce-a-mutagenic-metabolite-and-a-mycotoxin-citreoviridin-respectively-in-selected-commercially-available-rice-grains-in-thailand
#3
Nozomi Shiratori, Naoki Kobayashi, Phitsanu Tulayakul, Yoshitsugu Sugiura, Masahiko Takino, Osamu Endo, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi
Commercially available rice grains in Thailand were examined to isolate the monoverticillate Penicillium species responsible for toxic yellowed rice. Penicillium species were obtained from seven out of 10 rice samples tested. Among them, one Penicillium citreonigrum isolate and six Penicillium brocae isolates were morphologically identified. The P. citreonigrum isolate produced the mycotoxin citreoviridin on a yeast extract sucrose broth medium. Mycotoxin surveys showed that citreoviridin was not detected in any samples, but one out of 10 rice samples tested was positive for aflatoxin B₁ at a level of 5...
June 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602661/brain-arteriovenous-malformations-located-in-language-area-surgical-outcomes-and-risk-factors-for-postoperative-language-deficits
#4
Yuming Jiao, Fuxin Lin, Jun Wu, Hao Li, Xin Chen, Zhicen Li, Ji Ma, Yong Cao, Shuo Wang, Jizong Zhao
OBJECT: Case selection for surgical treatment of language area brain arteriovenous malformations (L-BAVMs) remains difficult. This study aimed to determine the surgical outcomes and risk factors for postoperative language deficits (LD) in patients with L-BAVMs. METHODS: Patients with L-BAVMs who underwent microsurgical resection between September 2012 and June 2016 were reviewed. All patients had undergone preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
June 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591836/focal-cortical-anomalies-and-language-impairment-in-16p11-2-deletion-and-duplication-syndrome
#5
Karen Blackmon, Thomas Thesen, Sophie Green, Emma Ben-Avi, Xiuyuan Wang, Benjamin Fuchs, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky
Individuals with copy number variants (CNV) in the 16p11.2 chromosomal region are at high risk for language disorders. We investigate whether the extent and location of focal cortical anomalies are associated with language impairment in individuals with 16p11.2 CNVs. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans from 30 16p11.2 deletion (16p-del), 25 16p11.2 duplication (16p-dup), and 90 noncarrier controls (NCC) were analyzed to derive personalized cortical anomaly maps through single-case cortical thickness (CT) comparison to age-matched normative samples...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567009/anatomical-modularity-of-verbal-working-memory-functional-anatomical-evidence-from-a-famous-patient-with-short-term-memory-deficits
#6
Eraldo Paulesu, Tim Shallice, Laura Danelli, Maurizio Sberna, Richard S J Frackowiak, Chris D Frith
Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562080/neuroimaging-patterns-along-the-als-ftd-spectrum-a-multiparametric-imaging-study
#7
Taha Omer, Eoin Finegan, Siobhan Hutchinson, Mark Doherty, Alice Vajda, Russell L McLaughlin, Niall Pender, Orla Hardiman, Peter Bede
Frontotemporal dementia is associated with considerable clinical, genetic and pathological heterogeneity. The objective of this study is to characterise the imaging signatures of the main FTD phenotypes along the ALS-FTD spectrum. A total of 100 participants underwent comprehensive multimodal neuroimaging, genetic testing and neuropsychological evaluation. Seven patients with behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD), 11 patients with non-fluent-variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), two patients with sematic-variant primary progressive aphasia(svPPA), 10 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and FTD carrying the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat (C9 + ALS-FTD), 10 patients with ALS-FTD without hexanucleotide repeats (C9-ALS-FTD), 20 ALS patients without behavioural or cognitive deficits (ALSnci) and 40 healthy controls (HC) were included in a prospective quantitative neuroimaging study...
May 31, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557692/the-role-of-the-primary-sensory-cortices-in-early-language-processing
#8
Andrew C Papanicolaou, Marina Kilintari, Roozbeh Rezaie, Shalini Narayana, Abbas Babajani-Feremi
The results of this magnetoencephalography study challenge two long-standing assumptions regarding the brain mechanisms of language processing: First, that linguistic processing proper follows sensory feature processing effected by bilateral activation of the primary sensory cortices that lasts about 100 msec from stimulus onset. Second, that subsequent linguistic processing is effected by left hemisphere networks outside the primary sensory areas, including Broca's and Wernicke's association cortices. Here we present evidence that linguistic analysis begins almost synchronously with sensory, prelinguistic verbal input analysis and that the primary cortices are also engaged in these linguistic analyses and become, consequently, part of the left hemisphere language network during language tasks...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548869/neurotransmitter-receptor-availability-in-the-rat-brain-is-constant-in-a-24-hour-period
#9
A Oskamp, F Wedekind, T Kroll, D Elmenhorst, A Bauer
Wakefulness and sleep are fundamental characteristics of the brain. We, therefore, hypothesized that transmitter systems contribute to their regulation and will exhibit circadian alterations. We assessed the concentration of various neurotransmitter receptors and transporters including adenosinergic (A1AR, A2AAR, and ENT1), dopaminergic (D1R, D2R, and DAT), and serotonergic (5-HT2AR) target proteins. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used and maintained in a 12 h light: 12 h dark cycle (lights on from 07:00 h to 19:00 h)...
May 26, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544168/presurgical-language-fmri-mapping-of-six-critical-regions
#10
Christopher F Benjamin, Patricia D Walshaw, Kayleigh Hale, William D Gaillard, Leslie C Baxter, Madison M Berl, Monika Polczynska, Stephanie Noble, Rafeed Alkawadri, Lawrence J Hirsch, R Todd Constable, Susan Y Bookheimer
Language mapping is a key goal in neurosurgical planning. fMRI mapping typically proceeds with a focus on Broca's and Wernicke's areas, although multiple other language-critical areas are now well-known. We evaluated whether clinicians could use a novel approach, including clinician-driven individualized thresholding, to reliably identify six language regions, including Broca's Area, Wernicke's Area (inferior, superior), Exner's Area, Supplementary Speech Area, Angular Gyrus, and Basal Temporal Language Area...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538516/left-lateralization-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-the-presupplementary-motor-area-and-primary-language-areas
#11
William Lou, Kyung K Peck, Nicole Brennan, Arka Mallela, Andrei Holodny
An abundance of evidence points to the role of a presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in human language. This study explores the pre-SMA resting state connectivity network and the nature of its connections to known language areas. We tested the hypothesis that by seeding the pre-SMA, one would be able to establish language laterality to known cortical and subcortical language areas. We analyzed data from 30 right-handed healthy controls and performed the resting state functional MRI. A seed-based analysis using a manually drawn pre-SMA region of interest template was applied...
July 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500855/the-evolutionary-theory-of-depression
#12
Piotr Gałecki, Monika Talarowska
The evolutionary success of Homo sapiens is attributed to the following two factors: the upright body posture (which freed our hands and allowed unconstrained operation of various objects) and intensive development of the frontal lobes, mainly the Broca area of the brain. Underlining the uniqueness of the human brain, we often forget about the fact that the frontal lobes - the most developed part of the brain - are at the same time our greatest weakness, exposed to the action of damaging factors in our evolving environment...
May 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500439/effect-of-basal-forebrain-stimulation-on-extracellular-acetylcholine-release-and-blood-flow-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#13
Sae Uchida, Fusako Kagitani
The olfactory bulb receives cholinergic basal forebrain input, as does the neocortex; however, the in vivo physiological functions regarding the release of extracellular acetylcholine and regulation of regional blood flow in the olfactory bulb are unclear. We used in vivo microdialysis to measure the extracellular acetylcholine levels in the olfactory bulb of urethane-anesthetized rats. Focal chemical stimulation by microinjection of L-glutamate into the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) in the basal forebrain, which is the main source of cholinergic input to the olfactory bulb, increased extracellular acetylcholine release in the ipsilateral olfactory bulb...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453996/broca-s-region-a-causal-role-in-implicit-processing-of-grammars-with-crossed-non-adjacent-dependencies
#14
Julia Uddén, Martin Ingvar, Peter Hagoort, Karl Magnus Petersson
Non-adjacent dependencies are challenging for the language learning machinery and are acquired later than adjacent dependencies. In this transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study, we show that participants successfully discriminated between grammatical and non-grammatical sequences after having implicitly acquired an artificial language with crossed non-adjacent dependencies. Subsequent to transcranial magnetic stimulation of Broca's region, discrimination was impaired compared to when a language-irrelevant control region (vertex) was stimulated...
July 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428208/resting-state-seed-based-analysis-an-alternative-to-task-based-language-fmri-and-its-laterality-index
#15
K A Smitha, K M Arun, P G Rajesh, B Thomas, C Kesavadas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Language is a cardinal function that makes human unique. Preservation of language function poses a great challenge for surgeons during resection. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of resting-state fMRI in the lateralization of language function in healthy subjects to permit its further testing in patients who are unable to perform task-based fMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen healthy right-handed volunteers were prospectively evaluated with resting-state fMRI and task-based fMRI to assess language networks...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424604/mapping-critical-language-sites-in-children-performing-verb-generation-whole-brain-connectivity-and-graph-theoretical-analysis-in-meg
#16
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Brady J Williamson, Darren S Kadis
A classic left frontal-temporal brain network is known to support language processes. However, the level of participation of constituent regions, and the contribution of extra-canonical areas, is not fully understood; this is particularly true in children, and in individuals who have experienced early neurological insult. In the present work, we propose whole-brain connectivity and graph-theoretical analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) source estimates to provide robust maps of the pediatric expressive language network...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424402/-syntactic-processing-in-broca-s-area-brodmann-areas-44-and-45
#17
Atora Yamada, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424397/-spatial-cognition-and-episodic-memory-formation-in-the-limbic-cortex
#18
Yasushi Kobayashi
The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416459/the-error-of-broca-from-the-traditional-localizationist-concept-to-a-connectomal-anatomy-of-human-brain
#19
REVIEW
Hugues Duffau
Neurology, especially aphasiology, was mainly built on behavioral-structural correlations ("lesion method"). In this setting, Broca's area has been considered as the "speech area"; moreover, this observation led to localizationism. However, advances in brain mapping techniques, as functional neuroimaging and direct electrical stimulation in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas, has resulted in a paradigmatic shift regarding models of neural architecture. In fact, the brain is organized in distributed complex networks underpinning sensorimotor, visuospatial, language, cognitive and emotional functions...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409668/broca-s-area-communication-and-collaboration-in-spine-neuromonitoring-time-to-expect-more-a-lot-more-from-the-neurophysiologists
#20
Stan Skinner, Francesco Sala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
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