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Kena Song, Zirui Wang, Ruchuan Liu, Guo Chen, Liyu Liu
Exploring the complicated development of tumors and metastases needs a deep understanding of the physical and biological interactions between cancer cells and their surrounding microenvironments. One of the major challenges is the ability to mimic the complex 3-D tissue microenvironment that particularly influences cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis in relation to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Traditional cell culture is unable to create 3-D cell scaffolds resembling tissue complexity and functions, and, in the past, many efforts were made to realize the goal of obtaining cell clusters in hydrogels...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
John Tingle
John Tingle discusses the latest Care Quality Commission annual report on how health services in England are applying the Mental Health Act 1983, which reveals with some worrying findings.
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Batool Tirgari, Leili Mirshekari, Mansooreh Azzizadeh Forouzi
BACKGROUND: Pressure injuries are the third most expensive condition after cancer and cardiovascular disease. Nurses are responsible for the direct and continuous care, treatment, and prevention of pressure injuries. To achieve optimal quality care, nursing knowledge and attitudes must be based on the best scientific evidence. This study aimed to examine the knowledge and attitudes of nurses working in intensive care units of hospitals affiliated with Zahedan Medical Sciences University regarding the prevention of pressure injuries...
April 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Xavier Bioy, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag
The bioethics laws since their first adoption in 1994 until the latest proposals, have been widely commented and analyzed, regarding the provisions related to the legal qualification and the legal status of the embryo and of the embryonic stem cells. The legal issues raised by these hesitations imply instability for both researchers and health professionals about what they can and cannot do when it comes to the embryo and its cells. Thus, while the protection of the embryo was the subject of a consensus until the end of the 2000s, it now appears as the object of a political will, from researchers and state agencies, to support this research...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Ni Fan, Yigui Tang, Zhiyuan Wu, Ming Guan, Bobin Chen, Xiaoping Xu, Weizhe Ma, Xiao Xu, Xinju Zhang
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is one of the BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), characterized by the diffuse fibrous hyperproliferation, bone marrow osteosclerosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and marked splenomegaly. The patients with PMF have an insidious onset, a long duration of clinical course, and the deteriorated quality of life. It has been reported that the CALR gene 9 exon mutations were detected in 25-30% PMF patients, particularly as high as 80% in the JAK2/MPL-negative ones. As the second most common mutation in BCR/ABL-negative MPNs, CALR mutation has been included in the latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification criteria as one of the main diagnostic criteria for both essential thrombocythemia (ET) and PMF...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Matthew Collin
The maintenance of macrophage populations, role of environmental cues in shaping their physiology, and the response of resident cells to perturbation are critical factors in tissue homeostasis with implications for many pathological scenarios. Pigment-containing cells of the dermis are the latest to come under the scrutiny of a mouse-induced depletion model.
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Julie Aaberg Lauridsen, Tyra Grove Krause, Peter Henrik Andersen
Measles vaccination has led to a significant fall in the number of measles cases and measles-related deaths worldwide. However, many countries still struggle to eliminate the disease. To obtain elimination, a minimum of 95% vaccination coverage for both of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines is necessary as well as an efficient surveillance system and timely public health response. Presenting data on reported cases and vaccination coverage in the latest 20 years, this article describes how measles are eliminated in Denmark and recommends, how the Danish measles surveillance system can be further improved to maintain the status...
March 19, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Anna-Camilla Ellemann, Eva Serup-Hansen
The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. The primary treatment consists of radiotherapy concomitant with chemotherapy. Short- and long-term side effects are common, and supportive care during treatment and rehabilitation after treatment is necessary. Locoregional recurrence is treated with an abdominoperineal resection with sigmoideostomia and/or lymph node exairesis. Staging and treatment is done centralized. The prognosis has improved over the latest 10-20 years with a long-term overall survival of > 70% after primary therapy and approximately 50% after surgical treatment for recurrence...
March 19, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Lianne Remijn, Lenie van den Engel-Hoek, Ton Satink, Bert J M de Swart, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden
OBJECTIVE: The impact of difficulties with eating and drinking in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy is unknown. The purpose of this study is to find out which difficulties adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy experience with eating and drinking in daily life and how they deal with these difficulties. The study also explores how they think about themselves with respect to eating and what does or does not help regarding social participation. METHOD: We collected the data from ten participants with spastic cerebral palsy (aged 15-23 years) living in the Netherlands...
March 21, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Eric J Warrant
For over half a century, the multitudinous mirror eyes of the lowly scallop have continuously amazed us with their visual eccentricities. The latest surprise is the mirror itself, which turns out to be an extraordinary optical wonder.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Bérénice Rault-Petit, Christine Do Cao, Serge Guyétant, Rosine Guimbaud, Vincent Rohmer, Catherine Julié, Eric Baudin, Bernard Goichot, Romain Coriat, Antoine Tabarin, Jeanne Ramos, Pierre Goudet, Valérie Hervieu, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Thomas Walter
OBJECTIVE: The primary endpoint was to analyze the predictive factors of lymph node involvement (LN+). BACKGROUND: Indications for additional right hemicolectomy (RHC) with lymph node (LN) resection after appendectomy for appendix neuroendocrine tumor (A-NET) remain controversial, especially for tumors between 1 and 2 cm in size. METHODS: National study including all patients with nonmetastatic A-NET diagnosed after January, 2010 in France...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Alexej Barg, Clayton C Bettin, Albert H Burstein, Charles L Saltzman, Jeremy Gililland
BACKGROUND: In the last 2 decades, total ankle replacement has gained greater acceptance as a treatment option in patients with end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. However, there is a lack of literature on total ankle replacement using a lateral transfibular approach. Therefore, we sought to report early clinical and radiographic results for a patient cohort treated with total ankle replacement using a lateral transfibular approach, performed by a single surgeon. METHODS: From October 2012 to December 2014, 55 primary total ankle arthroplasties using the Zimmer Trabecular Metal Total Ankle implant were performed in 54 patients (29 male and 25 female; mean age, 67...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Luciano Rossetti
Luciano Rossetti, MD, Executive Vice President, Global Head of R&D at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany speaks to Laura Dormer, Commissioning Editor Luciano Rossetti, MD, is Executive Vice President, Global Head of R&D at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, and a member of the Healthcare Executive Committee. As Global Head of R&D, Rossetti leads the strategy for Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany's discovery and development efforts in healthcare. He joined Merck KGaA in July 2014, and has since led the acceleration of several key programs through the pipeline and advanced the innovation of Merck KGaA's discovery teams into development...
March 20, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
Austin B Hopper, Ajay P S Sandhu, J Kellogg Parsons, Brent Rose, John P Einck
Purpose: Cryotherapy is an option for the primary treatment of localized prostate cancer, along with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, and brachytherapy. Although it is known that local recurrence can occur in >20% of patients treated with primary cryotherapy, unfortunately there is a paucity of data on later salvage treatments. The use of external beam radiation therapy is an attractive option after cryotherapy failure, but there is little data on its efficacy and toxicity...
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Lei Wu, Churong Li, Li Pan
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy worldwide, but it is endemic in a few areas including Southern China, Southeast Asia, North Africa and the Arctic. The underlying mechanisms behind this remarkable geographic distribution remain unclear. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been suggested as a necessary cause of undifferentiated NPC, EBV itself is not sufficient to cause this malignancy. Other co-factors, such as environmental risk factors, and/or genetic susceptibility, may interact with EBV to play a role in the carcinogenesis of NPC...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lucia Margari, Roberto Palumbi, Paola A Lecce, Francesco Craig, Marta Simone, Mariella Margari, Silvana M C Seccia, Maura Buttiglione
Headache is one of the most common neurological disorders in developmental age. Several studies investigated the relationship between headache and emotional/behavioral problems. We studied non-verbal cognitive abilities, including non-verbal memory and attention skills, in order to evaluate the impact of primary headache on these domains. The latest version of the cognitive battery Leiter International Performance Scale - Third Edition (Leiter-3), a non-verbal test, was administered to 35 children and adolescents affected by migraine or tension-type headache and to 23 healthy subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Mette Karlsen, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Ulla Toft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population...
March 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Briony D Smith, Krystal J Vail, Gwendolyn L Carroll, Maggie C Taylor, Nicholas D Jeffery, Tracy H Vemulapalli, James J Elliott
Often few alternative anesthetics for exotic species are available, due to the small numbers of these animals used in research. In this study, we evaluated the depth and duration of anesthesia in Xenopus laevis after their immersion in 3 doses of etomidate (15, 22.5, and 30 mg/L) and in 3 doses of benzocaine (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) compared with the 'gold standard,' tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222; 2 g/L). We then chose an optimal dose for each alternative anesthetic according to induction time, duration of surgical plane, and time to complete recovery...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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