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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331469/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-delta-regulates-lipid-droplet-formation-and-transport-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#1
H B Shi, C H Zhang, Z A Xu, G G Lou, J X Liu, J Luo, J J Loor
Even though recent evidence in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) suggest a role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) in regulating lipid homeostasis, its role is not fully understood. Our hypothesis was that PPARD regulates lipid transport processes in GMEC and, thus, plays a crucial role in regulating fat formation. The PPARD was overexpressed using an adenovirus system (Ad-PPARD) with recombinant green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) as the control. Results revealed that overexpression of PPARD markedly upregulated the mRNA abundance of PPARD...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321244/silencing-carboxylesterase-1-in-human-thp-1-macrophages-perturbs-genes-regulated-by-pparg-rxr-and-rar-rxr-downregulation-of-cyp27a1-lxr%C3%AE-signaling
#2
Lee C Mangum, Xiang Hou, Abdolsamad Borazjani, Jung Hwa Lee, Matthew K Ross, J Allen Crow
Macrophage foam cells store excess cholesterol as cholesteryl esters, which need to be hydrolyzed for cholesterol efflux. We recently reported that silencing expression of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) in human THP-1 macrophages (CES1KD macrophages) reduced cholesterol uptake and decreased expression of CD36 and scavenger receptor-A in cells loaded with acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL). Here, we report that CES1KD macrophages exhibit reduced transcription of cytochrome P450 27A1 ( CYP27A1 ) in non-loaded and acLDL-loaded cells...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316509/synthesis-molecular-modelling-studies-and-adme-prediction-of-benzothiazole-clubbed-oxadiazole-mannich-bases-and-evaluation-of-their-anti-diabetic-activity-through-in-vivo-model
#3
Rubina Bhutani, Dharam Pal Pathak, Garima Kapoor, Asif Husain, Ravi Kant, Md Azhar Iqbal
A small library of new benzothiazole clubbed oxadiazole-Mannich bases (M-1 to M-22) were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR, Mass and Elemental analysis results. Molecular docking studies were done to assess the binding mode and interactions of synthesized hits at binding site of receptor Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR-γ or PPARG (PDB 1FM9). Among the synthesized compounds, nine compounds were selected on the basis of docking score and evaluated for their in vivo anti-diabetic activity using Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) in normal rats followed by Streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetes...
January 3, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314362/a-small-population-of-resident-limb-bud-mesenchymal-cells-expresses-few-msc-associated-markers-but-the-expression-of-these-markers-is-increased-immediately-after-cell-culture
#4
Jessica Cristina Marín-Llera, Jesús Chimal-Monroy
Skeletal progenitors are derived from resident limb bud mesenchymal cells of the vertebrate embryos. However, it remains poorly understood if they represent stem cells, progenitors or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Derived-MSC of different adult tissues under in vitro experimental conditions can differentiate into the same cellular lineages that are present in the limb. Here, comparing non-cultured versus cultured mesenchymal limb bud cells, we determined the expression of MSC-associated markers, the in vitro differentiation capacity and their gene expression profile...
January 4, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311623/basal-p53-expression-is-indispensable-for-mesenchymal-stem-cell-integrity
#5
Siddaraju V Boregowda, Veena Krishnappa, Jacqueline Strivelli, Christopher L Haga, Cori N Booker, Donald G Phinney
Marrow-resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) serve as a functional component of the perivascular niche that regulates hematopoiesis. They also represent the main source of bone formed in adult bone marrow, and their bifurcation to osteoblast and adipocyte lineages plays a key role in skeletal homeostasis and aging. Although the tumor suppressor p53 also functions in bone organogenesis, homeostasis, and neoplasia, its role in MSCs remains poorly described. Herein, we examined the normal physiological role of p53 in primary MSCs cultured under physiologic oxygen levels...
January 8, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307852/global-gene-expression-analysis-of-knockdown-triosephosphate-isomerase-tpi-gene-in-human-gastric-cancer-cell-line-mgc-803
#6
Ping Ouyang, Bode Lin, Jinlin Du, Haiyan Pan, Haibing Yu, Rongwei He, Zhigang Huang
Our preview studies showed TPI gene which encodes the Triosephosphate isomerase was overexpressed in human gastric cancer (GC) tissues. However, the potential molecular mechanisms how TPI influences the GC development is not clear. Here, we performed global gene expression profiling for TPI knockdown using microarrays in human GC cell line MGC-803 cells. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Then the DEGs were analyzed by an online software WebGestalt to perform the functional analysis, pathway analysis and network analysis...
January 4, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303622/genotype-based-recall-to-study-metabolic-effects-of-genetic-variation-a-pilot-study-of-pparg-pro12ala-carriers
#7
Prasad G Kamble, Stefan Gustafsson, Maria J Pereira, Per Lundkvist, Naomi Cook, Lars Lind, Paul W Franks, Tove Fall, Jan W Eriksson, Erik Ingelsson
AIM: To assess practical implications of genotype-based recall (GBR) studies, an increasingly popular approach for in-depth characterization of genotype-phenotype relationships. METHODS: We genotyped 2500 participants from the Swedish EpiHealth cohort and considered loss-of-function and missense variants in genes with relation to cardiometabolic traits as the basis for our GBR study. Therefore, we focused on carriers and non-carriers of the PPARG Pro12Ala (rs1801282) variant, as it is a relatively common variant with a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 0...
January 5, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298844/a-six-gene-panel-to-label-follicular-adenoma-low-and-high-risk-follicular-thyroid-carcinoma
#8
Anello Marcello Poma, Riccardo Giannini, Paolo Piaggi, Clara Ugolini, Gabriele Materazzi, Paolo Miccoli, Paolo Vitti, Fulvio Basolo
The distinction between follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and follicular-patterned benign lesions is almost impossible on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Furthermore, minimally invasive FTCs (MI-FTCs) with less than 4 vascular invasion foci generally have an excellent prognosis, but there are exceptions and, so far, no molecular marker appears able to identify them reliably. We aimed to distinguish benign lesions from low- and high-risk FTCs by a small-scale combination of genes. The expression analysis of 75 selected genes was performed on 18 follicular adenomas (FAs), 14 MI-FTCs and 6 widely invasive FTC (WI-FTCs)...
January 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297135/stem-cell-factor-supports-migration-in-canine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Nathaly Enciso, Luciana L K Ostronoff, Guillermo Mejías, Leticia G León, María Luisa Fermín, Elena Merino, Cristina Fragio, Luis Avedillo, Concepción Tejero
Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) are cells that can be defined as multipotent cells able to differentiate into diverse lineages, under appropriate conditions. These cells have been widely used in regenerative medicine, both in preclinical and clinical settings. Initially discovered in bone marrow, MSC can now be isolated from a wide spectrum of adult and foetal tissues. Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of these cells are based on their ability to arrive to damaged tissues. In this paper we have done a comparative study analyzing proliferation, surface markers and OCT4, SOX9, RUNX2, PPARG genes expression in MSC cells from Bone marrow (BMMSC) and Adipose tissue (ASC)...
January 3, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273888/identification-of-pleiotropic-genetic-variants-affecting-osteoporosis-risk-in-a-korean-elderly-cohort
#10
Eun Pyo Hong, Ka Hyun Rhee, Dong Hyun Kim, Ji Wan Park
Pleiotropy has important implications for understanding the genetic basis and risk assessment of osteoporosis. Our aim was to identify pleiotropic genetic variants associated with the development of osteoporosis and predict osteoporosis risk by leveraging pleiotropic variants. We evaluated the effects of 21 conventional risk factors and 185 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 63 inflammation- and metabolism-related genes on osteoporosis risk in a community-based Korean cohort study of 1025 participants, the Hallym Aging Study...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246001/association-of-pparg-rs-1801282-c-g-polymorphism-with-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-from-a-case-control-study-to-a-meta-analysis
#11
Jiakai Jiang, Zhiqiang Xie, JunYing Guo, Yafeng Wang, Chao Liu, Sheng Zhang, Weifeng Tang, Yu Chen
The functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene were predicted to be correlated with the susceptibility of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism and the risk of CRC. First, we conducted a case-control study with 387 CRC cases and 1,536 controls. We used the SNPscan method to determine the genotypes of PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism. We found PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism had a tendency of decreased risk to CRC risk (CG vs...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239036/a-user-s-guide-to-non-invasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-niftp
#12
REVIEW
Yin P Hung, Justine A Barletta
The term non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was recently introduced to replace a subset of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC). The goal of this change was to promote more conservative management of these tumours and spare patients the psychological burden of a cancer diagnosis. The histological diagnosis of NIFTP is stringent: the tumour needs to demonstrate encapsulation or circumscription, a purely follicular architecture and the presence of nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma, while lacking capsular and vascular invasion, a significant component of solid growth and high-grade features (increased mitotic activity and necrosis)...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229843/machine-learning-shows-association-between-genetic-variability-in-pparg-and-cerebral-connectivity-in-preterm-infants
#13
Michelle L Krishnan, Zi Wang, Paul Aljabar, Gareth Ball, Ghazala Mirza, Alka Saxena, Serena J Counsell, Joseph V Hajnal, Giovanni Montana, A David Edwards
Preterm infants show abnormal structural and functional brain development, and have a high risk of long-term neurocognitive problems. The molecular and cellular mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but novel methods now make it possible to address them by examining the relationship between common genetic variability and brain endophenotype. We addressed the hypothesis that variability in the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) pathway would be related to brain development. We employed machine learning in an unsupervised, unbiased, combined analysis of whole-brain diffusion tractography together with genomewide, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotypes from a cohort of 272 preterm infants, using Sparse Reduced Rank Regression (sRRR) and correcting for ethnicity and age at birth and imaging...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229602/vegfr-2-mediated-reprogramming-of-mitochondrial-metabolism-regulates-the-sensitivity-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-to-chemotherapy
#14
Sandrina Nóbrega-Pereira, Francisco Caiado, Tânia Carvalho, Inês Matias, Gonçalo Graça, Luís Gafeira Gonçalves, Bruno Silva-Santos, Haakan Norell, Sérgio Dias
Metabolic reprogramming is central to tumorigenesis, but whether chemotherapy induces metabolic features promoting recurrence remains unknown. We established a mouse xenograft model of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that enabled chemotherapy-induced regressions of established disease followed by lethal regrowth of more aggressive tumor cells. Human AML cells from terminally ill mice treated with chemotherapy (chemoAML) had higher lipid content, increased lactate production and ATP levels, reduced expression of PPARG coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and fewer mitochondria than controls from untreated AML animals...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228682/epidermal-ppar%C3%AE-influences-subcutaneous-tumor-growth-and-acts-through-tnf-%C3%AE-to-regulate-contact-hypersensitivity-and-the-acute-photoresponse
#15
Raymond L Konger, Ethel Derr-Yellin, Jeffrey B Travers, Jesus A Ocana, Ravi P Sahu
It is known that ultraviolet B (UVB) induces PPARγ ligand formation while loss of murine epidermal PPARγ (Pparg-/-epi) promotes UVB-induced apoptosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. PPARγ is known to suppress tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production. TNF-α is also known to promote UVB-induced inflammation, apoptosis, and immunosuppression. We show that Pparg-/-epi mice exhibit increased baseline TNF-α expression. Neutralizing Abs to TNF-α block the increased photo-inflammation and photo-toxicity that is observed in Pparg-/-epi mouse skin...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200867/the-relationship-between-igf2bp2-and-pparg-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinomas-in-the-eastern-chinese-han-population
#16
Hao Qiu, Yafeng Wang, Mingqiang Kang, Hao Ding, Chao Liu, Weifeng Tang, Zhenzhou Xiao, Yu Chen
The aim of this case-control study was to assess whether PPARG and IGF2BP2 polymorphisms confer susceptibility to esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 507 patients pathologically confirmed for ESCC and 1,496 age-, sex-, and residence-matched healthy individuals were enrolled. The PPARG rs1801282 C>G and rs3856806 C>T and IGF2BP2 rs1470579 A>C and rs4402960 G>T polymorphisms were selected and genotyped by SNPscan genotyping assays. Multivariable logistic analysis suggested that the PPARG rs3856806 C>T polymorphism might increase the risk of ESCC...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197895/identification-of-key-genes-in-colorectal-cancer-regulated-by-mir-34a
#17
Tao Wang, Haihe Xu, Xianglong Liu, Shuo Chen, Yi Zhou, Xipeng Zhang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to screen the molecular targets of miR-34a in colorectal cancer (CRC) and construct the regulatory network, to gain more insights to the pathogenesis of CRC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The microarray data of CRC samples and normal samples (GSE4988), as well as CRC samples transformed with miR-34a and non-transfected CRC samples (GSE7754), were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified via the LIMMA package in R language...
December 3, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196684/squalene-epoxidase-plays-a-critical-role-in-determining-pig-meat-quality-by-regulating-adipogenesis-myogenesis-and-ros-scavengers
#18
Jeongim Ha, Seulgi Kwon, Jung Hye Hwang, Da Hye Park, Tae Wan Kim, Deok Gyeong Kang, Go Eun Yu, Hwa Chun Park, Sang Mi An, Chul Wook Kim
In mammals, Squalene epoxidase (SQLE) is an enzyme that converts squalene to 2,3-oxidosqualene, in the early stage of cholesterol generation. Here, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SQLE gene (c.2565 G > T) by RNA Sequencing from the liver tissue of Berkshire pigs. Furthermore, we found that homozygous GG pigs expressed more SQLE mRNA than GT heterozygous and TT homozygous pigs in longissimus dorsi tissue. Next, we showed that the SNP in the SQLE gene was associated with several meat quality traits including backfat thickness, carcass weight, meat colour (yellowness), fat composition, and water-holding capacity...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168191/genetic-variants-in-il15-promoter-affect-transcription-activity-and-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-of-pigs
#19
D He, Z Jiang, Y Tian, H Han, M Xia, W Wei, L Zhang, J Chen
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is a key aspect of pork quality. Elucidation of intramuscular adipocyte regulation mechanisms is important for improving IMF content. Intramuscular adipocytes are dispersed among muscle fibers, so they are inclined to be affected by muscle-derived factors. Interleukin-15 is a major muscle-secreted factor. In this study, the genetic and physiological impacts of IL15 on adipogenesis is investigated. The promoter region of IL15 was scanned by comparative sequencing using two DNA pools of high- and low-IMF individuals...
November 22, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165888/molecular-pathology-and-thyroid-fna
#20
REVIEW
D N Poller, S Glaysher
This review summarises molecular pathological techniques applicable to thyroid FNA. The molecular pathology of thyroid tumours is now fairly well understood. Molecular methods may be used as a rule-in test for diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg BRAF V600E point mutation, use of a seven-gene mutational panel (BRAF V600E, RAS genes, RET/PTC or PAX8/PPARG rearrangement), or as a comprehensive multigene next-generation sequencing panel, eg ThyroSeq v2. Molecular methods can also be applied as rule-out tests for malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg Afirma or ThyroSeq v2 or as markers of prognosis, eg TERT promoter mutation or other gene mutations including BRAF V600E, TP53 and AKT1, and as tests for newly defined tumour entities such as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary like nuclei, or as a molecular marker(s) for targeted therapies...
December 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
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