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journal of applied

Laura W Wesseldijk, Iryna O Fedko, Meike Bartels, Michel G Nivard, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Dorret I Boomsma, Christel M Middeldorp
The assessment of children's psychopathology is often based on parental report. Earlier studies have suggested that rater bias can affect the estimates of genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental influences on differences between children. The availability of a large dataset of maternal as well as paternal ratings of psychopathology in 7-year old children enabled (i) the analysis of informant effects on these assessments, and (ii) to obtain more reliable estimates of the genetic and non-genetic effects...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Joachim Niehren, Cristian Versari, Mathias John, François Coutte, Philippe Jacques
We wish to predict changes of reaction networks with partial kinetic information that lead to target changes of their steady states. The changes may be either increases or decreases of influxes, reaction knockouts, or multiple changes of these two kinds. Our prime applications are knockout prediction tasks for metabolic and regulation networks. In a first step, we propose a formal modeling language for reaction networks with partial kinetic information. The modeling language has a graphical syntax reminiscent to Petri nets...
October 18, 2016: Bio Systems
Kelvin I Afrashtehfar, Elham Emami, Motahareh Ahmadi, Samer Abi-Nader, Faleh Tamimi
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: No knowledge synthesis exists concerning when to use a direct restoration versus a complete-coverage indirect restoration in posterior vital teeth. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the failure rate of conventional single-unit tooth-supported restorations in posterior permanent vital teeth as a function of remaining tooth structure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four databases were searched electronically, and 8 selected journals were searched manually up to February 2015...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Stefan E Schulenberg
This article serves as an introduction to the Journal of Clinical Psychology's special issue on disaster mental health and positive psychology. The special issue comprises two sections. The first section presents a series of data-driven articles and research-informed reviews examining meaning and resilience in the context of natural and technological disasters. The second section presents key topics in the area of disaster mental health, with particular relevance for positive psychology and related frameworks...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Gregory A Schmidt, Timothy D Girard, John P Kress, Peter E Morris, Daniel R Ouellette, Waleed Alhazzani, Suzanne M Burns, Scott K Epstein, Andres Esteban, Eddy Fan, Miquel Ferrer, Gilles L Fraser, Michelle Gong, Catherine Hough, Sangeeta Mehta, Rahul Nanchal, Sheena Patel, Amy J Pawlik, Curtis N Sessler, Thomas Strøm, William Schweickert, Kevin C Wilson, Jonathon D Truwit
BACKGROUND: This clinical practice guideline addresses six questions related to liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST). METHODS: A multi-disciplinary panel posed six clinical questions in a Population, Intervention, Comparator and Outcomes (PICO) format. A comprehensive literature search and evidence synthesis was performed for each question, which included appraising the certainty in the evidence (i...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Andrea Domingo-Pueyo, Javier Sanz-Valero, Carmina Wanden-Berghe
BACKGROUND: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: "Noise, Occupational," "Occupational Exposure," and "Occupational Disease...
September 2016: Noise & Health
S Kennedy, E L Davies, L Ryan, M E Clegg
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Breakfast skipping increases during adolescence and is associated with lower levels of physical activity and weight gain. Theory-based interventions promoting breakfast consumption in adolescents report mixed findings, potentially because of limited research identifying which determinants to target. This study aimed to: (i) utilise the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the relative contribution of attitudes (affective, cognitive and behavioural) to predict intention to eat breakfast and breakfast consumption in adolescents and (ii) determine whether demographic factors moderate the relationship between TPB variables, intention and behaviour...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ai-Jun Pan, Qing Mei, Ying Ye, Hong-Ru Li, Bao Liu, Jia-Bin Li
The purpose of this study was to validate the mutant selection window (MSW) hypothesis in vitro and in vivo with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to fosfomycin. Two standard strains of Gram-negative bacteria, those are E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, were exposed to fosfomycin at concentrations below MIC, between the MIC and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC), and above the MPC in Luria-Bertani broth and in a tissue-cage infection model, respectively. With the in vitro time-kill studies, there were bacterial re-growth and emergence of resistance thereafter for both strains at antibiotic concentrations of × 4, × 8 and × 16 MIC...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Wai Cheng Foong, Jacqueline J Ho, C Khai Loh, Vip Viprakasit
BACKGROUND: Non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia is a subset of inherited haemoglobin disorders characterised by reduced production of the beta globin chain of the haemoglobin molecule leading to anaemia of varying severity. Although blood transfusion is not a necessity for survival, it is required when episodes of chronic anaemia occur. This chronic anaemia can impair growth and affect quality of life. People with non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia suffer from iron overload due to their body's increased capability of absorbing iron from food sources...
October 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jacqueline Kerr, Catherine R Marinac, Katherine Ellis, Suneeta Godbole, Aaron Hipp, Karen Glanz, Jonathan Mitchell, Francine Laden, Peter James, David Berrigan
PURPOSE: To compare physical activity estimates across different accelerometer wear locations, wear time protocols, and data processing techniques. METHODS: A convenience sample of middle aged to older women wore a GT3X+ accelerometer at the wrist and hip for 7 days. Physical activity estimates were calculated using three data processing techniques: single axis cut points, raw vector magnitude thresholds, and machine learning algorithms applied to the raw data from the three axes...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Eun Sook Kim, Robert F Dedrick, Chunhua Cao, John M Ferron
We provide reporting guidelines for multilevel factor analysis (MFA) and use these guidelines to systematically review 72 MFA applications in journals across a range of disciplines (e.g., education, health/nursing, management, and psychology) published between 1994 and 2014. Results are organized in terms of the (a) characteristics of the MFA application (e.g., construct measured), (b) purpose (e.g., measurement validation), (c) data source (e.g., number of cases at Level 1 and Level 2), (d) statistical approach (e...
October 18, 2016: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Cristóbal Ovidio Muñoz, Diego Restrepo, Doris Cardona
Objective Characterize the theoretical models that have underpinned empirical research on the concept of positive mental health from the time it first emerged in the field of health up to the present. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed, EBSCO (including Academic Search Complete, ERIC, Academic Source, MasterFILE Premier, MedicLatina, MEDLINE, and the Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection), Science Direct, Psicodoc, Springer Link, Taylor & Francis, Wiley Online Library, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Redalyc, SciELO, Ovid, Embase, and ProQuest (including Health and Medical Complete, the Nursing and Allied Health Source, Psychology Journals, and Social Science Journals)...
March 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Philip Kemp, Moorene Gilding, Khooseal Seewooruttun, Hannah Walsh
Background With a rise in the number of unqualified staff providing health and social care, and reports raising concerns about the quality of care provided, there is a need to address the learning needs of clinical support workers. This article describes a qualitative evaluation of a service improvement project that involved a work-based learning approach for clinical support workers on mental health inpatient wards. Aim To investigate and identify insights in relation to the content and process of learning using a work-based learning approach for clinical support workers...
September 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
Sufian S Ahmad, Johannes C Meyer, Anna M Krismer, Suhaib S Ahmad, Dimitrios S Evangelopoulos, Sven Hoppe, Sandro Kohl
PURPOSE: Clinical research in the area of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury has shown substantial growth during the last decade. This was accompanied by the establishment of a wide range of outcome measures used to address the demands of clinical studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome measures reported by highly cited level I trials in ACL research and identify factors influencing citation metrics. METHODS: The database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was utilized to screen journals under the subject categories "Orthopaedics", "Sports Sciences", "Radiology" and "General medicine" for the 50 most cited level I ACL trials based on predefined inclusion criteria...
October 14, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Keisuke Inomura, Jason Bragg, Michael J Follows
Nitrogen fixation is advantageous in microbial competition when bioavailable nitrogen is scarce, but has substantial costs for growth rate and growth efficiency. To quantify these costs, we have developed a model of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium that constrains mass, electron and energy flow at the scale of the individual. When tested and calibrated with laboratory data for the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, the model reveals that the direct energetic cost of nitrogen fixation is small relative to the cost of managing intracellular oxygen...
October 14, 2016: ISME Journal
P S Sidhu
In these days of political vagueness, to use a kinder term, although many would describe the situation as turmoil, in Europe, there are success stories to be lauded. Notwithstanding the direction individual countries choose in relation to closer or not so close co-operation in Europe and the direction the political agenda will travel over the next few years, I believe science and in particular medicine has benefited enormously form close co-operation across the European Union and with colleagues outside this political and trading block of nations...
October 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
R M Dorman, L M Yee, S H Sutton
In our perinatal HIV cohort, we have observed difficulty swallowing pills as a frequent and significant barrier to adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. We refer to this problem as pill aversion and define it as difficulty swallowing pills with no persistent medical or structural cause as well as the anxiety and physical symptoms associated with pill swallowing. By applying cognitive behavioral theory to behavioral patterns within our pregnant HIV-infected population, we seek to better understand the development and reinforcement of pill aversion behavior...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Rianne A Weersink, Margriet Bouma, David M Burger, Joost P H Drenth, Nicole G M Hunfeld, Minke Kranenborg, Margje H Monster-Simons, Sandra A W van Putten, Herold J Metselaar, Katja Taxis, Sander D Borgsteede
INTRODUCTION: Liver cirrhosis can have a major impact on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Patients with cirrhosis often suffer from potentially preventable adverse drug reactions. Guidelines on safe prescribing for these patients are lacking. The aim of this study is to develop a systematic method for evaluating the safety and optimal dosage of drugs in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: For each drug, a six-step evaluation process will be followed...
October 12, 2016: BMJ Open
Arnold B Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti
The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was introduced in the international literature 15 years ago (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001). The model has been applied in thousands of organizations and has inspired hundreds of empirical articles, including 1 of the most downloaded articles of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Bakker, Demerouti, & Euwema, 2005). This article provides evidence for the buffering role of various job resources on the impact of various job demands on burnout...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
Suzanne Day, Robin Mason, Stephanie Lagosky, Paula A Rochon
Both sex (biological factors) and gender (socio-cultural factors) shape health. To produce the best possible health research evidence, it is essential to integrate sex and gender considerations throughout the research process. Despite growing recognition of the importance of these factors, progress towards sex and gender integration as standard practice has been both slow and uneven in health research. In this commentary, we examine the challenges of integrating sex and gender from the research perspective, as well as strategies that can be used by researchers, funders and journal editors to address these challenges...
October 10, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
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