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antibiotic resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#1
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149185/linezolid-and-atorvastatin-impact-on-pneumonia-caused-by-staphyloccocus-aureus-in-rabbits-with-or-without-mechanical-ventilation
#2
Laure-Anne Pauchard, Mathieu Blot, Rémi Bruyere, Saber-Davide Barbar, Delphine Croisier, Lionel Piroth, Pierre-Emmanuel Charles
Pneumonia may involve methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with elevated rates of antibiotics failure. The present study aimed to assess the effect of statins given prior to pneumonia development. Spontaneously breathing (SB) or mechanically ventilated (MV) rabbits with pneumonia received atorvastatin alone, linezolid (LNZ) alone, or a combination of both (n = 5 in each group). Spontaneously breathing and MV untreated infected animals (n = 11 in each group), as well as uninfected animals (n = 5 in each group) were used as controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149094/genomic-analysis-of-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-from-dairy-cow-manure
#3
Muhammad Attiq Rehman, Xianhua Yin, Dion Lepp, Chad Laing, Kim Ziebell, Guylaine Talbot, Edward Topp, Moussa Sory Diarra
The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) conferring resistance to new derivatives of β-lactams is a major public health threat if present in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The objective of this study was to characterize ceftiofur (TIO)- or cefotaxime (FOX)-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from dairy cow manure. Twenty-four manure samples were collected from four farms and incubated under anaerobic conditions for 20 weeks at 4 °C or at 25 °C. A total of 37 TIO- or FOX-resistant E. coli were isolated from two of the four farms to determine their susceptibility to 14 antibiotics...
November 17, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149023/antibiotic-susceptibility-genetic-diversity-and-the-presence-of-toxin-producing-genes-in-campylobacter-isolates-from-poultry
#4
Jeeyeon Lee, Jiyeon Jeong, Heeyoung Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Sejeong Kim, Yukyung Choi, Hyemin Oh, Kunho Seo, Yohan Yoon, Soomin Lee
This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken (n = 152) and duck (n = 154) samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses were identified by PCR. The isolated colonies were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to chloramphenicol, amikacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and enrofloxacin. The isolates were also used to analyze genetic diversity using the DiversiLab(TM) system and were tested for the presence of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148915/the-frequency-of-mutations-in-quinolone-resistance-determining-regions-and-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-shigella-isolates-recovered-from-pediatric-patients-in-tehran-iran-an-overlooked-problem
#5
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi-Yazdi
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in clinical isolates of Shigella species has been increasing reported in recent years. This study was carried out to find the mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) and the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants among the clinical isolates of Shigella sp. in Tehran, Iran. A total of 50 Shigella isolates were collected from five teaching therapeutic centers in Tehran, Iran and analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility over a period of 20 months from July 2015 to January 2017...
November 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148895/characterization-of-cefotaxime-and-ciprofloxacin-resistant-commensal-escherichia-coli-originating-from-belgian-farm-animals-indicates-high-antibiotic-resistance-transfer-rates
#6
Ellen Lambrecht, Eva Van Meervenne, Nico Boon, Tom Van de Wiele, Pierre Wattiau, Lieve Herman, Marc Heyndrickx, Els Van Coillie
Food-producing animals represent one of the sources of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria. There is an increasing awareness that these bacteria might have the potential to transfer their resistance genes to other (pathogenic) bacteria. In this study, 50 commensal Escherichia coli strains originating from food-producing animals and resistant to the "highest priority, critically important antibiotics" cefotaxime and/or ciprofloxacin, were selected for further characterization. For each strain (i) an antibiogram, (ii) the phylogenetic group, (iii) plasmid replicon type, (iv) presence and identification of integrons, and (v) antibiotic resistance transfer ratios were determined...
November 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148887/wild-birds-as-a-potential-source-of-known-and-novel-multilocus-sequence-types-of-antibiotic-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis
#7
Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Tomasz Hauschild, Anna Nowaczek, Agnieszka Marek, Marta Dec
We assessed the antibiotic resistance and genetic diversity of 27 Enterococcus faecalis isolates from 25 wild bird species in Poland. Resistance to lincomycin (100%) was most common followed by tetracycline (48%), erythromycin (44%), and ciprofloxacin (22%). High-level resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin was observed in 19 and 15% of isolates, respectively. One isolate (4%) exhibited low-level resistance to penicillin and vancomycin, and all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Antibiotic resistance was linked to the tet(M), tet(L), erm(A), erm(B), msr(A/B), ant(6)-Ia, and aph(3')-IIIa genes...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148730/the-effect-of-different-treatment-technologies-on-the-fate-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-class-1-integrons-when-residual-municipal-wastewater-solids-are-applied-to-soil
#8
Tucker Burch, Michael J Sadowsky, Timothy M LaPara
Residual wastewater solids are a significant reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). While treatment technologies can reduce ARG levels in residual wastewater solids, the effects of these technologies on ARGs in soil during subsequent land-application are unknown. In this study we investigated the use of numerous treatment technologies (air drying, aerobic digestion, mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion, pasteurization, and alkaline stabilization) on the fate of ARGs and class 1 integrons in wastewater solids-amended soil microcosms...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148103/extracytoplasmic-function-sigma-factor-%C3%AF-d-confers-resistance-to-environmental-stress-by-enhancing-mycolate-synthesis-and-modifying-peptidoglycan-structures-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#9
Koichi Toyoda, Inui Masayuki
Mycolates are α-branched, β-hydroxylated, long-chain fatty acid specifically synthesized in bacteria in the suborder Corynebacterineae of the phylum Actinobacteria. They form an outer membrane, which functions as a permeability barrier and confers pathogenic mycobacteria to resistance to antibiotics. Although the mycolate biosynthetic pathway has been intensively studied, knowledge of transcriptional regulation of genes involved in this pathway is limited. Here we report that the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σ(D) is a key regulator of the mycolate synthetic genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum in the suborder...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147962/retrospective-review-of-ceftriaxone-versus-levofloxacin-for-treatment-of-e-coli-urinary-tract-infections
#10
Samantha S Wang, Patrick D Ratliff, William R Judd
Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections. Options for initial treatment of pyelonephritis or UTI requiring hospitalization include levofloxacin (LVF) or extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Globally, uropathogenic Escherichia coli resistance rates to fluoroquinolones have increased in recent years. Objective To compare clinical outcomes of patients receiving ceftriaxone (CTX) to those who received LVF empirically for the treatment of E. coli UTI. Setting 433-bed community hospital in Lexington, KY...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147677/antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-bacteria-isolated-from-the-nasal-cavity-of-camels-in-samburu-nakuru-and-isiolo-counties-of-kenya
#11
J M Mutua, C G Gitao, L C Bebora, F K Mutua
This study was designed to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from the nasal cavity of healthy camels. A total of 255 nasal samples (swabs) were collected in Isiolo, Samburu, and Nakuru counties, Kenya, from which 404 bacterial isolates belonging to various genera and species were recovered. The bacterial isolates included Bacillus (39.60%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (29.95%), Streptococcus species other than Streptococcus agalactiae (25.74%), coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (3...
2017: Journal of veterinary medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147502/chemical-space-guided-discovery-of-antimicrobial-bridged-bicyclic-peptides-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-its-biofilms
#12
Ivan Di Bonaventura, Xian Jin, Ricardo Visini, Daniel Probst, Sacha Javor, Bee-Ha Gan, Gaëlle Michaud, Antonino Natalello, Silvia Maria Doglia, Thilo Köhler, Christian van Delden, Achim Stocker, Tamis Darbre, Jean-Louis Reymond
Herein we report the discovery of antimicrobial bridged bicyclic peptides (AMBPs) active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a highly problematic Gram negative bacterium in the hospital environment. Two of these AMBPs show strong biofilm inhibition and dispersal activity and enhance the activity of polymyxin, currently a last resort antibiotic against which resistance is emerging. To discover our AMBPs we used the concept of chemical space, which is well known in the area of small molecule drug discovery, to define a small number of test compounds for synthesis and experimental evaluation...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147471/experience-with-ceftaroline-for-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia-in-a-community-hospital
#13
Apurwa Karki, Craig Thurm, Kelly Cervellione
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an organism causing significant mortality and morbidity with nosocomial infections. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin antibiotic that has activity against MRSA. In the USA, this antibiotic has not been approved for use in pneumonia caused by MRSA. Objectives: To review the use of ceftaroline in MRSA pneumonia in a US hospital and evaluate its clinical success. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in an urban community hospital assessing the use of ceftaroline for MRSA pneumonia...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147117/colistin-resistance-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-snakes-in-taiwan
#14
Po-Yu Liu, Ling-Ling Weng, Shu-Ying Tseng, Chou-Chen Huang, Ching-Chang Cheng, Yan-Chiao Mao, Kwong-Chung Tung
This study included fifty-eight isolates of P. aeruginosa from the oral cavity of snakes that were recruited from clinical cases, captive and wild snakes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the determination of susceptibility were identified by the broth microdilution method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect β-lactamases genes. With regard to antipseudomonal antibiotics, the lowest nonsusceptible rates were in aztreonam (15%), piperacillin/tazobactam (12%), and amikacin (9%)...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147114/antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-isolates-from-captive-green-turtles-and-in-vitro-sensitivity-to-bacteriophages
#15
Alessandro Delli Paoli Carini, Ellen Ariel, Jacqueline Picard, Lisa Elliott
This study aimed to test multidrug resistant isolates from hospitalised green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their environment in North Queensland, Australia, for in vitro susceptibility to bacteriophages. Seventy-one Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from green turtle eye swabs and water samples. Broth microdilution tests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with 24% being resistant to seven of the eight antibiotics. Highest resistance rates were detected to enrofloxacin (77%) and ampicillin (69...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147090/detection-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-resistance-genes-in-enterococci-isolated-from-sucuk-a-traditional-turkish-dry-fermented-sausage
#16
Furkan Demirgül, Yasin Tuncer
The aim of this study was to isolate enterococci in Sucuk, a traditional Turkish dry-fermented sausage and to analyze isolates for their biodiversity, antibiotic resistance patterns and the presence of some antibiotic resistance genes. A total of 60 enterococci strains were isolated from 20 sucuk samples manufactured without using a starter culture and they were identified as E. faecium (73.3%), E. faecalis (11.7%), E. hirae (8.3%), E. durans (3.3%), E. mundtii (1.7%) and E. thailandicus (1.7%). Most of the strains were found resistant to rifampin (51...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147057/lessons-learnt-during-20-years-of-the-swedish-strategic-programme-against-antibiotic-resistance
#17
Sigvard Mölstad, Sonja Löfmark, Karin Carlin, Mats Erntell, Olov Aspevall, Lars Blad, Håkan Hanberger, Katarina Hedin, Jenny Hellman, Christer Norman, Gunilla Skoog, Cecilia Stålsby-Lundborg, Karin Tegmark Wisell, Christina Åhrén, Otto Cars
Increasing use of antibiotics and rising levels of bacterial resistance to antibiotics are a challenge to global health and development. Successful initiatives for containing the problem need to be communicated and disseminated. In Sweden, a rapid spread of resistant pneumococci in the southern part of the country triggered the formation of the Swedish strategic programme against antibiotic resistance, also known as Strama, in 1995. The creation of the programme was an important starting point for long-term coordinated efforts to tackle antibiotic resistance in the country...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146760/blepharitis-as-an-early-sign-of-metabolic-syndrome-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#18
Chia-Yi Lee, Hung-Chi Chen, Hui-Wen Lin, Jing-Yang Huang, Shih-Chun Chao, Chao-Bin Yeh, Hung-Yu Lin, Shun-Fa Yang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between blepharitis and metabolic syndrome (MetS) by using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) of Taiwan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using data collected from the LHID for the period from 2009 to 2013. This study enrolled patients who received a diagnosis of blepharitis according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnostic code. The exclusion criteria were legal blindness, eyeball removal, ocular tumours prior to the diagnosis of blepharitis, and patients diagnosed with blepharitis and initiated antibiotic treatment concurrently...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146549/risk-assessment-of-infected-children-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia-by-combining-host-and-pathogen-predictors
#19
Jiayi Chen, Yuhang Chen, Pengwei Hu, Tao Zhou, Xin Xu, Xiaofang Pei
The current criteria of pneumonia severity, which mainly depend on clinical manifestations and laboratory findings from blood routine tests and X-ray examination, are still of great significance in preliminary diagnosis. However, the utility of traditional severe pneumonia indexes (SPI) without considering high virulence and multidrug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has limitations. Thus, it is of great value to make a risk assessment, which can serve as a complementary option for incomplete clinical diagnosis...
November 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146383/not-just-antibiotics-is-cancer-chemotherapy-driving-antimicrobial-resistance
#20
REVIEW
Lito E Papanicolas, David L Gordon, Steve L Wesselingh, Geraint B Rogers
The global spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens threatens to increase the mortality of cancer patients significantly. We propose that chemotherapy contributes to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within the gut and, in combination with antibiotics, drives pathogen overgrowth and translocation into the bloodstream. In our model, these processes are mediated by the effects of chemotherapy on bacterial mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer, the disruption of commensal gut microbiology, and alterations to host physiology...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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