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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773876/early-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-in-pigs-disrupts-microbiome-composition-and-functionality-principally-at-the-ileum-mucosa
#1
Héctor Argüello, Jordi Estellé, Sara Zaldívar-López, Ángeles Jiménez-Marín, Ana Carvajal, Mª Asunción López-Bascón, Fiona Crispie, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Luis Morera, Juan J Garrido
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen which successfully infects animal species for human consumption such as swine. The pathogen has a battery of virulence factors which it uses to colonise and persist within the host. The host microbiota may play a role in resistance to, and may also be indirectly responsible from some of the consequences of, Salmonella infection. To investigate this, we used 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing to determine the changes in the gut microbiota of pigs in response to infection by Salmonella Typhimurium at three locations: ileum mucosa, ileum content and faeces...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773170/iron-and-innate-antimicrobial-immunity-depriving-the-pathogen-defending-the-host
#2
REVIEW
Manfred Nairz, Stefanie Dichtl, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Piotr Tymoszuk, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
The acute-phase response is triggered by the presence of infectious agents and danger signals which indicate hazards for the integrity of the mammalian body. One central feature of this response is the sequestration of iron into storage compartments including macrophages. This limits the availability of this essential nutrient for circulating pathogens, a host defence strategy known as 'nutritional immunity'. Iron metabolism and the immune response are intimately linked. In infections, the availability of iron affects both the efficacy of antimicrobial immune pathways and pathogen proliferation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767043/study-of-bacillus-subtilis-on-growth-performance-nutrition-metabolism-and-intestinal-microflora-of-1-to-42-d-broiler-chickens
#3
Zhenhua Gao, Haohao Wu, Lin Shi, Xiaohui Zhang, Ran Sheng, Fuquan Yin, Ravi Gooneratne
To study the influence of different levels of Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, nutrition metabolism and intestinal microflora of 1 to 42 d Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, a total of 800 one-day-old healthy broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates per group and 40 broilers per replicate. Broilers were fed a basic diet (group 1) which acted as the control group, and 4 other groups (2 to 5) were fed the basal diet with B. subtilis added at concentrations of 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/kg, respectively for 42 days...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758545/protection-against-uv-induced-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-by-amazon-moss-extracts
#4
A S Fernandes, J L Mazzei, H Evangelista, M R C Marques, E R A Ferraz, I Felzenszwalb
Amazon mosses, such as Holomitriopsis laevifolia and Leucobryum sp. are naturally exposed to high levels of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Theoretically, under environmental stress conditions these mosses have developed protective chemical and metabolic strategies against UV damage, by way of biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids. The present paper aimed to evaluate the free-radical scavenging activity, and the photoprotective, mutagenic and photomutagenic potencies of the methanolic (ME), aqueous (AE), hydroalcoholic (HE), ethanolic (EE) extracts of H...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751749/engineering-a-vitamin-b-12-high-throughput-screening-system-by-riboswitch-sensor-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#5
Yingying Cai, Miaomiao Xia, Huina Dong, Yuan Qian, Tongcun Zhang, Beiwei Zhu, Jinchuan Wu, Dawei Zhang
BACKGROUND: As a very important coenzyme in the cell metabolism, Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, VB12 ) has been widely used in food and medicine fields. The complete biosynthesis of VB12 requires approximately 30 genes, but overexpression of these genes did not result in expected increase of VB12 production. High-yield VB12 -producing strains are usually obtained by mutagenesis treatments, thus developing an efficient screening approach is urgently needed. RESULT: By the help of engineered strains with varied capacities of VB12 production, a riboswitch library was constructed and screened, and the btuB element from Salmonella typhimurium was identified as the best regulatory device...
May 11, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739905/loss-of-ethanolamine-utilization-in-enterococcus-faecalis-increases-gastrointestinal-tract-colonization
#6
Karan Gautam Kaval, Kavindra V Singh, Melissa R Cruz, Sruti DebRoy, Wade C Winkler, Barbara E Murray, Danielle A Garsin
Enterococcus faecalis is paradoxically a dangerous nosocomial pathogen and a normal constituent of the human gut microbiome, an environment rich in ethanolamine. E. faecalis carries the eut (ethanolamine utilization) genes, which enable the catabolism of ethanolamine (EA) as a valuable source of carbon and/or nitrogen. EA catabolism was previously shown to contribute to the colonization and growth of enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), in the gut environment...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738521/machine-learning-identifies-signatures-of-host-adaptation-in-the-bacterial-pathogen-salmonella-enterica
#7
Nicole E Wheeler, Paul P Gardner, Lars Barquist
Emerging pathogens are a major threat to public health, however understanding how pathogens adapt to new niches remains a challenge. New methods are urgently required to provide functional insights into pathogens from the massive genomic data sets now being generated from routine pathogen surveillance for epidemiological purposes. Here, we measure the burden of atypical mutations in protein coding genes across independently evolved Salmonella enterica lineages, and use these as input to train a random forest classifier to identify strains associated with extraintestinal disease...
May 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735417/salmonella-typhi-colonization-provokes-extensive-transcriptional-changes-aimed-at-evading-host-mucosal-immune-defense-during-early-infection-of-human-intestinal-tissue
#8
K P Nickerson, S Senger, Y Zhang, R Lima, S Patel, L Ingano, W A Flavahan, D K V Kumar, C M Fraser, C S Faherty, M B Sztein, M Fiorentino, A Fasano
Commensal microorganisms influence a variety of host functions in the gut, including immune response, glucose homeostasis, metabolic pathways and oxidative stress, among others. This study describes how Salmonella Typhi, the pathogen responsible for typhoid fever, uses similar strategies to escape immune defense responses and survive within its human host. To elucidate the early mechanisms of typhoid fever, we performed studies using healthy human intestinal tissue samples and "mini-guts," organoids grown from intestinal tissue taken from biopsy specimens...
April 12, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712441/construction-of-pspi12-cured-salmonella-enterica-serovar-pullorum-and-identification-of-ipaj-as-an-immune-response-modulator
#9
Chao Yin, Lijuan Xu, Yang Li, Zijian Liu, Dan Gu, Qiuchun Li, Xinan Jiao
In Salmonella, plasmids participate in many pathways involved in virulence, metabolism, and antibiotic resistance. To investigate the function of the ipaJ gene in a multi-copy plasmid pSPI12 prevalent in Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum), we established a method to eliminate plasmid and constructed the plasmid-cured bacteria C79-13-ΔpSPI12 by using the suicide vector pDM4. Briefly, a 500 bp fragment ipaJU from pSPI12 was cloned into pDM4 and transformed into S. Pullorum C79-13 by conjugative transfer...
May 1, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693629/a-proteomic-view-of-salmonella-typhimurium-in-response-to-phosphate-limitation
#10
Jiezhang Jiang, Kaiwen Yu, Linlu Qi, Yanhua Liu, Sen Cheng, Mei Wu, Zhen Wang, Jiaqi Fu, Xiaoyun Liu
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S. Typhimurium), an important foodborne pathogen, often encounters phosphate (Pi ) shortage both in the environment and inside host cells. To gain a global view on its physiological responses to Pi starvation, we performed proteomic profiling of S. Typhimurium upon the shift from Pi -rich to Pi -low conditions. In addition to the Pho regulon, many metabolic processes were up-regulated, such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, pyrimidine degradation, glycogen, and trehalose metabolism, allowing us to chart an overview of S...
April 25, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686778/comparison-of-mutagenic-activities-of-various-ultra-fine-particles
#11
Chang Gyun Park, Hyun Ki Cho, Han Jae Shin, Ki Hong Park, Heung Bin Lim
Air pollution is increasing, along with consumption of fossil fuels such as coal and diesel gas. Air pollutants are known to be a major cause of respiratory-related illness and death, however, there are few reports on the genotoxic characterization of diverse air pollutants in Korea. In this study, we investigated the mutagenic activity of various particles such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), combustion of rice straw (RSC), pine stem (PSC), and coal (CC), tunnel dust (TD), and road side dust (RD). Ultra-fine particles (UFPs) were collected by the glass fiber filter pad...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684877/toxicity-and-mutagenicity-of-exhaust-from-compressed-natural-gas-could-this-be-a-clean-solution-for-megacities-with-mixed-traffic-conditions
#12
Avinash K Agarwal, Bushra Ateeq, Tarun Gupta, Akhilendra P Singh, Swaroop K Pandey, Nikhil Sharma, Rashmi A Agarwal, Neeraj K Gupta, Hemant Sharma, Ayush Jain, Pravesh C Shukla
Despite intensive research carried out on particulates, correlation between engine-out particulate emissions and adverse health effects is not well understood yet. Particulate emissions hold enormous significance for mega-cities like Delhi that have immense traffic diversity. Entire public transportation system involving taxis, three-wheelers, and buses has been switched from conventional liquid fuels to compressed natural gas (CNG) in the Mega-city of Delhi. In this study, the particulate characterization was carried out on variety of engines including three diesel engines complying with Euro-II, Euro-III and Euro-IV emission norms, one Euro-II gasoline engine and one Euro-IV CNG engine...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668047/miniaturization-of-the-microsuspension-salmonella-microsome-assay-in-agar-microplates
#13
José Ricardo R M Zwarg, Daniel A Morales, Bianca S Maselli, Werner Brack, Gisela A Umbuzeiro
The Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test) is the most widely used mutagenicity test for the evaluation of pure chemicals and environmental samples. There are several versions of protocols available in the literature, including those that reduce the amount of sample needed for testing with liquid and agar media. The microsuspension version of the Salmonella/microsome assay is more sensitive than the standard protocol. It is performed using 5-times concentrated bacteria and less sample and S9 mixture, but still uses conventional Petri dishes (90 × 15 mm)...
April 18, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651185/tackling-salmonella-persister-cells-by-antibiotic-nisin-combination-via-mannitol
#14
Praveen Rishi, Neha Rani Bhagat, Reena Thakur, Preeti Pathania
Bacterial persisters (defined as dormant, non-dividing cells with globally reduced metabolism) are the major cause of recurrent infections. As they neither grow nor die in presence of antibiotics, it is difficult to eradicate these cells using antibiotics, even at higher concentrations. Reports of metabolites (which help in waking up of these inactive cells) enabled eradication of bacterial persistence by aminoglycosides, suggest the new potential strategy to improve antibiotic therapy. Here we propose, mannitol enabled elimination of Salmonella persister cells by the nisin-antibiotic combination...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649446/dysbiosis-associated-change-in-host-metabolism-generates-lactate-to-support-salmonella-growth
#15
Caroline C Gillis, Elizabeth R Hughes, Luisella Spiga, Maria G Winter, Wenhan Zhu, Tatiane Furtado de Carvalho, Rachael B Chanin, Cassie L Behrendt, Lora V Hooper, Renato L Santos, Sebastian E Winter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627914/the-influence-of-feed-supplementation-with-probiotic-strain-lactobacillus-reuteri-ccm-8617-and-alginite-on-intestinal-microenvironment-of-spf-mice-infected-with-salmonella-typhimurium-ccm-7205
#16
Soňa Gancarčíková, Radomíra Nemcová, Miroslav Popper, Gabriela Hrčková, Ľuboslava Sciranková, Marián Maďar, Dagmar Mudroňová, Štefan Vilček, Rudolf Žitňan
Alginite is a non-ore raw material arising by fossilization of accumulated organic (algae) and inorganic material, particularly clay, carbonates, quartz, and amorphous modification of silicic acid in the aqueous environment. Humic acids as a component of organic portion of alginite are known for very good buffering ability which allows them to stabilise pH throughout the digestion system of animals, stimulate receptors of the immune system in intestinal villi against pathogenic bacteria, and support proliferation and activity of beneficial bacteria (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and similar)...
April 7, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619636/toxicological-evaluation-of-nail-polish-waste-discarded-in-the-environment
#17
Israel Felzenszwalb, Andreia da Silva Fernandes, Lara Barroso Brito, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues Oliveira, Paula Aquino Soeiro Silva, Maria Elena Arcanjo, Monica Regina da Costa Marques, Taynah Vicari, Daniela Morais Leme, Marta Margarete Cestari, Elisa Raquel Anastacio Ferraz
Nail polish has been widely used around the world. However, the hazards of nail polishes discarded in the environment are still poorly investigated. Thus, the toxicogenetic effects of solubilized (SE) and leached (LE) extracts from nail polishes were investigated, simulating their disposal on water and landfill, respectively, and identifying their physicochemical properties and chemical constituents. Organic compounds and metals were detected in both extracts. SE and LE only induced mutagenic effects in TA98 Salmonella strain in the presence and absence of exogenous metabolic activation...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610260/protein-acetylation-mediated-by-yfiq-and-cobb-is-involved-in-the-virulence-and-stress-response-of-yersinia-pestis
#18
Wanbing Liu, Yafang Tan, Shiyang Cao, Haihong Zhao, Haihong Fang, Xiaoyan Yang, Tong Wang, Yazhou Zhou, Yanfeng Yan, Yanping Han, Yajun Song, Yujing Bi, Xiaoyi Wang, Ruifu Yang, Zongmin Du
Recent studies have revealed that acetylation is a widely used protein modification in prokaryotic organisms. The major protein acetylation acetyltransferase YfiQ and the sirtuin-like deacetylase CobB have been found to be involved in basic physiological processes such as primary metabolism, chemotaxis and stress responses in Escherichia coli and Salmonella However, little is known about protein acetylation modifications in Yersinia pestis, a lethal pathogen responsible for millions of human deaths in three worldwide pandemics...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600754/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-analysis-of-ten-tannery-chemicals-using-sos-umu-tests-and-high-content-in-vitro-micronucleus-tests
#19
Zehao Huang, Na Li, Kaifeng Rao, Cuiting Liu, Zijian Wang, Mei Ma
BACKGROUND: More than 2,000 chemicals have been used in the tannery industry. Although some tannery chemicals have been reported to have harmful effects on both human health and the environment, only a few have been subjected to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity evaluations. OBJECTIVE: This study focus on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ten tannery chemicals widely used in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA-damaging effects were measured using the SOS/umu test with Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002...
March 30, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599516/enterobacter-bugandensis-a-novel-enterobacterial-species-associated-with-severe-clinical-infection
#20
Niladri Bhusan Pati, Swapnil Prakash Doijad, Tilman Schultze, Gopala Krishna Mannala, Yancheng Yao, Sangeeta Jaiswal, Daniel Ryan, Mrutyunjay Suar, Konrad Gwozdzinski, Boyke Bunk, Mobarak Abu Mraheil, Mohamed A Marahiel, Julian D Hegemann, Cathrin Spröer, Alexander Goesmann, Linda Falgenhauer, Torsten Hain, Can Imirzalioglu, Stephen E Mshana, Jörg Overmann, Trinad Chakraborty
Nosocomial pathogens can cause life-threatening infections in neonates and immunocompromised patients. E. bugandensis (EB-247) is a recently described species of Enterobacter, associated with neonatal sepsis. Here we demonstrate that the extended spectrum ß-lactam (ESBL) producing isolate EB-247 is highly virulent in both Galleria mellonella and mouse models of infection. Infection studies in a streptomycin-treated mouse model showed that EB-247 is as efficient as Salmonella Typhimurium in inducing systemic infection and release of proinflammatory cytokines...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
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