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Stella F Uiterwaal, Courtney Mares, John P DeLong
Predator-prey interactions play a crucial role in structuring food webs, and the functional response is one way to measure the strength of this interaction. Here, we examine how predator and prey body size affects the functional response of a generalist predator-damselfly nymphs-feeding on three prey types: copepods, Daphnia, and Chydorus. Our results suggest that consumption of copepods is independent of predator body size, while increased predator body size is associated with an increased space clearance rate for Daphnia and a reduced space clearance rate for Chydorus...
September 22, 2017: Oecologia
Marija Djokic-Petrovic, Vladimir Cvjetkovic, Jeremy Yang, Marko Zivanovic, David J Wild
BACKGROUND: There are a huge variety of data sources relevant to chemical, biological and pharmacological research, but these data sources are highly siloed and cannot be queried together in a straightforward way. Semantic technologies offer the ability to create links and mappings across datasets and manage them as a single, linked network so that searching can be carried out across datasets, independently of the source. We have developed an application called PIBAS FedSPARQL that uses semantic technologies to allow researchers to carry out such searching across a vast array of data sources...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Meena Makhecha, Shreya Dass, Tishya Singh, Riddhi Gandhi, Tulika Yadav, Dipali Rathod
BACKGROUND: Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a common bacterial infection of skin characterized by noninflammatory superficial pits. Very few studies have focused on variations in clinical manifestations of PK. We conducted this study so that diagnosis of this treatable condition is not missed when it presents in an uncommonly perceived way. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Assessment of PK patients for various sites and morphologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 patients with PK were assessed for various sites and morphologies...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
Jungwon Min, Zhengqi Tan, Laurie Abadie, Scott Townsend, Hong Xue, Youfa Wang
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mission-X: Train Like an Astronaut program (MX) on children's health-related knowledge and behaviors of a sample of US participants. DESIGN: A nonexperimental pilot intervention study in 5 cities with a pre-post comparison of children's health-related knowledge and behaviors in the United States in 2014 and 2015. SAMPLE: Children (n = 409) with a mean age (standard deviation) of 10...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Surya Rao Rao Venkata Mahipathy, Alagar Raja Durairaj, Narayanamurthy Sundaramurthy, Vimal Chander Rajamanohar, Prabu Shankar Sivagnanam
Eccrine acrospiroma are benign skin tumours of sweat duct origin. They usually present as small solid or cystic lesions which are confused clinically with other solid or cystic lesions. These are generally benign lesions with few reports of malignant transformation. Here, we report a case of a middle aged female presenting with a swelling of the dorsum of left first web space which was histopathologically diagnosed as an eccrine acrospiroma, which was managed with surgical excision and covered with a regional flap...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Naicheng Diao, Bo Yang, Fei Yu
OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence regarding the effect of vitamin D supplementation on symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively pool the results from randomized clinical trials. Studies were identified from a search of the Embase, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases up to January 22, 2017, and also from conference abstracts, and the reference lists of identified studies...
September 6, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
Zhe Ju, Jian-Jun He
As one of the most important and common histones post-translational modifications, crotonylation plays a key role in regulating various biological processes. The accurate identification of crotonylation sites is crucial to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of crotonylation. In this study, a novel bioinformatics tool named CKSAAP_CrotSite is developed to predict crotonylation sites. The highlight of CKSAAP_CrotSite is to adopt the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs as input encoding, and the support vector machine is employed as the classifier...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Philip R Cohen
Scabies, a parasitic infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is diagnosed by observing either the mite, its ova, or its excrement. The mite tracts, known as burrows and a characteristic presentation of the pruritic condition, are typically found on the web spaces between the fingers. Other cutaneous lesions include excoriated papules, pustules, and vesicles. However, atypical clinical variants of scabies, such as bullous, crusted, hidden, incognito, nodular, and scalp forms of the parasitic infestation, mimic the morphologic features of other non-parasitic dermatoses...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Joseph J Bizzarro, Aaron B Carlisle, Wade D Smith, Enric Cortés
Although there is a general perception of sharks as large pelagic, apex predators, most sharks are smaller, meso- and upper-trophic level predators that are associated with the seafloor. Among 73 shark species documented in the eastern North Pacific (ENP), less than half reach maximum lengths >200cm, and 78% occur in demersal or benthic regions of the continental shelf or slope. Most small (≤200cm) species (e.g., houndsharks) and demersal, nearshore juveniles of larger species (e.g., requiem sharks) consume small teleosts and decapod crustaceans, whereas large species in pelagic coastal and oceanic environments feed on large teleosts and squids...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Moody Samuel, Dorit Maoz, Pablo Manrique, Tara Ward, Silvia Runge-Ranzinger, Joao Toledo, Ross Boyce, Olaf Horstick
BACKGROUND: The prevention and control of dengue rely mainly on vector control methods, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and indoor space spraying (ISS). This study aimed to systematically review the available evidence on community effectiveness of indoor spraying. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, WHOLIS, Cochrane, and Google Scholar) and a manual search of the reference lists of the identified studies...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Dario Cecilio-Fernandes, Fokie Cnossen, Debbie A D C Jaarsma, René A Tio
OBJECTIVE: Spreading training sessions over time instead of training in just 1 session leads to an improvement of long-term retention for factual knowledge. However, it is not clear whether this would also apply to surgical skills. Thus, we performed a systematic review to find out whether spacing training sessions would also improve long-term retention of surgical skills. DESIGN: We searched the Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, Eric, and Web of Science online databases...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
John G Seiler, Jimmy H Daruwalla, Samuel H Payne, Gregory K Faucher
Annually, carpal tunnel release is one of the most commonly executed orthopaedic procedures. Despite the frequency of the procedure, complications may occur as a result of anatomic variations. Understanding both normal and variant anatomy, including anomalies in neural, vascular, tendinous, and muscular structures about the carpal tunnel, is fundamental to achieving both safe and efficacious surgery. Reviewing and aggregating this information reveals certain principles that may lead to the safest possible surgical approach...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Suvi-Päivikki Sinikumpu, Juha Auvinen, Jari Jokelainen, Laura Huilaja, Katri Puukka, Aimo Ruokonen, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Kaisa Tasanen, Markku Timonen
Diabetes is undiagnosed disease and easy screening tools for it are warranted. Because foot complications are usual in diabetes, we aimed to test hypothesis that skin abnormalities are found already from patients who are not aware of having diabetes, by studying the possible association between unhealthy toe web skin and abnormal glucose metabolism. 1,849 cases without previously diagnosed diabetes participated to the 46-year follow-up study of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort. A skin investigation was performed for all, and abnormal skin findings in toe web spaces were taken as explanatory variables...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel R Amor, Raúl Montañez, Salva Duran-Nebreda, Ricard Solé
A major force contributing to the emergence of novelty in nature is the presence of cooperative interactions, where two or more components of a system act in synergy, sometimes leading to higher-order, emergent phenomena. Within molecular evolution, the so called hypercycle defines the simplest model of an autocatalytic cycle, providing major theoretical insights on the evolution of cooperation in the early biosphere. These closed cooperative loops have also inspired our understanding of how catalytic loops appear in ecological systems...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
John A Gerlt
The exponentially increasing number of protein and nucleic acid sequences provides opportunities to discover novel enzymes, metabolic pathways, and metabolites/natural products, thereby adding to our knowledge of biochemistry and biology. The challenge has evolved from generating sequence information to mining the databases to integrating and leveraging the available information, i.e., the availability of "genomic enzymology" web tools. Web tools that allow identification of biosynthetic gene clusters are widely used by the natural products/synthetic biology community, thereby facilitating the discovery of novel natural products and the enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis...
August 22, 2017: Biochemistry
Mohammad M Al-Qattan, Maha Arafah, Felwa Al-Marshad
INTRODUCTION: Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a rare benign reactive inflammatory lesion. The usual presentation is a single or multiple skin nodules of the head and neck. Involvement of the hand is very rare and there have been no comprehensive reviews on ALHE of the upper limb. In this paper, we report on a case involving the common digital artery of the hand. We also review the literature and offer two classification systems for upper limb lesions: One according to the primary structure involved, and the other according to the presentation with either single or multiple lesions...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Patrick L Thompson, Andrew Gonzalez
Ecological networks, such as food webs, mutualist webs and host-parasite webs, are reorganizing as species abundances and spatial distributions shift in response to environmental change. Current theoretical expectations for how this reorganization will occur are available for competition or for parts of interaction networks, but these may not extend to more complex networks. Here we use metacommunity theory to develop new expectations for how complex networks will reorganize under environmental change, and show that dispersal is crucial for determining the degree to which networks will retain their composition and structure...
May 8, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Lasse Tor Nielsen, Seyed Saeed Asadzadeh, Julia Dölger, Jens H Walther, Thomas Kiørboe, Anders Andersen
Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J Miletin, A Sukop, V Baca, D Kachlik
We offer a complete systemic review of the anatomy of arteries of the thumb, including their sources in the first web space. Eleven studies were selected from the PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus and Ovid databases. Data about each artery of the thumb were obtained; in particular, the incidence and dominance of each of these arteries were calculated. The ulnopalmar digital artery of the thumb (UPDAT) was found in 99.63%, the radiopalmar digital artery of the thumb (RPDAT) in 99.26%, the ulnodorsal digital artery of the thumb (UDDAT) in 83...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
Zhe Ju, Jian-Jun He
Lysine propionylation is an important and common protein acylation modification in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. To better understand the molecular mechanism of propionylation, it is important to identify propionylated substrates and their corresponding propionylation sites accurately. In this study, a novel bioinformatics tool named PropPred is developed to predict propionylation sites by using multiple feature extraction and biased support vector machine. On the one hand, various features are incorporated, including amino acid composition, amino acid factors, binary encoding, and the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
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