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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408196/genotoxicity-testing-of-sodium-formononetin-3-sulphonate-sul-f-by-assessing-bacterial-reverse-mutation-chromosomal-aberrations-and-micronucleus-tests
#1
Chunmei Li, Yonglin Gao, Yunzhi Wang, Guisheng Li, Xiaochen Fan, Yanshen Li, Chenghua Guo, Jun Tao
As part of a safety evaluation, we evaluated the potential genotoxicity of sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) using bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberrations detection, and mouse micronucleus test. In bacterial reverse mutation assay using five strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535), Sul-F (250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 μg/plate) did not increase the number of revertant colonies in any tester strain with or without S9 mix. In a chromosomal assay using Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (CHL) cells, there were no increases in either kind of aberration at any dose of Sul-F (400, 800, and 1600 μg/mL) treatment groups with or without S9 metabolic activation...
April 10, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382383/rpos-affects-gene-expression-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-under-early-hyperosmotic-stress
#2
Xia Zhang, Chaowang Zhu, Juan Yin, Yang Sui, Yingchao Wang, Guanghua Zhai
During the infectious procedure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), Salmonella would suffer from some severe environmental stresses, such as gastric acid stress, enteric hyperosmotic stress, bile acids stress, and oxidative stress. S. Typhi must regulate the expression of numerous genes through the complex regulatory network to adapt strict stresses. RpoS, which encodes sigma factor σ(s), was reported to be a very important regulator in the maximal survival of enteric pathogens including S. enterica in the stress conditions...
April 6, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371001/lactobacillus-paracasei-metabolism-of-rice-bran-reveals-metabolome-associated-with-salmonella-typhimurium-growth-reduction
#3
Nora Jean Nealon, Colette R Worcester, Elizabeth P Ryan
AIMS: This study aimed to determine the effect of a cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC27092 with and without rice bran extract (RBE) on Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s growth, and to identify a metabolite profile with antimicrobial functions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Supernatant was collected from overnight cultures of L. paracasei incubated in the presence (LP+RBE) or absence (LP) of RBE and applied to S. Typhimurium. LP+RBE reduced 13.1% more S. Typhimurium growth than LP after 16 h (P<0...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368463/enteric-helminths-promote-salmonella-co-infection-by-altering-the-intestinal-metabolome
#4
Lisa A Reynolds, Stephen A Redpath, Sophie Yurist-Doutsch, Navkiran Gill, Eric M Brown, Joris van der Heijden, Tara P Brosschot, Jun Han, Natalie C Marshall, Sarah E Woodward, Yanet Valdez, Christoph H Borchers, Georgia Perona-Wright, B Brett Finlay
Intestinal helminth infections occur predominantly in regions where exposure to enteric bacterial pathogens is also common. Helminth infections inhibit host immunity against microbial pathogens, which has largely been attributed to the induction of regulatory or type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Here we demonstrate an additional three-way interaction in which helminth infection alters the metabolic environment of the host intestine to enhance bacterial pathogenicity. We show that an ongoing helminth infection increased colonization by Salmonella independently of T regulatory or Th2 cells...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361036/a-salmonella-regulator-modulates-intestinal-colonization-and-use-of-phosphonoacetic-acid
#5
Johanna R Elfenbein, Leigh A Knodler, Allison R Schaeffer, Franziska Faber, Andreas J Bäumler, Helene L Andrews-Polymenis
Many microorganisms produce phosphonates, molecules characterized by stable carbon-phosphorus bonds that store phosphorus or act as antimicrobials. The role of phosphonates in the marine biosphere is well characterized but the role of these molecules in the intestine is poorly understood. Salmonella enterica uses its virulence factors to influence the host immune response to compete with the host and normal microflora for nutrients. Salmonella cannot produce phosphonates but encodes the enzymes to use them suggesting that it is exposed to phosphonates during its life cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345580/differential-roles-of-caspase-1-and-caspase-11-in-infection-and-inflammation
#6
Si Ming Man, Rajendra Karki, Benoit Briard, Amanda Burton, Sebastien Gingras, Stephane Pelletier, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Caspase-1, also known as interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-converting enzyme (ICE), regulates antimicrobial host defense, tissue repair, tumorigenesis, metabolism and membrane biogenesis. On activation within an inflammasome complex, caspase-1 induces pyroptosis and converts pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 into their biologically active forms. "ICE(-/-)" or "Casp1(-/-)" mice generated using 129 embryonic stem cells carry a 129-associated inactivating passenger mutation on the caspase-11 locus, essentially making them deficient in both caspase-1 and caspase-11...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335027/a-transposon-derived-small-rna-regulates-gene-expression-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#7
Michael J Ellis, Ryan S Trussler, Onella Charles, David B Haniford
Bacterial sRNAs play an important role in regulating many cellular processes including metabolism, outer membrane homeostasis and virulence. Although sRNAs were initially found in intergenic regions, there is emerging evidence that protein coding regions of the genome are a rich reservoir of sRNAs. Here we report that the 5΄UTR of IS200 transposase mRNA (tnpA) is processed to produce regulatory RNAs that affect expression of over 70 genes in Salmonella Typhimurium. We provide evidence that the tnpA derived sRNA base-pairs with invF mRNA to repress expression...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333132/enzyme-iia-ntr-regulates-salmonella-invasion-via-1-2-propanediol-and-propionate-catabolism
#8
Woongjae Yoo, Dajeong Kim, Hyunjin Yoon, Sangryeol Ryu
Many Proteobacteria possess a nitrogen-metabolic phosphotransferase system (PTS(Ntr)) consisting of EI(Ntr), NPr, and EIIA(Ntr) (encoded by ptsP, ptsO, and ptsN, respectively). The PTS(Ntr) plays diverse regulatory roles, but the substrate phosphorylated by EIIA(Ntr) and its primary functions have not yet been identified. To comprehensively understand the roles of PTS(Ntr) in Salmonella Typhimurium, we compared the whole transcriptomes of wild-type and a ΔptsN mutant. Genome-wide RNA sequencing revealed that 3...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325086/application-of-bacterial-reverse-mutation-assay-for-detection-of-non-genotoxic-carcinogens
#9
Rewan Kanode, Saurabh Chandra, Sharad Sharma
Non-genotoxic carcinogens may play a significant role in development of cancer. Currently short-term assays for mutagenicity classify genotoxic carcinogens and lack the abilities to detect epigenetic carcinogens. The need to develop an endpoint always remains to recognize potentially carcinogenic agents employing rapid and practical bioassays. For this, the present study utilized TA98 and TA1537 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium to evaluate four non-genotoxic carcinogenic agents (Coumarin, β-Myrcene, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and trans-anethole)...
March 22, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314607/mutagenic-activities-of-biochars-from-pyrolysis
#10
Anna V Piterina, J Kevin Chipman, J Tony Pembroke, Michael H B Hayes
Biochar production, from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks, agricultural residues, and animal and poultry manures are emerging globally as novel industrial and commercial products. It is important to develop and to validate a series of suitable protocols for the ecological monitoring of the qualities and properties of biochars. The highly sensitive Salmonella mutagenicity assays (the Ames test) are used widely by the toxicology community and, via the rat liver extract (S9), can reflect the potential for mammalian metabolic activation...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301808/impacts-of-discarded-coffee-waste-on-human-and-environmental-health
#11
A S Fernandes, F V C Mello, S Thode Filho, R M Carpes, J G Honório, M R C Marques, I Felzenszwalb, E R A Ferraz
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. So far, many studies have shown the properties of coffee beverages, but little is known about its impacts on human and environmental health from its discard in the environment. So, the present work aims to investigate the mutagenic, genotoxic, cytotoxic and ecotoxic effects of leached (LE) and solubilized (SE) extracts from coffee waste, simulating the disposal of this residue in landfills and via sewage systems, respectively. Chemical analyses were also carried out...
March 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290506/high-binding-affinity-of-repressor-iolr-avoids-costs-of-untimely-induction-of-myo-inositol-utilization-by-salmonella-typhimurium
#12
Jessica Hellinckx, Ralf Heermann, Angela Felsl, Thilo M Fuchs
Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 with myo-inositol (MI) is characterized by a bistable phenotype that manifests with an extraordinarily long (34 h) and variable lag phase. When cells were pre-grown in minimal medium with MI, however, the lag phase shortened drastically to eight hours, and to six hours in the absence of the regulator IolR. To unravel the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon, we investigated this repressor in more detail. Flow cytometry analysis of the iolR promoter at a single cell level demonstrated bistability of its transcriptional activation...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277037/fruit-extract-of-the-medicinal-plant-crataegus-oxyacantha-exerts-genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-in-cultured-cells
#13
Ana Paula Oliveira de Quadros, Dania Elisa Christofoletti Mazzeo, Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales, Fábio Ferreira Perazzo, Paulo Cesar Pires Rosa, Edson Luis Maistro
Crataegus oxyacantha, a plant of the Rosaceae family also known "English hawthorn, haw, maybush, or whitethorn," has long been used for medicinal purposes such as digestive disorders, hyperlipidemia, dyspnea, inducing diuresis, and preventing kidney stones. However, the predominant use of this plant has been to treat cardiovascular disorders. Due to a lack of studies on the genotoxicity of C. oxyacantha, this investigation was undertaken to determine whether its fruit extract exerts cytotoxic, genotoxic, or clastogenic/aneugenic effects in leukocytes and HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma) cultured human cells, or mutagenic effects in TA100 and TA98 strains of Salmonella typhimurium bacterium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265364/safety-of-micronized-palmitoylethanolamide-micropea-lack-of-toxicity-and-genotoxic-potential
#14
Earle R Nestmann
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a natural fatty acid amide found in a variety of foods, which was initially identified in egg yolk. MicroPEA of defined particle size (0.5-10 μm) was evaluated for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium, for clastogenicity/aneuploidy in cultured human lymphocytes, and for acute and subchronic rodent toxicity in the rat, following standard OECD test protocols, in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). PEA did not induce mutations in the bacterial assay using strains TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102, with or without metabolic activation, in either the plate incorporation or liquid preincubation methods...
March 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245735/antimutagenic-and-anticlastogenic-effects-of-turkish-black-tea-on-ta98-and-ta100-strains-of-salmonella-typhimurium-in-vitro-and-mice-in-vivo
#15
Mohammad Charehsaz, Hande Sipahi, Ashok Kumar Giri, Ahmet Aydin
CONTEXT: Black tea has been reported to have significant antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties associated with its polyphenols theaflavins (TF) and thearubigins (TR). Similarly, Turkish black tea (TBT) also contains a considerable amount of TF and TR. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the mutagenic, antimutagenic and anticlastogenic properties of TBT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of TBT (10 to 40000 μg/plate) were investigated in vitro on Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 with and without S9 fraction...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238623/salmonella-enterica-remodels-the-host-cell-endosomal-system-for-efficient-intravacuolar-nutrition
#16
Viktoria Liss, A Leoni Swart, Alexander Kehl, Natascha Hermanns, Yuying Zhang, Deepak Chikkaballi, Nathalie Böhles, Jörg Deiwick, Michael Hensel
Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen that survives and proliferates in the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), yet how these vacuolar bacteria acquire nutrition remains to be determined. Intracellular Salmonella convert the host endosomal system into an extensive network of interconnected tubular vesicles, of which Salmonella-induced filaments (SIFs) are the most prominent. We found that membranes and lumen of SIFs and SCVs form a continuum, giving vacuolar Salmonella access to various types of endocytosed material...
February 21, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193547/salmonella-proteomics-under-oxidative-stress-reveals-coordinated-regulation-of-antioxidant-defense-with-iron-metabolism-and-bacterial-virulence
#17
Jiaqi Fu, Linlu Qi, Mo Hu, Yanhua Liu, Kaiwen Yu, Qian Liu, Xiaoyun Liu
Salmonella Typhimurium is a bacterial pathogen that can cause widespread gastroenteritis. Salmonella encounters reactive oxygen species both under free-living conditions and within their mammalian host during infection. To study its response to oxidative stress, we performed the first large-scale proteomic profiling of Salmonella upon exposure to H2O2. Among 1600 detected proteins, 83 proteins showed significantly altered abundance. Interestingly, only a subset of known antioxidants was induced, likely due to distinct regulatory mechanisms...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177776/characterization-of-a-salmonella-sugar-kinase-essential-for-the-utilization-of-fructose-asparagine
#18
Pradip K Biswas, Edward J Behrman, Venkat Gopalan
Salmonella can utilize fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), a naturally occurring Amadori product, as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. Conversion of F-Asn to the common intermediates glucose-6-phosphate, aspartate, and ammonia was predicted to involve the sequential action of an asparaginase, a kinase, and a deglycase. Mutants lacking the deglycase are highly attenuated in mouse models of intestinal inflammation owing to the toxic build-up of the deglycase substrate. The limited distribution of this metabolic pathway in the animal gut microbiome raises the prospects for antibacterial discovery...
April 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167526/vibrio-phage-kvp40-encodes-a-functional-nad-salvage-pathway
#19
Jae Yun Lee, Zhiqun Li, Eric S Miller
The genome of T4-type Vibrio bacteriophage KVP40 has five genes predicted to encode proteins of pyridine nucleotide metabolism, of which two, nadV and natV, would suffice for an NAD(+) salvage pathway. NadV is an apparent nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase) and NatV is an apparent bifunctional nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNATase) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide pyrophosphatase (Nudix hydrolase). Genes encoding the predicted salvage pathway were cloned, expressed in E...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160653/monitoring-of-microbial-cell-viability-using-nanostructured-electrodes-modified-with-graphene-alumina-nanocomposite
#20
Rabeay Y A Hassan, Moataz M Mekawy, Pankaj Ramnani, Ashok Mulchandani
Microbial infections are rapidly increasing; however most of the existing microbiological and molecular detection methods are time consuming and/or cannot differentiate between the viable and dead cells which may overestimate the risk of infections. Therefore, a bioelectrochemical sensing platform with a high potential to the microbial-electrode interactions was designed based on decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet with alumina (Al2O3) nanocrystals. GO-Al2O3 nanocomposite was synthesized using self-assembly of GO and Al2O3 and characterized using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman-spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV)...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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