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metabolism salmonella

Lucía N Biruk, Juan Moretton, Alicia Fabrizio de Iorio, Cristian Weigandt, Jimena Etcheverry, Javier Filippetto, Anahí Magdaleno
The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters of chemical extraction associated with the detection of toxicity and genotoxicity in sediment sample extracts. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), together with a battery of four bioassays, was performed in order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of inorganic and organic toxicants. The extracts were carried out using two inorganic solvents, two organic solvents and two extraction methodologies, making a total of five extracts...
October 17, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Mohammad Charehsaz, Rengin Reis, Sinem Helvacioglu, Hande Sipahi, Etil Guzelmeric, Ebru Turkoz Acar, Gamze Cicek, Erdem Yesilada, Ahmet Aydin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Styrax liquidus is a resinous exudate (balsam) obtained from the wounded trunk of the Liquidambar orientalis Mill. (Hamamelidaceae). Styrax has been used for treatment of various ailments in Turkish folk medicine such as skin problems, peptic ulcers, nocturnal enuresis, parasitic infections, antiseptic or as expectorant. AIM OF STUDY: In spite of frequent use of styrax in Turkish folk medicine as well as once as a stabilizer in perfumery industry, negative reports have been noticed by the international authority for restriction its use based on some limited evidences from an in vitro study...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Constanze Pinske, R Gary Sawers
Numerous recent developments in the biochemistry, molecular biology, and physiology of formate and H2 metabolism and of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase (Hyd) cofactor biosynthetic machinery are highlighted. Formate export and import by the aquaporin-like pentameric formate channel FocA is governed by interaction with pyruvate formate-lyase, the enzyme that generates formate. Formate is disproportionated by the reversible formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which has been isolated, allowing biochemical dissection of evolutionary parallels with complex I of the respiratory chain...
October 2016: EcoSal Plus
Alexia Hapeshi, Nick R Waterfield
Photorhabdus asymbiotica is a species of bacterium that is pathogenic to humans whilst retaining the ability to infect insect hosts. Currently, there are two recognised subspecies, P. asymbiotica subsp. asymbiotica and P. asymbiotica subsp. australis with strains isolated from various locations in the USA, Australia, Thailand, Nepal and Europe. Like other species of Photorhabdus, P. asymbiotica subsp. australis was shown to form a symbiotic relationship with a Heterorhabditis nematode. In contrast to most strains of Photorhabdus luminescens, P...
September 14, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Pauline Bondue, Sébastien Crèvecoeur, François Brose, Georges Daube, Marie-Christine Seghaye, Mansel W Griffiths, Gisèle LaPointe, Véronique Delcenserie
Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) possess an antimicrobial activity and can promote the growth of bifidobacteria such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. In addition, fermentation of carbohydrates by bifidobacteria can result in the production of metabolites presenting an antivirulence effect on several pathogenic bacteria. Whey is rich in complex bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) structurally similar to HMO and B. crudilactis, a species of bovine origin, is able to metabolize some of those complex carbohydrates...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chelsey M VanDrisse, Kristy L Hentchel, Jorge C Escalante-Semerena
Acetylation of small molecules is widespread in nature, and in some cases, cells use this process to detoxify harmful chemicals. Streptomyces species utilize a Gcn5 N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), known as Bar, to acetylate and detoxify a self-produced toxin, phosphinothricin (PPT), a glutamate analogue. Bar homologues, such as MddA from Salmonella enterica acetylate methionine analogues such as methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and methionine sulfone (MSO), but not PPT, even though Bar homologues are annotated as PPT acetyltransferases...
September 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Antonio Bevilacqua, Adele Costabile, Triana Bergillos-Meca, Isidro Gonzalez, Loretta Landriscina, Emanuela Ciuffreda, Paola D'Agnello, Maria Rosaria Corbo, Milena Sinigaglia, Carmela Lamacchia
The main aim of this paper was to assess the in vitro response of healthy and coeliac human faecal microbiota to gluten-friendly bread (GFB). Thus, GFB and control bread (CB) were fermented with faecal microbiota in pH-controlled batch cultures. The effects on the major groups of microbiota were monitored over 48 h incubations by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the death kinetics of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp...
2016: PloS One
Oscar Ruiz-Barrera, Robin C Anderson, Michael E Hume, Jonatan Corrales-Millan, Yamicela Castillo-Castillo, Agustin Corral-Luna, Jose Luis Guevara-Valdez, Jaime Salinas-Chavira, Carlos Rodriguez-Muela, Claudio Arzola-Alvarez
The current study was conducted to assess the bactericidal effectiveness of several nitrocompounds against pathogens in layer hen manure and litter. Evidence from an initial study indicated that treatment of layer hen manure with 12 mM nitroethane decreased populations of generic E. coli and total coliforms by 0.7 and 2.2 log10 colony forming units (CFU) g(-1), respectively, after 24 h aerobic incubation at ambient temperature when compared to untreated populations. Salmonella concentrations were unaffected by nitroethane in this study...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Woongjae Yoo, Hyunjin Yoon, Yeong-Jae Seok, Chang-Ro Lee, Hyung Ho Lee, Sangryeol Ryu
The nitrogen-metabolic phosphotransferase system, PTS(Ntr), consists of the enzymes I(Ntr), NPr and IIA(Ntr) that are encoded by ptsP, ptsO, and ptsN, respectively. Due to the proximity of ptsO and ptsN to rpoN, the PTS(Ntr) system has been postulated to be closely related with nitrogen metabolism. To define the correlation between PTS(Ntr) and nitrogen metabolism, we performed ligand fishing with EIIA(Ntr) as a bait and revealed that D-glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS) directly interacted with EIIA(Ntr)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Wei X Teo, Markus C Kerr, Rohan D Teasdale
The intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica servovar Typhimurium (S.typhimurium) modulates the host cell's phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism to establish its intracellular replicative niche, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). Upon invasion, phosphoinositide 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) and other early endosomal markers are rapidly recruited to and remain associated with the SCV throughout its early maturation. While the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase myotubularin 4 (MTMR4) has an established role in regulating autophagy and cellular PI(3)P-content, two processes associated with the intracellular survival of S...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Raktim Roy, P Phani Shilpa, Sangram Bagh
UNLABELLED: Bacteria are important organisms for space missions due to their increased pathogenesis in microgravity that poses risks to the health of astronauts and for projected synthetic biology applications at the space station. We understand little about the effect, at the molecular systems level, of microgravity on bacteria, despite their significant incidence. In this study, we proposed a systems biology pipeline and performed an analysis on published gene expression data sets from multiple seminal studies on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under spaceflight and simulated microgravity conditions...
September 2016: Astrobiology
Trung-Kien Tran, Qiang-Qiang Han, Yixin Shi, Lin Guo
In pathogenic bacteria, the two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) play important roles in signal transduction and regulation of their pathogenesis. Here, we used quantitative proteomic methods to comparatively analyze functional networks under the control of the RstA/RstB system versus the PhoP/PhoQ system in Salmonella typhimurium. By comparing the proteomic profile from a wild-type strain to that from a ΔrstB strain or a ΔphoPQ strain under a condition known to activate these TCSs, we found that the levels of 159 proteins representing 6...
September 10, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gili Aviv, Galia Rahav, Ohad Gal-Mor
UNLABELLED: Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent salmonellae worldwide. Recently, we showed that the emergence of S Infantis in Israel was facilitated by the acquisition of a unique megaplasmid (pESI) conferring multidrug resistance and increased virulence phenotypes. Here we elucidate the ecology, transmission properties, and regulation of pESI. We show that despite its large size (~280 kb), pESI does not impose a significant metabolic burden in vitro and that it has been recently fixed in the domestic S Infantis population...
2016: MBio
Sebastian Felgner, Michael Frahm, Dino Kocijancic, Manfred Rohde, Denitsa Eckweiler, Agata Bielecka, Emilio Bueno, Felipe Cava, Wolf-Rainer Abraham, Roy Curtiss, Susanne Häussler, Marc Erhardt, Siegfried Weiss
UNLABELLED: Recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are believed to act as powerful live vaccine carriers that are able to elicit protection against various pathogens. Auxotrophic mutations, such as a deletion of aroA, are commonly introduced into such bacteria for attenuation without incapacitating immunostimulation. In this study, we describe the surprising finding that deletion of aroA dramatically increased the virulence of attenuated Salmonella in mouse models...
2016: MBio
Cheryl A Hobbs, Sean V Taylor, Carol Beevers, Melvyn Lloyd, Rachael Bowen, Lucinda Lillford, Robert Maronpot, Shim-Mo Hayashi
Perillaldehyde, a natural monocyclic terpenoid found most abundantly in the herb perilla, has a long history of use as a flavouring ingredient to add spiciness and citrus taste to foods. Previously, it was judged to be safe by several international expert panels. To confirm the safety of flavourings placed on the European Union list of flavourings, perillaldehyde was selected by the European Food Safety Authority as a representative of a subgroup of alicyclic aldehyde flavouring substances to be evaluated for genotoxic potential...
September 1, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Chiranjit Chowdhury, Sunny Chun, Michael R Sawaya, Todd O Yeates, Thomas A Bobik
Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are complex organelles that consist of metabolic enzymes encapsulated within a protein shell. In this study, we investigate the function of the PduJ MCP shell protein. PduJ is 80% identical in amino acid sequence to PduA and both are major shell proteins of the 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) utilization (Pdu) MCP of Salmonella. Prior studies showed that PduA mediates the transport of 1,2-PD (the substrate) into the Pdu MCP. Surprisingly, however, results presented here establish that PduJ has no role 1,2-PD transport...
September 2016: Molecular Microbiology
J Frávega, R Álvarez, F Díaz, O Inostroza, C Tejías, P I Rodas, D Paredes-Sabja, J A Fuentes, I L Calderón, F Gil
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the contribution of cysK and cysM to the fluoroquinolone (ofloxacin) antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium, and their impact on H2S and cysteine production through targeted mutagenesis. METHODS: Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s and its cysK and cysM mutants were tested for their susceptibility to ofloxacin, as determined by a broth microdilution test (to determine the MIC) and survival curves. H2S levels were measured by the Pb(AC)2 method and cysteine levels were determined using 5,5-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
E L Benard, J Rougeot, P I Racz, H P Spaink, A H Meijer
Mycobacterium marinum infection in zebrafish has become a well-established model of tuberculosis. Both embryonic and adult zebrafish infection studies have contributed to our knowledge of the development and function of tuberculous granulomas, which are typical of mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this review we discuss how transcriptome profiling studies have helped to characterize this infection process. We illustrate this using new RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data that reveals three main phases in the host response to M...
2016: Advances in Genetics
Henry Ifeanyi Osakwe, Cristina Dragomir, Cristian Nicolescu, Eugen Sorin Boia
INTRODUCTION: This article reflects on the plight of patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) in developing countries. SBS is life threatening, rare, complex and often not considered a priority by healthcare planners in the developing countries because of the high cost of treatment. Data was collected and analyzed from 3 different hospitals in two different countries (Romania and Austria) from November 2013 to February 2016 CASE PRESENTATION: The patient had an emergency surgery for volvulus as a result of an extensive ischemic necrosis, with just 80cm of the bowel left and no ileocecal valve after enterectomy...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Bernardo Brito Palma, Daniela Moutinho, Philippe Urban, José Rueff, Michel Kranendonk
Individual variations in cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism are believed to contribute to individual susceptibility to chemical carcinogenesis. CYP1A2 is one of the major forms of cytochrome P450 involved in drug metabolism and bioactivation of carcinogens. We have applied a recently developed high-throughput Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 system for detection of DNA damaging agents to the study of CYP1A2 polymorphisms. Non-synonymous variants T83M [CYP1A2*9], S212C [CYP1A2*12], S298R [part of CYP1A2*21], G299S [CYP1A2*13], I314V [no allele designation], I386F [CYP1A2*4], C406Y [CYP1A2*5] and R456H [CYP1A2*8] were examined...
August 2016: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
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