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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325086/application-of-bacterial-reverse-mutation-assay-for-detection-of-non-genotoxic-carcinogens
#1
Rewan Kanode, Saurabh Chandra, Sharad Sharma
Non-genotoxic carcinogens may play a significant role in development of cancer. Currently short-term assays for mutagenicity classify genotoxic carcinogens and lack the abilities to detect epigenetic carcinogens. The need to develop an endpoint always remains to recognize potentially carcinogenic agents employing rapid and practical bioassays. For this, the present study utilized TA98 and TA1537 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium to evaluate four non-genotoxic carcinogenic agents (Coumarin, β-Myrcene, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and trans-anethole)...
March 22, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314607/mutagenic-activities-of-biochars-from-pyrolysis
#2
Anna V Piterina, J Kevin Chipman, J Tony Pembroke, Michael H B Hayes
Biochar production, from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks, agricultural residues, and animal and poultry manures are emerging globally as novel industrial and commercial products. It is important to develop and to validate a series of suitable protocols for the ecological monitoring of the qualities and properties of biochars. The highly sensitive Salmonella mutagenicity assays (the Ames test) are used widely by the toxicology community and, via the rat liver extract (S9), can reflect the potential for mammalian metabolic activation...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301808/impacts-of-discarded-coffee-waste-on-human-and-environmental-health
#3
A S Fernandes, F V C Mello, S Thode Filho, R M Carpes, J G Honório, M R C Marques, I Felzenszwalb, E R A Ferraz
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. So far, many studies have shown the properties of coffee beverages, but little is known about its impacts on human and environmental health from its discard in the environment. So, the present work aims to investigate the mutagenic, genotoxic, cytotoxic and ecotoxic effects of leached (LE) and solubilized (SE) extracts from coffee waste, simulating the disposal of this residue in landfills and via sewage systems, respectively. Chemical analyses were also carried out...
March 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290506/high-binding-affinity-of-repressor-iolr-avoids-costs-of-untimely-induction-of-myo-inositol-utilization-by-salmonella-typhimurium
#4
Jessica Hellinckx, Ralf Heermann, Angela Felsl, Thilo M Fuchs
Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 with myo-inositol (MI) is characterized by a bistable phenotype that manifests with an extraordinarily long (34 h) and variable lag phase. When cells were pre-grown in minimal medium with MI, however, the lag phase shortened drastically to eight hours, and to six hours in the absence of the regulator IolR. To unravel the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon, we investigated this repressor in more detail. Flow cytometry analysis of the iolR promoter at a single cell level demonstrated bistability of its transcriptional activation...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277037/fruit-extract-of-the-medicinal-plant-crataegus-oxyacantha-exerts-genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-in-cultured-cells
#5
Ana Paula Oliveira de Quadros, Dania Elisa Christofoletti Mazzeo, Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales, Fábio Ferreira Perazzo, Paulo Cesar Pires Rosa, Edson Luis Maistro
Crataegus oxyacantha, a plant of the Rosaceae family also known "English hawthorn, haw, maybush, or whitethorn," has long been used for medicinal purposes such as digestive disorders, hyperlipidemia, dyspnea, inducing diuresis, and preventing kidney stones. However, the predominant use of this plant has been to treat cardiovascular disorders. Due to a lack of studies on the genotoxicity of C. oxyacantha, this investigation was undertaken to determine whether its fruit extract exerts cytotoxic, genotoxic, or clastogenic/aneugenic effects in leukocytes and HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma) cultured human cells, or mutagenic effects in TA100 and TA98 strains of Salmonella typhimurium bacterium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265364/safety-of-micronized-palmitoylethanolamide-micropea-lack-of-toxicity-and-genotoxic-potential
#6
Earle R Nestmann
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a natural fatty acid amide found in a variety of foods, which was initially identified in egg yolk. MicroPEA of defined particle size (0.5-10 μm) was evaluated for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium, for clastogenicity/aneuploidy in cultured human lymphocytes, and for acute and subchronic rodent toxicity in the rat, following standard OECD test protocols, in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). PEA did not induce mutations in the bacterial assay using strains TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102, with or without metabolic activation, in either the plate incorporation or liquid preincubation methods...
March 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245735/antimutagenic-and-anticlastogenic-effects-of-turkish-black-tea-on-ta98-and-ta100-strains-of-salmonella-typhimurium-in-vitro-and-mice-in-vivo
#7
Mohammad Charehsaz, Hande Sipahi, Ashok Kumar Giri, Ahmet Aydin
CONTEXT: Black tea has been reported to have significant antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties associated with its polyphenols theaflavins (TF) and thearubigins (TR). Similarly, Turkish black tea (TBT) also contains a considerable amount of TF and TR. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the mutagenic, antimutagenic and anticlastogenic properties of TBT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of TBT (10 to 40000 μg/plate) were investigated in vitro on Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 with and without S9 fraction...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238623/salmonella-enterica-remodels-the-host-cell-endosomal-system-for-efficient-intravacuolar-nutrition
#8
Viktoria Liss, A Leoni Swart, Alexander Kehl, Natascha Hermanns, Yuying Zhang, Deepak Chikkaballi, Nathalie Böhles, Jörg Deiwick, Michael Hensel
Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen that survives and proliferates in the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), yet how these vacuolar bacteria acquire nutrition remains to be determined. Intracellular Salmonella convert the host endosomal system into an extensive network of interconnected tubular vesicles, of which Salmonella-induced filaments (SIFs) are the most prominent. We found that membranes and lumen of SIFs and SCVs form a continuum, giving vacuolar Salmonella access to various types of endocytosed material...
February 21, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193547/salmonella-proteomics-under-oxidative-stress-reveals-coordinated-regulation-of-antioxidant-defense-with-iron-metabolism-and-bacterial-virulence
#9
Jiaqi Fu, Linlu Qi, Mo Hu, Yanhua Liu, Kaiwen Yu, Qian Liu, Xiaoyun Liu
Salmonella Typhimurium is a bacterial pathogen that can cause widespread gastroenteritis. Salmonella encounters reactive oxygen species both under free-living conditions and within their mammalian host during infection. To study its response to oxidative stress, we performed the first large-scale proteomic profiling of Salmonella upon exposure to H2O2. Among 1600 detected proteins, 83 proteins showed significantly altered abundance. Interestingly, only a subset of known antioxidants was induced, likely due to distinct regulatory mechanisms...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177776/characterization-of-a-salmonella-sugar-kinase-essential-for-utilization-of-fructose-asparagine
#10
Pradip K Biswas, Edward J Behrman, Venkat Gopalan
Salmonella can utilize fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), a naturally occurring Amadori product, as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. Conversion of F-Asn to the common intermediates glucose-6-phosphate, aspartate, and ammonia was predicted to involve the sequential action of an asparaginase, a kinase and a deglycase. Mutants lacking the deglycase are highly attenuated in mouse models of intestinal inflammation due to the toxic build-up of the deglycase substrate. The limited distribution of this metabolic pathway in the animal gut microbiome raises the prospects for antibacterial discovery...
August 10, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167526/vibrio-phage-kvp40-encodes-a-functional-nad-salvage-pathway
#11
Jae Yun Lee, Zhiqun Li, Eric S Miller
The genome of T4-type Vibrio bacteriophage KVP40 has five genes predicted to encode proteins of pyridine nucleotide metabolism, of which two, nadV and natV, would suffice for an NAD(+) salvage pathway. NadV is an apparent nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase) and NatV is an apparent bifunctional nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNATase) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide pyrophosphatase (Nudix hydrolase). Genes encoding the predicted salvage pathway were cloned, expressed in E...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160653/monitoring-of-microbial-cell-viability-using-nanostructured-electrodes-modified-with-graphene-alumina-nanocomposite
#12
Rabeay Y A Hassan, Moataz M Mekawy, Pankaj Ramnani, Ashok Mulchandani
Microbial infections are rapidly increasing; however most of the existing microbiological and molecular detection methods are time consuming and/or cannot differentiate between the viable and dead cells which may overestimate the risk of infections. Therefore, a bioelectrochemical sensing platform with a high potential to the microbial-electrode interactions was designed based on decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet with alumina (Al2O3) nanocrystals. GO-Al2O3 nanocomposite was synthesized using self-assembly of GO and Al2O3 and characterized using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman-spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV)...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152601/quantitative-proteomics-charts-the-landscape-of-salmonella-carbon-metabolism-within-host-epithelial-cells
#13
Yanhua Liu, Kaiwen Yu, Fan Zhou, Tao Ding, Yufei Yang, Mo Hu, Xiaoyun Liu
We performed a proteomic survey of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium during infection of host epithelial cells. Our data reveal substantial metabolic reshuffling of Salmonella in the host in addition to severe degeneration of bacterial flagella and chemotaxis systems. The large-scale quantitative data allowed us to chart an overview of intracellular Salmonella carbon metabolism. Notably, we found preferential utilization of glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, mixed acid fermentation, and nucleotide metabolism...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147278/the-nuclear-receptor-lxr-limits-bacterial-infection-of-host-macrophages-through-a-mechanism-that-impacts-cellular-nad-metabolism
#14
Jonathan Matalonga, Estibaliz Glaria, Mariana Bresque, Carlos Escande, José María Carbó, Kerstin Kiefer, Ruben Vicente, Theresa E León, Susana Beceiro, Mónica Pascual-García, Joan Serret, Lucía Sanjurjo, Samantha Morón-Ros, Antoni Riera, Sonia Paytubi, Antonio Juarez, Fernando Sotillo, Lennart Lindbom, Carme Caelles, Maria-Rosa Sarrias, Jaime Sancho, Antonio Castrillo, Eduardo N Chini, Annabel F Valledor
Macrophages exert potent effector functions against invading microorganisms but constitute, paradoxically, a preferential niche for many bacterial strains to replicate. Using a model of infection by Salmonella Typhimurium, we have identified a molecular mechanism regulated by the nuclear receptor LXR that limits infection of host macrophages through transcriptional activation of the multifunctional enzyme CD38. LXR agonists reduced the intracellular levels of NAD(+) in a CD38-dependent manner, counteracting pathogen-induced changes in macrophage morphology and the distribution of the F-actin cytoskeleton and reducing the capability of non-opsonized Salmonella to infect macrophages...
January 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140504/anaerobe-inspired-anticancer-nanovesicles
#15
Chenggen Qian, Peijian Feng, Jicheng Yu, Yulei Chen, Quanyin Hu, Wujin Sun, Xuanzhong Xiao, Xiuli Hu, Adriano Bellotti, Qun-Dong Shen, Zhen Gu
Anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridium and Salmonella, can selectively invade and colonize in tumor hypoxic regions (THRs) and deliver therapeutic products to destroy cancer cells. Herein, we present an anaerobe nanovesicle mimic that can not only be activated in THRs but also induce hypoxia in tumors by themselves. Moreover, inspired by the oxygen metabolism of anaerobes, we construct a light-induced hypoxia-responsive modality to promote dissociation of vehicles and activation of bioreductive prodrugs simultaneously...
March 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121078/research-highlights
#16
(no author information available yet)
In this issue, we highlight work from Cecchinato et al. revealing a technique for restoring chemotaxis in HIV-infected Th17 cells, a study by Wei et al. showing that Yersinia pestis YopM is an E3 ligase that can regulate host inflammasomes, a paper by Prokesch et al. reporting that p53 regulates metabolic adaptation to starvation in normal hepatocytes and work from Singh et al. that shows that Salmonella acquires nutrients from host cells by hijacking chaperone-mediated autophagy.
January 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111202/the-bactericidal-lectin-regiii%C3%AE-prolongs-gut-colonization-and-enteropathy-in-the-streptomycin-mouse-model-for-salmonella-diarrhea
#17
Tsuyoshi Miki, Ryosuke Goto, Mayuka Fujimoto, Nobuhiko Okada, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
The bactericidal lectin RegIIIβ is inducibly produced by intestinal epithelial cells as a defense against infection by enteropathogens. In the gut lumen, RegIIIβ kills not only certain enteropathogens, but also some commensal bacteria; thus, RegIIIβ is also thought to be an innate immune effector shaping microbiota composition and establishing intestinal homeostasis. Using the streptomycin mouse model for Salmonella colitis, we show that RegIIIβ can promote sustained gut colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium and prolong enteropathy...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089946/identification-by-pcr-signature-tagged-mutagenesis-of-attenuated-salmonella-pullorum-mutants-and-corresponding-genes-in-a-chicken-embryo-model
#18
Shizhong Geng, Qin Tian, Rongxian Guo, Yang Jiao, Paul Barrow, Chao Yin, Yaonan Wang, Haopeng Geng, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
A key feature of the fowl-specific pathogen Salmonella Pullorum is its vertical transmission to progeny via the egg. In this study, PCR signature-tagged mutagenesis identified nine genes of a strain of S. Pullorum that contributed to survival in the chicken embryo during incubation. The genes were involved in invasion, cell division, metabolism and bacterial defence. The competition index in vivo and in vitro together with a virulence evaluation for chicken embryos of all nine mutant strains confirmed their attenuation...
March 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086873/cecal-micrornaome-response-to-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-infection-in-white-leghorn-layer
#19
Guixian Wu, Yukai Qi, Xiaoyi Liu, Ning Yang, Guiyun Xu, Liying Liu, Xianyao Li
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a food-borne pathogen and of great threat to human health through consuming the contaminated poultry products. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in different biological activities and have been shown to regulate the innate immunity in the bacterial infection. The objective of this study is to identify miRNAs associated with SE infection in laying chicken cecum. RESULTS: Average number of reads of three libraries constructed from infected and non-infected chickens was 12,476,156 and 10,866,976, respectively...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070331/effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-csl2-on-the-composition-and-functional-diversity-of-the-faecal-microbiota-of-broiler-chickens-challenged-with-salmonella-gallinarum
#20
Ju Kyoung Oh, Edward Alain B Pajarillo, Jong Pyo Chae, In Ho Kim, Dong Soo Yang, Dae-Kyung Kang
BACKGROUND: The chicken gastrointestinal tract contains a diverse microbiota whose composition and structure play important roles in gut functionality. In this study, microbial shifts resulting from feed supplementation with Bacillus subtilis CSL2 were evaluated in broilers challenged and unchallenged with Salmonella Gallinarum. To analyse bacterial community composition and functionality, 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed. RESULTS: The Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline was used to analyse changes in the faecal microbiota over a 24-h period...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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