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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719880/a-scheme-to-scientifically-and-accurately-assess-cadmium-pollution-of-river-sediments-through-consideration-of-bioavailability-when-assessing-ecological-risk
#1
Zhixin Song, Wenzhong Tang, Baoqing Shan
Evaluating heavy metal pollution status and ecological risk in river sediments is a complex task, requiring consideration of contaminant pollution levels, as well as effects of biological processes within the river system. There are currently no simple or low-cost approaches to heavy metal assessment in river sediments. Here, we introduce a system of assessment for pollution status of heavy metals in river sediments, using measurements of Cd in the Shaocun River sediments as a case study. This system can be used to identify high-risk zones of the river that should be given more attention...
July 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719862/green-biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-leaves-extract-of-artemisia-vulgaris-and-their-potential-biomedical-applications
#2
Tahir Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Chuanlong Li
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plant extracts is receiving enormous interest due to their abundant availability and a broad spectrum of bioactive reducing metabolites. In this study, the reducing potential of Artemisia vulgaris leaves extract (AVLE) was investigated for synthesizing silver nanoparticles without the addition of any external reducing or capping agent. The appearance of blackish brown color evidenced the complete synthesis of nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis...
July 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718990/fungitoxicity-of-organic-extracts-of-ocimum-basilicum-on-growth-and-morphogenesis-of-bipolaris-species-teleomorph-cochliobolus
#3
E A Elsherbiny, N A Safwat, M M Elaasser
AIMS: This study aimed at evaluating the inhibitory effects of various organic extracts of Ocimum basilicum against some species of Bipolaris and Cochliobolus with GC-MS and HPLC analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ethyl acetate extract consisted of methyl cinnamate as the most abundant component, while butylated hydroxytoluene was the major component in the methanol extract. Pyrogallol and chlorogenic acid were major phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718813/suppression-of-nrf2-activity-by-chestnut-leaf-extract-increases-chemosensitivity-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells-to-paclitaxel
#4
Yaejin Woo, Jisun Oh, Jong-Sang Kim
Due to metastatic potential and drug resistance, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have become a critical target for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Recent studies showed that CSCs highly express NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant enzymes and thereby retain relatively low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since anticancer agents usually utilize ROS as an arsenal for killing cancer cells, we hypothesized that inhibition of Nrf2 activity could increase the sensitivity of CSCs to anticancer drugs, and thus enhancing their therapeutic efficacy...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718398/comparative-study-of-nmr-spectral-profiling-for-the-characterization-and-authentication-of-cannabis
#5
Xinyi Wang, Peter de Harrington, Steven Baugh
For the authentication of botanical materials, it is difficult to obtain representative reference materials because botanicals vary significantly with respect to cultivation conditions. Chemical profiling of plant extracts or spectral fingerprinting can differentiate botanicals and group them by their chemical profiles. NMR spectroscopy yields a powerful and useful method for profiling plant extracts. Both 500 MHz (1)H and (1)H-(1)H correlation NMR spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition were used to discriminate among Cannabis samples...
July 18, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718023/two-year-survey-of-specific-hospital-wastewater-treatment-and-its-impact-on-pharmaceutical-discharges
#6
Laure Wiest, Teofana Chonova, Alexandre Bergé, Robert Baudot, Frédérique Bessueille-Barbier, Linda Ayouni-Derouiche, Emmanuelle Vulliet
It is well known that pharmaceuticals are not completely removed by conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Hospital effluents are of major concern, as they present high concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds. Despite this, these specific effluents are usually co-treated with domestic wastewaters. Separate treatment has been recommended. However, there is a lack of information concerning the efficiency of separate hospital wastewater treatment by activated sludge, especially on the removal of pharmaceuticals...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717591/nectar-living-yeasts-of-a-tropical-host-plant-community-diversity-and-effects-on-community-wide-floral-nectar-traits
#7
Azucena Canto, Carlos M Herrera, Rosalina Rodriguez
We characterize the diversity of nectar-living yeasts of a tropical host plant community at different hierarchical sampling levels, measure the associations between yeasts and nectariferous plants, and measure the effect of yeasts on nectar traits. Using a series of hierarchically nested sampling units, we extracted nectar from an assemblage of host plants that were representative of the diversity of life forms, flower shapes, and pollinator types in the tropical area of Yucatan, Mexico. Yeasts were isolated from single nectar samples; their DNA was identified, the yeast cell density was estimated, and the sugar composition and concentration of nectar were quantified using HPLC...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717384/accelerating-root-system-phenotyping-of-seedlings-through-a-computer-assisted-processing-pipeline
#8
Lionel X Dupuy, Gladys Wright, Jacqueline A Thompson, Anna Taylor, Sebastien Dekeyser, Christopher P White, William T B Thomas, Mark Nightingale, John P Hammond, Neil S Graham, Catherine L Thomas, Martin R Broadley, Philip J White
BACKGROUND: There are numerous systems and techniques to measure the growth of plant roots. However, phenotyping large numbers of plant roots for breeding and genetic analyses remains challenging. One major difficulty is to achieve high throughput and resolution at a reasonable cost per plant sample. Here we describe a cost-effective root phenotyping pipeline, on which we perform time and accuracy benchmarking to identify bottlenecks in such pipelines and strategies for their acceleration...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716570/protective-effects-of-pistacia-lentiscus-l-fruit-extract-against-calcium-oxalate-monohydrate-induced-proximal-tubular-injury
#9
Nassima Cheraft-Bahloul, Cécile Husson, Meriam Ourtioualous, Sébastien Sinaeve, Djebbar Atmani, Caroline Stévigny, Joëlle L Nortier, Marie-Hélène Antoine
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The world prevalence of kidney stones is increasing and plants are frequently used to treat urolithiasis. Pistacia lentiscus L, a plant which freely grows around the Mediterranean basin areas, is widely used for various pathologies. P. lentiscus has an important impact as it has economical value on top of its pharmacological interest. Decoctions of its aerial parts and/or resin are used to treat kidney stones. AIM OF THE STUDY: To in vitro assess the potential nephroprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus ethanolic fruit extract (PLEF) on proximal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716424/molecular-cloning-of-an-ester-forming-triterpenoid-udp-glucose-28-o-glucosyltransferase-involved-in-saponin-biosynthesis-from-the-medicinal-plant-centella-asiatica
#10
Fernanda de Costa, Carla J S Barber, Yeon-Bok Kim, Darwin W Reed, Haixia Zhang, Arthur G Fett-Neto, Patrick S Covello
Triterpene saponins include bioactive compounds with structures consisting of triterpene aglycones (sapogenins) and one or more sugar moieties linked through acetal or ester glycosidic linkages at one or more sites. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is a medicinal plant that contains bioactive ursane-type saponins, such as madecassoside and asiaticoside. In this work, glucosylation of triterpenoids in C. asiatica was investigated starting with plant extracts. An enzyme capable of glucosylating asiatic and madecassic acids was partially purified...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716103/cytotoxic-activity-of-extracts-and-crude-saponins-from-zanthoxylum-armatum-dc-against-human-breast-mcf-7-mda-mb-468-and-colorectal-caco-2-cancer-cell-lines
#11
Fiaz Alam, Qazi Najum Us Saqib, Abdul Waheed
BACKGROUND: Zanthoxylum armatum DC has been an important traditional plant known for its medicinal properties. It is well known for its antimicrobial, larvicidal and cytotoxic activities. METHODS: The potential anticancer effects of the methanol extract and the crude saponins from fruit, bark and leaves of Z. armatum on breast (MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7) and colorectal (Caco-2) cancer cell lines using MTT, neutral red uptake(NRU) and DAPI stain assays were evaluated...
July 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716085/the-protective-effect-of-fermented-curcuma-longa-l-on-memory-dysfunction-in-oxidative-stress-induced-c6-gliomal-cells-proinflammatory-activated-bv2-microglial-cells-and-scopolamine-induced-amnesia-model-in-mice
#12
Cheong-Su Eun, Jong-Soon Lim, Jihye Lee, Sam-Pin Lee, Seun-Ah Yang
BACKGROUND: Curcuma longa L. is a well-known medicinal plant that has been used for its anti-cancer, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the neuroprotective effect of fermented C. longa (FCL) has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the effectiveness of FCL for the regulation of memory dysfunction was investigated in two brain cell lines (rat glioma C6 and murine microglia BV2) and scopolamine-treated mice. METHODS: C. longa powder was fermented by 5% Lactobacillus plantarum K154 containing 2% (w/v) yeast extract at 30 °C for 72 h followed by sterilization at 121 °C for 15 min...
July 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716054/combined-biotic-stresses-trigger-similar-transcriptomic-responses-but-contrasting-resistance-against-a-chewing-herbivore-in-brassica-nigra
#13
Christelle Bonnet, Steve Lassueur, Camille Ponzio, Rieta Gols, Marcel Dicke, Philippe Reymond
BACKGROUND: In nature, plants are frequently exposed to simultaneous biotic stresses that activate distinct and often antagonistic defense signaling pathways. How plants integrate this information and whether they prioritize one stress over the other is not well understood. RESULTS: We investigated the transcriptome signature of the wild annual crucifer, Brassica nigra, in response to eggs and caterpillars of Pieris brassicae butterflies, Brevicoryne brassicae aphids and the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv...
July 17, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716028/antiplasmodial-potential-and-quantification-of-aloin-and-aloe-emodin-in-aloe-vera-collected-from-different-climatic-regions-of-india
#14
Sandeep Kumar, Manila Yadav, Amita Yadav, Pooja Rohilla, Jaya Parkash Yadav
BACKGROUND: In this study, Aloe vera samples were collected from different climatic regions of India. Quantitative HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography) analysis of important anthraquinones aloin and aloe-emodin and antiplasmodial activity of crude aqueous extracts was done to estimate the effects of these constituents on antiplasmodial potential of the plant. METHODS: HPTLC system equipped with a sample applicator Linomat V with CAMAG sample syringe, twin rough plate development chamber (20 x 10 cm), TLC Scanner 3 and integration software WINCATS 1...
July 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715604/antioxidant-activities-and-phenolic-compounds-of-several-tissues-of-pawpaw-asimina-triloba-l-dunal-grown-in-korea
#15
Jin-Sik Nam, Hye-Lim Jang, Young Ha Rhee
Pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) possesses antioxidant compounds and strong inhibitors of cancer cells, and is widely cultivated in North America, Canada, and Korea. We analyzed the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) of pawpaw plants grown in Korea and the antioxidant activities of their roots, twigs, leaves, and fruit with respect to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferrous (Fe(2+) ) chelating ability, and nitrite scavenging activity...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715245/enhanced-rutin-accumulation-in-tobacco-leaves-by-overexpressing-the-ntfls2-gene
#16
Junli Shi, Wenzheng Li, Yulong Gao, Bingwu Wang, Yong Li, Zhongbang Song
Rutin, one of the metabolites of the flavonoid pathway, shows great potential in industrial applications as a key component in pharmaceutical medicines and biological pesticides. Although the genetic manipulation of transcription factors (TFs) could increase rutin levels in plants, the accompanying accumulation of structurally similar chemicals complicates industrial rutin extraction. In this study, we demonstrated remarkably elevated rutin content (3.5-4.4-fold relative to controls) in transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing NtFLS2...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714347/antifungal-activities-and-active-ingredients-of-melodinus-suaveolens-champ-ex-benth
#17
Yanan Xu, Siquan Ling, Dongqiang Zeng, Wenwei Tang
Four Melodinus species with antifungal activity were found in survey of the floral resources, in Shiwan Mountain Natural Reserve, Guangxi Province, China. Crude methanolic extracts of the twigs and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens exhibited potent antifungal activities against the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum graminicola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria musae, and the ethyl acetate fraction inhibited these pathogens at rates of 85.37, 91.47, 72.77 and 89.87%, respectively (5 mg/mL)...
July 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713957/soyasaponin%C3%A2-ag-inhibits-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-msh%C3%A2-induced-melanogenesis-in-b16f10-melanoma-cells-via-the-downregulation-of-trp%C3%A2-2
#18
Seung Hwan Yang, Aristides M Tsatsakis, George Tzanakakis, Hong-Suk Kim, Bao Le, Maria Sifaki, Demetrios A Spandidos, Chigen Tsukamoto, Kirill S Golokhvast, Boris N Izotov, Gyuhwa Chung
Saponins, which are glycosylated, represent a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of soyasaponin Ag, a secondary metabolite extracted from soybean, on α‑melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α‑MSH)‑induced melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. To elucidate the mechanisms through which soyasaponin Ag inhibits melanin synthesis, we performed cellular tyrosinase activity assays and analyzed the expression of the melanogenesis‑related genes, tyrosinase, tyrosinase‑related protein (TRP)‑1 and TRP‑2...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713946/ginkgo-biloba-extract-prevents-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-suppresses-the-inflammation%C3%A2-and-apoptosis%C3%A2-regulating-p38-mitogen%C3%A2-activated-protein-kinases-nuclear-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-b%C3%A2-cell-lymphoma-2-signaling-pathways
#19
Yanping Li, Ya Zhang, Min Wen, Ju Zhang, Xia Zhao, Yuan Zhao, Jiagang Deng
Ginkgo biloba is a plant known from the Mesozoic and has been regarded as one of the first to be used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The plant extract has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. The Ginkgo biloba leaf contains flavones and diterpenes. In addition, Ginkgo biloba performs certain pharmacologic actions, including antioxidant and anti‑aging activities. The aim of the present study was to examine whether Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713519/common-solvents-for-making-extraction-of-allergenic-proteins-from-plants-pollens-for-prick-tests-and-related-factors-a-technical-review
#20
REVIEW
Hassan Mansouritorghabeh, Farahzad Jabbari-Azad, Abdolreza Varasteh, Mojtaba Sankian, Reza Farid-Hosseini
Collecting information on influencing factors in developing consistent and high-quality extracts results in accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of type I allergy (IgE mediated). Furthermore, considering that a large number of allergens are currently in practice, any attempt to develop a more effective procedure for preparing extract may be useful. Nowadays, different saline solvents, temperature, incubation time, and PH are being incorporated for preparing allergen extracts. The objective of the current study was to clear and address the commonest of solvent buffers and allied conditions for making extracts of pollens of grasses, trees, and weeds...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
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