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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699507/quinolones-and-fluroquinolones-metabolism-and-resistance-in-salmonella-typhimurium-a-mini-review
#1
B Preethi, V Shanthi, K Ramanathan
Salmonella enterica serovars causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. More than 2500 different serotypes of Salmonella were identified to date. In particular, Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium is the most important serotype of Salmonella transmitted from animals to humans in most parts of the world. They are associated with an estimated 1 million deaths annually. Quinolones are an important class of broad-spectrum antimicrobials has been utilized in the treatment option for over 40 years...
July 10, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698862/antimutagenic-and-antioxidant-activities-of-thai-rice-brans
#2
Orapin Insuan, Arpamas Chariyakornkul, Yuwada Rungrote, Rawiwan Wongpoomchai
BACKGROUND: Rice bran is the outer layer of the rice grain, and contains high amounts of bioactive phytochemicals. Here, we investigated and compared chemopreventive properties of purple and white rice bran extracts. METHODS: Rice bran was extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. Chemical constituents in the extracts were analyzed by colorimetric assay and high performance liquid chromatography. The mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of the extracts were determined via the Salmonella mutation assay...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682593/selective-and-high-dynamic-range-assay-format-for-multiplex-detection-of-pathogenic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-salmonella-typhimurium-and-legionella-pneumophila-rnas-using-surface-plasmon-resonance-imaging
#3
F Melaine, M Saad, S Faucher, M Tabrizian
Due to its well-characterized and highly conserved structure, as well as its relative abundance in metabolically active cells, bacterial 16S rRNA sequence plays an important role in microbial identification. In this work, a biosensing strategy has been developed for simultaneous detection of 16S rRNA analytes of three pathogenic bacterial strains: Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) was used as a detection technique coupled with DNA probe sandwich assemblies and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for signal amplification...
July 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674150/temporal-regulation-of-a-salmonella-typhimurium-virulence-factor-by-the-transcriptional-regulator-ydcr
#4
Yanhua Liu, Qian Liu, Linlu Qi, Tao Ding, Zhen Wang, Jiaqi Fu, Mo Hu, Min Li, Jeongmin Song, Xiaoyun Liu
We previously examined Salmonella proteome within infected host cells and found differential expression of many proteins with defined functional roles such as metabolism or virulence. However, the precise roles of other altered proteins in Salmonella pathogenesis are largely unknown. A putative transcriptional regulator, YdcR, was highly induced intracellularly while barely expressed in vitro, implicating potential relevance to bacterial infection. To unveil its physiological functions, we exploited quantitative proteomics of intracellular Salmonella and found that genetic ablation of ydcR resulted in severe repression of SrfN, a known virulence factor...
July 3, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674031/the-role-of-sapa-and-yfga-in-susceptibility-to-antibody-mediated-complement-dependent-killing-and-virulence-of-salmonella-enterica-typhimurium
#5
Edna M Ondari, Jennifer N Heath, Elizabeth J Klemm, Gemma Langridge, Lars Barquist, David A Goulding, Simon Clare, Gordon Dougan, Robert A Kingsley, Calman A MacLennan
The ST313 pathovar of S Typhimurium contributes to a high burden of invasive disease among African infants and HIV-infected adults. It is characterized by genome degradation (loss of coding capacity) and has increased resistance to antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing compared with enterocolitis-causing strains of S Typhimurium. Vaccination is an attractive disease-prevention strategy and leading candidates focus on the induction of bactericidal antibodies. Antibody-resistant strains arising through further gene deletion could compromise such a strategy...
July 3, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672057/intracellular-salmonella-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Dirk Bumann, Joep Schothorst
Growth of Salmonella inside infected host cells is a key aspect of their ability to cause local enteritis or systemic disease. This growth depends on exploitation of host nutrients through a large Salmonella metabolism network with hundreds of metabolites and enzymes. Studies in cell culture infection models are unraveling more and more of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms, but also show striking Salmonella metabolic plasticity depending on host cell line and experimental conditions. In vivo studies have revealed a qualitatively diverse, but quantitatively poor, host-Salmonella nutritional interface, which on one side makes Salmonella fitness largely resilient against metabolic perturbations, but on the other side severely limits Salmonella biomass generation and growth rates...
July 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670935/genetic-damage-induced-by-electronic-waste-leachates-and-contaminated-underground-water-in-two-prokaryotic-systems
#7
Okunola A Alabi, Adekunle A Bakare
The inappropriate and unsafe management practices related to disposal and recycling of electronic wastes in Nigeria has led to environmental and underground water contamination. Reports on the level and type of contamination as well as the possible DNA damage effects of this contamination are insufficient. This study evaluated the DNA damaging potential of e-waste simulated and raw leachates, and its contaminated underground water using the SOS chromotest on Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, without and with metabolic activation...
July 3, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652306/hepcidin-in-dependent-mechanisms-of-iron-metabolism-regulation-during-infection-by-listeria-and-salmonella
#8
Ana C Moreira, João V Neves, Tânia Silva, Patrícia Oliveira, Maria S Gomes, Pedro N Rodrigues
During bacterial infection, the pathogenic agent and the host battle for iron, due to its importance for fundamental cellular processes. However, iron redistribution and sequestration during infection can culminate in anemia. Although hepcidin has been recognized as the key regulator of iron metabolism, in some infections its levels remain unaffected, suggesting the involvement of other players on iron metabolism deregulation. In this work, we use a mouse model to elucidate the main cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to iron re-distribution during infection with two different pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium...
June 26, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651361/epigallocatechin-gallate-inhibits-the-type-iii-secretion-system-of-gram-negative-enteropathogenic-bacteria-under-model-condition
#9
Noboru Nakasone, Naomi Higa, Claudia Toma, Yasunori Ogura, Toshihiko Suzuki, Tetsu Yamashiro
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, inhibits the type III secretion system (T3SS) of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The inhibitory effect causes the inhibition of hemolysis, cell invasion, cell adhesion, and apoptosis, which are functions of the type III secretion device. In the case of EPEC, EspB accumulates in the cells. RT-PCR showed that the translation of EspB was not blocked...
June 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635589/regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-by-alternative-sigma-factor-n
#10
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σ(N) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(N) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σ(N)), ptsN, hpf, rapZ, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella. In an increasing number of bacteria, σ(N) has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629077/effects-of-the-surface-modification-of-polyurethane-substrates-on-genotoxicity-and-blood-activation-processes
#11
Roman Major, Hanna Plutecka, Anna Gruszczynska, Juergen M Lackner, Boguslaw Major
The aim of this study was to determine the mutagenic and thrombogenic potential of a material composed of a thin coating deposited on a polymeric substrate. In this work, a surface was modified in a manner that would mimic the function of cellular niches. Finally, the surfaces should actively capture and differentiate progenitor cells from the blood stream. Thin films with 10 to 500nm thicknesses were deposited by unbalanced, pulsed DC magnetron sputtering on smooth polyurethane. Such high energy conditions led to a stiffening of the polymer surface layers by pseudodiffusion during the initial stages of film growth...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624999/in-vitro-biotransformation-safety-and-chemopreventive-action-of-novel-8-methoxy-purine-2-6-dione-derivatives
#12
Małgorzata Anna Marć, Enrique Domínguez-Álvarez, Karolina Słoczyńska, Paweł Żmudzki, Grażyna Chłoń-Rzepa, Elżbieta Pękala
Metabolic stability, mutagenicity, antimutagenicity, and the ability to scavenge free radicals of four novel 8-methoxy-purine-2,6-dione derivatives (compounds 1-4) demonstrating analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties were determined. Metabolic stability was evaluated in Cunninghamella and microsomal models, mutagenic and antimutagenic properties were assessed using the Ames and the Vibrio harveyi tests, and free radical scavenging activity was evaluated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay...
June 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623341/metabolic-fingerprinting-of-bacteria-by-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-microscopy
#13
Arunima Bhattacharjee, Rupsa Datta, Enrico Gratton, Allon I Hochbaum
Bacterial populations exhibit a range of metabolic states influenced by their environment, intra- and interspecies interactions. The identification of bacterial metabolic states and transitions between them in their native environment promises to elucidate community behavior and stochastic processes, such as antibiotic resistance acquisition. In this work, we employ two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to create a metabolic fingerprint of individual bacteria and populations. FLIM of autofluorescent reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), NAD(P)H, has been previously exploited for label-free metabolic imaging of mammalian cells...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607157/anaerobic-cysteine-degradation-and-potential-metabolic-coordination-in-salmonella-enterica-and-escherichia-coli
#14
Melissa Loddeke, Barbara Schneider, Tamiko Oguri, Iti Mehta, Zhenyu Xuan, Larry Reitzer
Salmonella enterica has two CutR-activated enzymes that degrade cysteine: the aerobic CdsH and an unidentified anaerobic enzyme; E. coli only has the latter. To identify the anaerobic enzyme, transcript profiling was performed from E. coli without cutR and with overexpressed cutR 37 genes showed at least a five-fold change in expression, and the cutPA (formerly yhaOM) operon had the greatest differential. Homology suggested that CutP and CutA are a cysteine transporter and an iron-sulfur-containing cysteine desulfidase, respectively...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604679/a-stabilized-microbial-ecosystem-of-self-limiting-bacteria-using-synthetic-quorum-regulated-lysis
#15
Spencer R Scott, M Omar Din, Philip Bittihn, Liyang Xiong, Lev S Tsimring, Jeff Hasty
Microbial ecologists are increasingly turning to small, synthesized ecosystems(1-5) as a reductionist tool to probe the complexity of native microbiomes(6,7). Concurrently, synthetic biologists have gone from single-cell gene circuits(8-11) to controlling whole populations using intercellular signalling(12-16). The intersection of these fields is giving rise to new approaches in waste recycling(17), industrial fermentation(18), bioremediation(19) and human health(16,20). These applications share a common challenge(7) well-known in classical ecology(21,22)-stability of an ecosystem cannot arise without mechanisms that prohibit the faster-growing species from eliminating the slower...
June 12, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565917/differences-in-carbon-source-utilization-of-salmonella-oranienburg-and-saintpaul-isolated-from-river-water
#16
Andrés Medrano-Félix, Mitzi Estrada-Acosta, Felipe Peraza-Garay, Nohelia Castro-Del Campo, Jaime Martínez-Urtaza, Cristóbal Chaidez
Long-term exposure to river water by non-indigenous micro-organisms such as Salmonella may affect metabolic adaptation to carbon sources. This study was conducted to determine differences in carbon source utilization of Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Saintpaul (isolated from tropical river water) as well as the control strain Salmonella Typhimurium exposed to laboratory, river water, and host cells (Hep-2 cell line) growth conditions. Results showed that Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Saintpaul showed better ability for carbon source utilization under the three growth conditions evaluated; however, S...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559487/a-toxin-involved-in-salmonella-persistence-regulates-its-activity-by-acetylating-its-cognate-antitoxin-a-modification-reversed-by-cobb-sirtuin-deacetylase
#17
Chelsey M VanDrisse, Anastacia R Parks, Jorge C Escalante-Semerena
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems trigger the onset of a persister state by inhibiting essential cellular processes. The TacT toxin of Salmonella enterica is known to induce a persister state in macrophages through the acetylation of aminoacyl-tRNAs. Here, we show that the TacT toxin and the TacA antitoxin work as a complex that modulates TacT activity via the acetylation state of TacA. TacT acetylates TacA at residue K44, a modification that is removed by the NAD(+)-dependent CobB sirtuin deacetylase. TacA acetylation increases the activity of TacT, downregulating protein synthesis...
May 30, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554619/swarm-motility-inhibitory-and-antioxidant-activities-of-pomegranate-peel-processed-under-three-drying-conditions
#18
K M Maria John, Arvind A Bhagwat, Devanand L Luthria
During processing of ready-to-eat fresh fruits, large amounts of peel and seeds are discarded as waste. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) peels contain high amounts of bioactive compounds which inhibit migration of Salmonella on wet surfaces. The metabolic distribution of bioactives in pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion was investigated under three different drying conditions along with the anti-swarming activity against Citrobacter rodentium. Based on the multivariate analysis, 29 metabolites discriminated the pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion, as well as the three different drying methods...
November 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553268/global-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-response-of-salmonella-enteritidis-to-egg-white-exposure-reveals-multiple-egg-white-imposed-stress-responses
#19
Florence Baron, Sylvie Bonnassie, Mariah Alabdeh, Marie-Françoise Cochet, Françoise Nau, Catherine Guérin-Dubiard, Michel Gautier, Simon C Andrews, Sophie Jan
Chicken egg white protects the embryo from bacterial invaders by presenting an assortment of antagonistic activities that combine together to both kill and inhibit growth. The key features of the egg white anti-bacterial system are iron restriction, high pH, antibacterial peptides and proteins, and viscosity. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the major pathogen responsible for egg-borne infection in humans, which is partly explained by its exceptional capacity for survival under the harsh conditions encountered within egg white...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544771/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-host-epithelial-cells-infected-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#20
Linlu Qi, Mo Hu, Jiaqi Fu, Yanhua Liu, Mei Wu, Kaiwen Yu, Xiaoyun Liu
Systems-level analyses have the capability to offer new insight into host-pathogen interactions on the molecular level. Using Salmonella infection of host epithelial cells as a model system, we previously analyzed intracellular bacterial proteome as a window into pathogens' adaptations to their host environment [Infect. Immun. 2015; J. Proteome Res. 2017]. Herein we extended our efforts to quantitatively examine protein expression of host cells during infection. In total, we identified more than 5000 proteins with 194 differentially regulated proteins upon bacterial infection...
May 25, 2017: Proteomics
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