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plant extracts

Matthew C Fleming, Victoria Hester, Brittany J Allison, Majie C Foster, Donna Nofziger, P Matthew Joyner
Background: The woody shrub Trichostema lanatum Benth. (Lamiaceae) is native to Southern California and was reportedly used by the Chumash people as a disinfectant and for the treatment of rheumatism. Based on its traditional uses, this study investigated the antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties of extracts from T. lanatum. Methods: A methanolic extract of the leaves and stems of T. lanatum was tested for immunomodulatory activity by measuring the proliferation of murine macrophage cell cultures and the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α by the cells after treatment with T...
March 21, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Christoph Jans, Eleonora Sarno, Lucie Collineau, Leo Meile, Katharina D C Stärk, Roger Stephan
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB) between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design. Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Huei-Hsuan Tsai, Jorge Rodriguez-Celma, Lan Ping, Yu-Ching Wu, Isabel Cristina Vélez-Bermúdez, Wolfgang Schmidt
Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral nutrient and an important factor for the composition of natural plant communities. Low Fe availability in aerated soils with neutral or alkaline pH has led to the evolution of elaborate mechanisms that extract Fe from the soil solution. In Arabidopsis thaliana, Fe is acquired by an orchestrated strategy that comprises mobilization, chelation, and reduction of Fe3+ prior to its uptake. We show here that At3g12900, previously annotated as scopoletin 8-hydroxylase (S8H), participates in Fe acquisition by mediating the biosynthesis of fraxetin (7,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin), a coumarin derived from the scopoletin pathway...
March 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Jiuyan Chen, Shurui Cao, Ming Zhu, Cunxian Xi, Lei Zhang, Xianliang Li, Guomin Wang, Yuantao Zhou, Zhiqiong Chen
An adsorbent, consisting of silica-coated Fe3 O4 grafted graphene oxide and β-cyclodextrin (Fe3 O4 @SiO2 /GO/β-CD), which possessed the merits of antioxidation, superparamagnetism, high surface area, high supramolecular recognition and environment friendly, was successfully fabricated. Considering the synergy between β-CD and graphene oxide in adsorption mechanism, the synthesized adsorbent could grasp compounds especially with aromatic structures through π-π interaction, hydrophobic interaction and host-guest inclusion complex forming...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Fernando Pablo Canale, Silvia Del Valle Dávila, Corina Verónica Sasso, Nicolás Wilson Pellarín, María Aída Mattar Domínguez
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections for which no vaccines have been approved. Larrea divaricata Cav. (Jarilla) is a widely spread plant in America and it is used in folk medicine to treat several pathologies. It has also been shown that antibodies elicited against Jarilla proteins of crude extract (JPCE) cross-react with proteins from gram-negative bacteria. In this study we aim to assess the contribution of anti-JPCE antibodies in the opsonophagocytosis of P...
March 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
C De La Fuente Canto, D I Kalogiros, M Ptashnyk, T S George, R Waugh, A G Bengough, J Russell, L X Dupuy
Discoveries on the genetics of resource acquisition efficiency are limited by the ability to measure plant roots in sufficient number and adequate genotypic variability. This paper presents a root phenotyping study that explores ways to combine live imaging and computer algorithms for model-based extraction of root growth parameters. The study is based on a subset of barley Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) and a combinatorial approach was designed for fast identification of the regions of the genome that contribute the most to variations in root system architecture (RSA)...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Eric Wei Chiang Chan, Siu Kuin Wong, Hung Tuck Chan
This short review provides an update of the anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties of casticin from Vitex species. Casticin is a polymethylflavone with three rings, an orthocatechol moiety, a double bond, two hydroxyl groups and four methoxyl groups. Casticin has been isolated from various tissues of plants in the Vitex genus: fruits and leaves of V. trifolia; aerial parts and seeds of V. agnus-castus and leaves of V. negundo. Studies have reported the antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of casticin from Vitex species...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Jiawei Liu, Mian Zu, Kaotan Chen, Li Gao, Huan Min, Weiling Zhuo, Weiwen Chen, Ailin Liu
BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase (NA) is one of the key surface protein of the influenza virus, and has been established as a primary drug target for anti-influenza therapies. This study aimed to screen bioactive herbal extracts from some medicinal plants traditionally used in Lingnan Chinese Medicines by NA activity high-throughput screening assay. METHODS: One hundred ninety herbal extracts from 95 medicinal plants collected in Guangzhou were screened for their potential inhibitory activities against A (H1N1) influenza neuraminidase, and the most active extracts were further evaluated for their anti-influenza virus activities using virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE)...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Yoon-Young Sung, Dong-Seon Kim, Seung-Hyung Kim, Ho Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Allium fistulosum (Welsh onion) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of colds, influenza, abdominal pain, headache, and heart disease. This study evaluated the effects of A. fistulosum ethanolic extract (AFE) and aqueous extract (AFW) on body weight and other obesity-related parameters. METHODS: Male 8-week-old C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a standard chow diet (normal control) or a high-fat diet (HFD) either alone (HFD-control) or in combination with G...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Refilwe Given Kudumela, Peter Masoko
There is very little scientific information on indigenous plants used for medicinal purposes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the leaves of Commelina africana, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Dombeya rotundifolia, and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata indigenous medicinal plants from the Limpopo Province, which may be used for the treatment in humans infected with bacterial pathogens. The screening of different phytoconstituents using standard methods revealed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins...
January 2018: J Evid Based Integr Med
Riccardo Amorati, Luca Valgimigli
Measurement of antioxidant properties in plant-derived compounds require appropriate methods that address the mechanism of antioxidant activity and focus on the kinetics of the reactions involving the antioxidants. Methods based on inhibited autoxidations are the most suited for chain-breaking antioxidants and for termination-enhancing antioxidants, while different specific studies are needed for preventive antioxidants. A selection of chemical testing methods is critically reviewed highlighting their advantages and limitations, and discussing their usefulness to investigate both pure molecules and raw extracts...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ege Riza Karagur, Cennet Ozay, Ramazan Mammadov, Hakan Akca
Scientists are increasingly focusing attention on natural products of plant origin for use as agents in cancer protection and treatment. Cyclamen L. tuber extracts contain saponin glycosides that have been shown to have anti-cancer and other biological activities. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to enhance malignant tumour progress. The transcriptional repressor zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is an important inducer of EMT in different human tumours and has recently been shown to boost invasion by tumour cells...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Israel Sunmola Afolabi, Irene Chiamaka Nwachukwu, Chinemelum Sandra Ezeoke, Ruth Chineme Woke, Olawunmi Adebisi Adegbite, Tolulope Dorcas Olawole, Olubukola C Martins
A new plant milk was discovered from the seed of Adenanthera pavonina . The physicochemical and nutritional properties of the new pro-milk extract were assessed, and their biochemical effects were compared with those of soy bean extracts. Eleven groups of three albino rats each were used to assess the health benefits of the pro-milk. Groups were separately administered 3.1, 6.1, and 9.2 µl/g animal wt. pro-milk extract from A. pavonina seed, 6.1 µl/g animal wt. milk extract from soybean, and 6.1 µl/g animal wt...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Parveen Akhter Lone, Syed Wakeel Ahmed, Vivek Prasad, Bashir Ahmed
Plants & their extracts have immense potential for the management or treatment of the wounds. The pyhto medicines for the wound healing are not only cheap & affordable but are purportedly safe as hypersensitivity reactions are rarely encountered with the use of these agents, these natural agents induce healing & regeneration of the lost tissue by multiple mechanisms Turmeric commonly is called as Haldi in Hindi. C Longa has been reported to possess anti bacterial, anti fungal & anti inflammatory activities...
January 2018: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Michelle Nonato de Oliveira Melo, Adriana Passos Oliveira, Adalgisa Felippe Wiecikowski, Renato Sampaio Carvalho, Juliana de Lima Castro, Felipe Alves Gomes de Oliveira, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto Pereira, Venicio Feo da Veiga, Marcia Marques Alves Capella, Leandro Rocha, Carla Holandino
Cancer is one of the biggest problems in public health worldwide. Plants have been shown important role in anticancer research. Viscum album L. (Santalaceae), commonly known as mistletoe, is a semi-parasitic plant that grows on different host trees. In complementary medicine, extracts from European mistletoe ( Viscum album L.) have been used in the treatment of cancer. The study was conducted to identify chemical composition and antitumor potential of Viscum album tinctures. Chemical analysis performed by high resolution chromatography equipped with high resolution mass spectrometer identified caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, sakuranetin, isosakuranetin, syringenin 4-O-glucoside, syringenin 4-O-apiosyl-glucoside, alangilignoside C and ligalbumoside A compounds...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Min Liu, Yen-Lin Chen, Yao-Haur Kuo, Mei-Kuang Lu, Chia-Ching Liao
Sapindus mukorossi is a deciduous plant and has recently been recognized to have anticancer property. In the present study, we discovered that S. mukorossi leaf and stem aqueous extract (SaM) contained two polysaccharides mainly made of myo-inositol, galactose, glucose, and fructose and the aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor property the aqueous extract SaM. In vitro treatment of SaM diminished proliferative potential of lung adenocarcinomic cells and induced intracellular oxidative stress, as well as necrotic cell death...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ruchi Mishra, Saurabh Sharma, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Savita Singh, Milind Madhav Sardesai, Sadhna Sharma, Vandana Mishra
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Viscum articulatum Burm. f. (leafless mistletoe) has been used in traditional system of medicines in India, China, Taiwan, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, to treat blood-related diseases and various inflammatory and degenerative diseases including cancer. Anticancer activities of some phytomolecules purified from Viscum articulatum Burm. f. have been tested. However scientific evidence for the anticancerous potential of aqueous extract of V. articularum (VAQE) used in traditional medicine is lacking...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Huiying Ma, Keke Zhang, Qing Jiang, Diya Dai, Hongli Li, Wentao Bi, David Da Yong Chen
Plant polysaccharides have numerous medicinal functions. Due to the differences in their origins, regions of production, and cultivation conditions, the quality and the functions of polysaccharides can vary significantly. They are macromolecules with large molecular weight (MW) and complex structure, and pose great challenge for the analytical technology used. Taking Dendrobium officinale (DO) from various origins and locations as model samples. In this investigation, mechanochemical extraction method was used to successfully extract polysaccharides from DO using water as solvent, the process is simple, fast (40 s) and with high yield...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Mahendra Shukla, Femi M Francis, Jawahar Lal
Conessine, a steroidal alkaloid obtained from the bark and seeds of the plant species of Apocynaceae family, elicits a histamine antagonistic action, selectively for the H3 histaminergic receptors. This alkaloid is used mainly for the treatment of dysentery and helminthic disorders. For the quantification of conessine in serum, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-CN column (100 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 µm), and a mobile phase consisting of 90% methanol in aqueous ammonium acetate buffer (pH 3...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Corine J Houtman, Rob Ten Broek, Abraham Brouwer
Emission of compounds with biological activities from waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents into surface waters is a topic of concern for ecology and drinking water quality. We investigated the occurrence of hormone-like activities in waste water sample extracts from four Dutch WWTPs and pursued to identify compounds responsible for them. To this aim, in vitro reporter gene bioassays for androgenic, anti-androgenic, estrogenic, glucocorticoid and progestogenic activity and a UPLC-tQ-MS target analysis method for 25 steroid hormones used in high volumes in pharmacy were applied...
March 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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