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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454059/outcome-focused-judgements-of-moral-dilemmas-in-schizophrenia
#1
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
Previous research on moral judgement in healthy adults suggests a complex interplay of automatic, emotional and deliberative processing. We aimed to advance understanding of these processes by examining moral judgement in individuals with schizophrenia, a population characterised by social-cognitive deficits and interpersonal difficulties. Forty-five patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls judged high-conflict moral dilemmas in response to 3rd-person (i.e. "Is it morally okay to [perform X]?") and 1st-person (i...
April 25, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454051/no-association-between-slc6a2-slc6a3-drd2-polymorphisms-and-schizophrenia-in-the-han-chinese-population
#2
Yan Bi, Xiaoye Huang, Weibo Niu, Shiqing Chen, Xi Wu, Yanfei Cao, Rui Zhang, Fengping Yang, Lu Wang, Weidong Li, Yifeng Xu, Lin He, Tao Yu, Guang He
This study was intended to ascertain whether SNPs in dopaminergic and serotoninergic pathway genes SLC6A2, SLC6A3 and DRD2 are associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese people. We conducted a case-control study by genotyping 7 SNPs of the three genes in 1034 schizophrenia patients and 1034 controls. No significant difference in the allelic or genotypic frequency was detected between cases and controls despite one positive haplotype (rs1362621-rs2242446-rs5564). Stratified analysis of gender and gene-gene interaction analysis showed no positive results...
February 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453389/gwas-analysis-of-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-interaction-effect-of-childhood-trauma
#3
Arthur Koga, Ali Bani-Fatemi, Nuwan Hettige, Carol Borlido, Clement Zai, John Strauss, Philip Gerretsen, Ariel Graff, Gary Remington, Vincenzo De Luca
AIMS: In the current study, we aimed to compare the prevalence of adverse lifetime events in treatment resistant and non-treatment resistant schizophrenia in a genome-wide association study. MATERIALS & METHODS: Our sample consisted of 84 Caucasian participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, assessed cross-sectionally to collect information regarding drug effectiveness and childhood trauma. Using a genome-wide association analysis, we tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms for their association with resistance to antipsychotics defined according to American Psychiatric Association criteria...
April 28, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449570/low-dose-clozapine-induced-seizure-a-case-report
#4
Abdullah Bolu, Süleyman Akarsu, Erdal Pan, Emre Aydemir, Taner Oznur
Seizures are believed to be a dose-dependent side effect of clozapine. In this case report, we describe a patient who had tonic-clonic seizures after using a low dose clozapine who did not have any seizure risk. The 29-year-old male patient had been followed-up with a diagnosis of schizophrenia for about 5 years. When using clozapine 200 mg/day he had a tonic-clonic seizure with bilateral diffuse epileptic activity in electroencephalography (EEG). In the literature, there are a few case reports about low-dose clozapine-induced seizure...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449568/bilateral-pretibial-edema-associated-with-paliperidone-palmitate-long-acting-injectable-a-case-report
#5
Erdinc Cicek, Ismet Esra Cicek, Faruk Uguz
Peripheral edema is observed as an adverse effect of the usage of antipsychotics in the literature. This case report describes a 36-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia who presented with pretibial edema following initiation of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate. Pretibial edema developed within the second week of treatment and completely disappeared after its discontinuation.
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449563/relationship-between-serum-bilirubin-levels-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#6
Filiz Karadag, Ceyhan Balci Sengul, Yasar Enli, Kamuran Karakulah, Huseyin Alacam, Bunyamin Kaptanoglu, Ozgur Kalkanci, Hasan Herken
Objective: We investigated the relationship between serum bilirubin levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the longitudinal effects of baseline serum bilirubin concentrations on MetS in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders undergoing atypical antipsychotics. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 131 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, and insulin were evaluated at baseline and at month six...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449560/assessment-of-the-latent-adverse-events-of-antipsychotic-treatment-using-a-subjective-questionnaire-in-japanese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
Masakazu Hatano, Hiroyuki Kamei, Azusa Kato, Ippei Takeuchi, Manako Hanya, Junji Uno, Shigeki Yamada, Kiyoshi Fujita, Nakao Iwata
Objective: The adverse effects of antipsychotic agents can have a marked influence on medication adherence. In this study, we. investigated the adverse events of antipsychotics that are less likely to be reported by patients and the reasons why such symptoms remain latent. Methods: Data were collected by interviewing patients using a subjective questionnaire, and the associations between unreported symptoms and background factors were investigated. Results: A total of 306 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were examined...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449558/in-silicomodel-driven-assessment-of-the-effects-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-deficiency-on-glutamate-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-implications-for-understanding-schizophrenia-pathophysiology
#8
Rimjhim Agrawal, Sunil Vasu Kalmady, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Objective: Deficient brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the important mechanisms underlying the neuroplasticity abnormalities in schizophrenia. Aberration in BDNF signaling pathways directly or circuitously influences neurotransmitters like glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). For the first time, this study attempts to construct and simulate the BDNF-neurotransmitter network in order to assess the effects of BDNF deficiency on glutamate and GABA. Methods: Using CellDesigner, we modeled BDNF interactions with calcium influx via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)- Calmodulin activation; synthesis of GABA via cell cycle regulators protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase and β-catenin; transportation of glutamate and GABA...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449199/age-at-onset-and-the-outcomes-of-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Johanna Immonen, Erika Jääskeläinen, Hanna Korpela, Jouko Miettunen
The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of age at onset on the long-term clinical, social and global outcomes of schizophrenia through a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Original studies were searched from Web of Science, PsycINFO, Pubmed and Scopus, as well as manually. Naturalistic studies with at least a 2-year follow-up were included. Of the 3509 search results, 81 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis was performed in Stata as a random-effect analysis with correlation coefficients between age at onset and the outcomes (categorized into remission, relapse, hospitalization, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, total symptoms, general clinical outcome, employment, social/occupational functioning and global outcome)...
April 27, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449132/sex-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-white-matter-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-plus-meta-analysis-of-the-corpus-callosum
#10
Saba Shahab, Laura Stefanik, George Foussias, Meng-Chuan Lai, Kelly K Anderson, Aristotle N Voineskos
Sex is considered an understudied variable in health research. Schizophrenia is a brain disorder with known sex differences in epidemiology and clinical presentation. We systematically reviewed the literature for sex-based differences of diffusion properties of white matter tracts in schizophrenia. We then conducted a meta-analysis examining sex-based differences in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum in schizophrenia. Medline and Embase were searched to identify relevant papers. Studies fulfilling the following criteria were included: (1) included individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, (2) included a control group of healthy individuals, (3) included both sexes in the patient and the control groups, (4) used diffusion tensor imaging, and (5) involved analyzing metrics of white matter microstructural integrity...
April 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448820/is-there-a-link-between-biological-parents-insight-into-their-offspring-s-schizophrenia-and-their-cognitive-functioning-expressed-emotion-and-knowledge-about-disorder
#11
Alexandra Macgregor, Joanna Norton, Stéphane Raffard, Delphine Capdevielle
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that parents' awareness of their offspring's schizophrenia could influence their offspring's insight. Low patient insight is linked to impairment of specific cognitive abilities, and biological parents of schizophrenia patients have impaired capacities in these same domains. However, little is known about what specific socio-demographic, affective or cognitive factors may influence biological parents' awareness of their offspring's disease. METHOD: Data were drawn from 41 patient-parent dyads...
April 13, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447622/modern-clinical-research-on-lsd
#12
REVIEW
Matthias E Liechti
All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. LSD increased feelings of closeness to others, openness, trust, and suggestibility...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447217/swallowing-disorders-in-schizophrenia
#13
REVIEW
Deepika P Kulkarni, Vandan D Kamath, Jonathan T Stewart
Disorders of swallowing are poorly characterized but quite common in schizophrenia. They are a source of considerable morbidity and mortality in this population, generally as a result of either acute asphyxia from airway obstruction or more insidious aspiration and pneumonia. The death rate from acute asphyxia may be as high as one hundred times that of the general population. Most swallowing disorders in schizophrenia seem to fall into one of two categories, changes in eating and swallowing due to the illness itself and changes related to psychotropic medications...
April 26, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446243/targeting-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-for-novel-treatments-of-schizophrenia
#14
REVIEW
James Maksymetz, Sean P Moran, P Jeffrey Conn
Support for the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia has led to increasing focus on restoring proper glutamatergic signaling as an approach for treatment of this devastating disease. The ability of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors to modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission has thus attracted considerable attention for the development of novel antipsychotics. Consisting of eight subtypes classified into three groups based on sequence homology, signal transduction, and pharmacology, the mGlu receptors provide a wide range of targets to modulate NMDAR function as well as glutamate release...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446041/supernatural-versus-medical-responses-to-mental-illness-from-undergraduate-university-students-in-trinidad
#15
AnMarie Kamanie Ramkissoon, Casswina Donald, Gerard Hutchinson
Background/Introduction: Perceptions about the aetiology of mental illness are likely to influence help-seeking behaviour. Understanding help-seeking behaviour will improve service provision and access. Therefore, this is likely to improve treatment outcomes. METHODS: We assessed the perceptions and help-seeking behaviours surrounding mental illness in a Trinidadian population of 158 tertiary-level students (136 female, 22 male; mean age 30) by analysing their responses to a questionnaire which asked for responses regarding a case vignette of a 25-year-old young woman exhibiting symptoms suggestive of schizophrenia...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446040/characteristics-of-socially-withdrawn-youth-in-france-a-retrospective-study
#16
Nicolas Chauliac, Audrey Couillet, Sophie Faivre, Nassima Brochard, Jean-Louis Terra
BACKGROUND: Poor social interactions have been recognized as a symptom since the beginnings of psychiatry. As far as socially withdrawn youth (SWY) are concerned, studies were mostly conducted on patients seeking care. Our psychiatric outreach team called Psymobile was able to reach SWY patients who were not seeking mental health care. AIMS: To identify the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of SWY patients referred to our Psymobile unit. METHOD: We carried out a retrospective study on the records of patients aged 18-34 years, who were referred to Psymobile for 'withdrawal', between April 2012 and December 2015...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445800/adjunctive-celecoxib-for-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trials
#17
Wei Zheng, Dong-Bin Cai, Xin-Hu Yang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Norbert Müller, Yu-Ping Ning, Yu-Tao Xiang
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the neurobiological pathways of schizophrenia. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive celecoxib as a noncompetitive anti-inflammation drug in treating schizophrenia. Data were searched, extracted, checked and entered into the RevMan (version 5.3) software by two independent investigators. Standardized/weighted mean differences (SMDs/WMDs), risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, as appropriate. Included were 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a total of 626 patients with schizophrenia including 316 (50...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445633/advanced-glycation-end-products-in-recent-onset-psychosis-indicate-early-onset-of-cardiovascular-risk
#18
Julia M Hagen, Arjen L Sutterland, Maarten W Koeter, Rene Lutter, Dan Cohen, Lieuwe de Haan
OBJECTIVE: Profoundly increased mortality rates in schizophrenia, largely caused by a higher risk and earlier onset of cardiovascular disease, remain a major challenge. During the human lifespan, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate, and their concentration is strongly linked to cardiovascular mortality. AGE accumulation can be accelerated by several pathways, including oxidative stress. METHODS: From March 2015 through January 2016, a case-control study including 111 patients with a recent-onset psychosis, 135 controls from a validation cohort, and 286 healthy controls was performed...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444578/experimental-psychosis-research-and-schizophrenia-similarities-and-dissimilarities-in-psychopathology
#19
Leo Hermle, Rainer Kraehenmann
The aim of experimental psychopathology is to delineate overlapping functional disorders of psychoneurobiologically-defined systems where a set of common symptoms may correspond to a variety of nosological entities. According to the vulnerability model of psychosis, experimental research needs to go beyond categories such as "schizophrenia". Prospective studies of the effects of psychoactive substances in normal control subjects offer several methodological advantages over routine clinical reviews of schizophrenic patients, especially in terms of standardization...
April 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444556/thalamo-cortical-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#20
Kristina C Skåtun, Tobias Kaufmann, Christine L Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Siren Tønnesen, Guido Biele, Anja Vaskinn, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
The thalamus is a highly connected subcortical structure that relays and integrates sensory and cortical information, which is critical for coherent and accurate perceptual awareness and cognition. Thalamic dysfunction is a classical finding in schizophrenia (SZ), and resting-state functional MRI has implicated somatomotor and frontal lobe thalamic dysconnectivity. However, it remains unclear whether these findings generalize to different psychotic disorders, are confined to specific thalamic sub-regions, and how they relate to structural thalamic alterations...
April 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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