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antibiotic resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334366/modified-colistin-regimen-for-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-renal-impairment-and-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#1
Pierantonio Menna, Emanuela Salvatorelli, Alessia Mattei, Dario Cappiello, Giorgio Minotti, Massimiliano Carassiti
Colistin is a last resort antibiotic to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria infections. Colistin is administered intravenously in the form of its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). For patients with acute kidney impairment and continuous renal replacement therapy high extracorporeal clearance may cause a substantial removal of active colistin from the bloodstream, eventually decreasing its antibacterial efficacy. Currently recommended doses of CMS may therefore be inadequate for these patients...
December 22, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333818/community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-hospitalization-and-case-fatality-risk-in-10-pediatric-facilities-in-argentina
#2
Ángela Gentile, Julia Bakir, Gabriela Ensinck, Aldo Cancellara, Enrique V Casanueva, Verónica Firpo, Martín Caruso, María F Lución, Alejandro Santillán Iturres, Fabiana Molina, Héctor J Abate, Andrea Gajo Gane, Santiago López Papucci
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are prevalent both in Argentina and worldwide, and they may have a severe clinical course. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the hospitalization rate and case fatality risk factors of CA-MRSA infection. METHODS: Cross-sectional, analytical study. All patients < 15 years old with community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infections admitted to 10 pediatric facilities between January 2012 and December 2014 were included...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333738/antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-of-poly-lactic-acid-bovine-lactoferrin-nanofiber-membranes
#3
Raul Machado, André da Costa, Dina M Silva, Andreia C Gomes, Margarida Casal, Vitor Sencadas
Antimicrobial materials have become relevant for local therapies preventing microbial resistance induced by systemic antibiotic treatments. This work reports the development of electrospun poly(lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofiber membranes loaded with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) up to 20 wt%. The membranes present smooth and nondefective fibers with mean diameters between 717 ± 197 and 495 ± 127 nm, and an overall porosity of ≈80%. The hydrophobicity of the PLLA membranes is reduced by the presence of bLF. The release profile of bLF correlates with an anomalous transport model, with 17...
January 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333608/the-synergistic-effect-of-pdt-and-oxacillin-on-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Natanel Iluz, Yasmin Maor, Natan Keller, Zvi Malik
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in clinical microbiology. It is known to cause infections at various body sites and can be life-threatening. The development of resistance to many well-established antibiotic treatments and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRAS) among hospital patients and the general community pose challenges in treating the pathogen. The antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been a subject of study for a long time and can offer new strategies for dealing with resistant strains...
January 15, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333490/inhibition-of-bacterial-adhesion-on-nanotextured-stainless-steel-316l-by-electrochemical-etching
#5
Yeongseon Jang, Won Tae Choi, Christopher T Johnson, Andrés J García, Preet M Singh, Victor Breedveld, Dennis W Hess, Julie A Champion
Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel 316L (SS316L), which is an alloy typically used in many medical devices and food processing equipment, can cause serious infections along with substantial healthcare costs. This work demonstrates that nanotextured SS316L surfaces produced by electrochemical etching effectively inhibit bacterial adhesion of both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, but exhibit cytocompatibility and no toxicity toward mammalian cells in vitro. Additionally, the electrochemical surface modification on SS316L results in formation of superior passive layer at the surface, improving corrosion resistance...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332434/relationship-between-antimicrobial-resistance-programs-and-antibiotic-dispensing-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-an-analysis-of-australian-data-between-2004-and-2015
#6
Jianyun Wu, Daniel Taylor, Ludmila Ovchinikova, Aine Heaney, Tessa Morgan, Jonathan Dartnell, Rachel Holbrook, Lauren Humphreys, Lynn Weekes, Suzanne Blogg
Objective NPS MedicineWise aims to ensure that medicines are prescribed and used in a manner consistent with current evidence-based best practice. A series of nationwide educational and advertising interventions for general practitioners and consumers were implemented in Australia between 2009 and 2015 with the aim of reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). The work described in this paper quantifies the change in antibiotic dispensing following these interventions...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332216/characteristics-of-arg-carrying-plasmidome-in-the-cultivable-microbial-community-from-wastewater-treatment-system-under-high-oxytetracycline-concentration
#7
Yanhong Shi, Hong Zhang, Zhe Tian, Min Yang, Yu Zhang
Studies on antibiotic production wastewater have shown that even a single antibiotic can select for multidrug resistant bacteria in aquatic environments. It is speculated that plasmids are an important mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) under high concentrations of antibiotics. Herein, two metagenomic libraries were constructed with plasmid DNA extracted from cultivable microbial communities in a biological wastewater treatment reactor supplemented with 0 (CONTROL) or 25 mg/L of oxytetracycline (OTC-25)...
January 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331890/deep-sequence-analysis-reveals-the-ovine-rumen-as-a-reservoir-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#8
Thomas C A Hitch, Ben J Thomas, Jessica C A Friedersdorff, Helen Ougham, Christopher J Creevey
Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly important environmental pollutant with direct consequences for human health. Identification of environmental sources of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) makes it possible to follow their evolution and prevent their entry into the clinical setting. ARGs have been found in environmental sources exogenous to the original source and previous studies have shown that these genes are capable of being transferred from livestock to humans. Due to the nature of farming and the slaughter of ruminants for food, humans interact with these animals in close proximity, and for this reason it is important to consider the risks to human health...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331783/comparative-study-of-novel-in-situ-decorated-porous-chitosan-selenium-scaffolds-and-porous-chitosan-silver-scaffolds-towards-antimicrobial-wound-dressing-application
#9
Dhee P Biswas, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Eric C Reynolds, Andrea J O'Connor, Phong A Tran
Dermal defects caused by trauma or disease are challenging to treat due to difficult-to-treat infections that impair wound healing. Due to the widespread emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and dwindling discoveries of new antibiotics, there is currently an urgent need to introduce novel antimicrobials effective against antibiotic-resistant bacteria without causing damage to host tissues. As selenium (Se) and silver (Ag) are known for their antimicrobial properties, we investigated the separate loading of these materials into porous chitosan/PVA (CS) scaffolds through a simple in situ deposition method to create two distinct wound dressing materials (CS-Se and CS-Ag)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331548/effect-of-outpatient-antibiotics-for-urinary-tract-infections-on-antimicrobial-resistance-among-commensal-enterobacteriaceae-a-multinational-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Andrew J Stewardson, Jascha Vervoort, Niels Adriaenssens, Samuel Coenen, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Anna Kowalczyk, Benedikt Huttner, Christine Lammens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Herman Goossens, Stephan Harbarth
OBJECTIVES: We quantified the impact of antibiotics prescribed in primary care for urinary tract infections (UTIs) on intestinal colonisation by ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIP-RE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), while accounting for household clustering. METHODS: Prospective cohort study from January 2011 to August 2013 at primary care sites in Belgium, Poland and Switzerland. We recruited outpatients requiring antibiotics for suspected UTIs or asymptomatic bacteriuria (exposed patients), outpatients not requiring antibiotics (non-exposed patients), and 1-3 household contacts for each patient...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331368/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-safety-analysis-of-enterococcus-faecium-2c-isolated-from-human-breast-milk
#11
Soodabeh Khalkhali, Naheed Mojgani
INTRODUCTION: Safety analysis of probiotic bacteria is an obligatory characteristic to be evaluated prior to application in food or pharmacological products. This study was designed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo safety parameters of Enterococcus faecium 2C strain, a probiotic candidate isolated from human breast milk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: E.faecium 2C was studied for its hemolytic activity and phenotypic antibiotics resistance profile. In vivo safety of the mentioned Enterococcus strain was studied by determining acute oral toxicity in Wistar Male rats...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331324/rectal-culture-directed-antibiotic-prophylaxis-before-transrectal-prostate-biopsy-reduced-infectious-complications-and-healthcare-costs
#12
J V Baldissera-Aradas, L Rodríguez-Villamil, R Blanco-Fernández, C Pérez-García, G Viejo de la Guerra, I González-Rodríguez, J Mosquera-Madera
BACKGROUND: Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TUPB) is associated with infectious complications (ICs), which are related to a greater prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria (CRB) in rectal flora. We examined the ICs that occurred in 2 groups: A guided antibiotic prophylaxis (GP) group and an empiric prophylaxis (EP) group. We assessed the financial impact of GP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The GP group was studied prospectively (June 2013 to July 2014)...
January 10, 2018: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330592/genomic-characterization-of-key-bacteriophages-to-formulate-the-potential-biocontrol-agent-to-combat-enteric-pathogenic-bacteria
#13
Krupa M Parmar, Nishant A Dafale, Hitesh Tikariha, Hemant J Purohit
Combating bacterial pathogens has become a global concern especially when the antibiotics and chemical agents are failing to control the spread due to its resistance. Bacteriophages act as a safe biocontrol agent by selectively lysing the bacterial pathogens without affecting the natural beneficial microflora. The present study describes the screening of prominent enteric pathogens NDK1, NDK2, NDK3, and NDK4 (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Serratia) mostly observed in domestic wastewater; against which KNP1, KNP2, KNP3, and KNP4 phages were isolated...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330557/linear-doggybone-dna-vaccine-induces-similar-immunological-responses-to-conventional-plasmid-dna-independently-of-immune-recognition-by-tlr9-in-a-pre-clinical-model
#14
Alex Allen, Chuan Wang, Lisa J Caproni, Gessa Sugiyarto, Elena Harden, Leon R Douglas, Patrick J Duriez, Kinga Karbowniczek, Jon Extance, Paul J Rothwell, Ifeayinwa Orefo, John P Tite, Freda K Stevenson, Christian H Ottensmeier, Natalia Savelyeva
Vaccination with DNA that encodes cancer antigens is a simple and convenient way to raise immunity against cancer and has already shown promise in the clinical setting. Conventional plasmid DNA is commonly used which together with the encoded antigen also includes bacterial immunostimulatory CpG motifs to target the DNA sensor Toll-like receptor 9. Recently DNA vaccines using doggybone DNA (dbDNA™), have been developed without the use of bacteria. The cell-free process relies on the use of Phi29 DNA polymerase to amplify the template followed by protelomerase TelN to complete individual closed linear DNA...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330406/adjuvant-role-of-septifast-to-improve-the-diagnosis-of-sepsis-in-a-large-cohort-of-hematological-patients
#15
Raffaella Greco, Maria Chiara Barbanti, Nicasio Mancini, Lara Crucitti, Chiara Oltolini, Alessandra Forcina, Francesca Lorentino, Luca Vago, Carlo Messina, Daniela Clerici, Mara Morelli, Fabio Giglio, Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Laura Infurnari, Matteo G Carrabba, Sarah Marktel, Andrea Assanelli, Paolo Scarpellini, Massimo Bernardi, Jacopo Peccatori, Consuelo Corti, Massimo Clementi, Fabio Ciceri
Febrile neutropenia and sepsis are common and life-threatening complications in hematological diseases. This study was performed retrospectively in 514 patients treated for febrile neutropenia at our institute, to investigate the clinical usefulness of a molecular tool, LightCycler® SeptiFast test (SF), to promptly recognize pathogens causing sepsis in hematological patients. We collected 1837 blood samples of 514 consecutive hematological patients. The time of processing is short. Overall, 757 microorganisms in 663 episodes were detected by molecular test and standard blood cultures (BC): 73...
January 12, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330182/fluorescence-recovery-allows-the-implementation-of-a-fluorescence-reporter-gene-platform-applicable-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-anoxic-environments
#16
Rafael Pinilla, Leise Riber, Søren J Sørensen
The study of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in microbial communities has been revolutionized by significant advances in cultivation-independent methods based on fluorescence reporter gene technologies. Recently, the combination of these novel approaches with flow cytometry has presented itself as one of the most powerful tools to study the spread of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the environment. However, the use of fluorescent markers like green fluorescent protein (GFP) and mCherry is limited by environmental constraints that affect the correct maturation of their fluorophores, such as oxygen availability and pH levels...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329759/treatment-outcomes-of-macrolide-susceptible-mycobacterium-abscessus-lung-disease
#17
Hayoung Choi, Byung Woo Jhun, Su-Young Kim, Dae Hun Kim, Hyun Lee, Kyeongman Jeon, O Jung Kwon, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee, Sung Jae Shin, Charles L Daley, Won-Jung Koh
Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease is difficult to treat due to inducible resistance to macrolides. However, 15%-20% of isolates are macrolide susceptible. In 14 patients with macrolide-susceptible M. abscessus lung disease, all isolates had nonfunctional erm(41) gene, and sputum culture conversion rate was achieved in 93% (13/14) following antibiotic therapy.
December 16, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329747/antibacterial-properties-of-latarcin-1-derived-cell-penetrating-peptides
#18
Deepthi Poornima Budagavi, Archana Chugh
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) share certain physicochemical parameters such as amphipathicity, hydrophobicity, cationicity and pI, due to which these two groups of peptides also exhibit overlapping functional characteristics. In our current work, we have evaluated antimicrobial properties of cell-penetrating peptides derived from Latarcin1. Latarcin derived peptide (LDP) exhibited antimicrobial activity against representative microorganisms tested and bactericidal effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which was used as model organism of study in the present work...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329481/antibiotics-development-and-the-emergence-of-resistance-clinical-pharmacology-to-the-rescue
#19
Vijay V Upreti, April M Barbour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328999/discovery-of-novel-piperonyl-derivatives-as-diapophytoene-desaturase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-vancomycin-and-linezolid-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#20
Hanwen Wei, Fei Mao, Shuaishuai Ni, Feifei Chen, Baoli Li, Xiaoxia Qiu, Linghao Hu, Manjiong Wang, Xinyu Zheng, Jin Zhu, Lefu Lan, Jian Li
Inhibition of S. aureus diapophytoene desaturase (CrtN) could serve as an alternative approach for addressing the tricky antibiotic resistance by blocking the biosynthesis of carotenoid pigment which shields the bacterium from host oxidant killing. In this study, we designed and synthesized 44 derivatives with piperonyl scaffold targeting CrtN and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) were examined extensively to bring out the discovery of 21b with potent efficacy and better hERG safety profile compared to the first class CrtN inhibitor benzocycloalkane derivative 2...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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