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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341394/hydrolysis-by-catalytic-iggs-of-microrna-specific-for-patients-with-schizophrenia
#1
Evgeny A Ermakov, Svetlana A Ivanova, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Significant importance of autoimmune changes in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) is not established. Here, we present the first evidence that autoantibodies of 100% SCZ patients possess RNase activity: сCMP > poly(C) > poly(A) > yeast RNA. In addition, we have got an unexpected result: there was revealed site-specific hydrolysis of four known SCZ specific microRNAs (miR-137, miR-9-5p, miR-219-2-3p, and miR-219a-5p) playing an important role in the regulation of several genes functioning...
January 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341341/prediction-of-activation-patterns-preceding-hallucinations-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-using-machine-learning-with-structured-sparsity
#2
Amicie de Pierrefeu, Thomas Fovet, Fouad Hadj-Selem, Tommy Löfstedt, Philippe Ciuciu, Stephanie Lefebvre, Pierre Thomas, Renaud Lopes, Renaud Jardri, Edouard Duchesnay
Despite significant progress in the field, the detection of fMRI signal changes during hallucinatory events remains difficult and time-consuming. This article first proposes a machine-learning algorithm to automatically identify resting-state fMRI periods that precede hallucinations versus periods that do not. When applied to whole-brain fMRI data, state-of-the-art classification methods, such as support vector machines (SVM), yield dense solutions that are difficult to interpret. We proposed to extend the existing sparse classification methods by taking the spatial structure of brain images into account with structured sparsity using the total variation penalty...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341071/anticholinergic-medication-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#3
REVIEW
Hanna Bergman, Karla Soares-Weiser
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with serious mental illnesses. However, it is associated with a wide range of adverse effects, including movement disorders. Because of this, many people treated with antipsychotic medication also receive anticholinergic drugs in order to reduce some of the associated movement side-effects. However, there is also a suggestion from animal experiments that the chronic administration of anticholinergics could cause tardive dyskinesia...
January 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341067/vitamin-e-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#4
REVIEW
Karla Soares-Weiser, Nicola Maayan, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. Vitamin E has been proposed as a treatment to prevent or decrease TD. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the clinical effects of vitamin E in people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness who had developed antipsychotic-induced TD...
January 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340780/health-related-quality-of-life-in-outpatients-with-schizophrenia-factors-that-determine-changes-over-time
#5
Cristina Domenech, Carlo Altamura, Corrado Bernasconi, Ricardo Corral, Helio Elkis, Jonathan Evans, Ashok Malla, Marie-Odile Krebs, Anna-Lena Nordstroem, Mathias Zink, Josep Maria Haro
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical factors associated with changes in HRQoL in outpatients with schizophrenia using both generic and condition-specific HRQoL scales. METHODS: Adult outpatients with schizophrenia at least 18 years of age who did not have an acute psychotic exacerbation in the 3 months prior to baseline were recruited. PANSS dimensions were calculated based on Lindenmayer et al.'s five factors. HRQoL data were assessed by patients using the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS), the Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires...
January 16, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340448/-uses-of-madness-towards-the-recognition-of-new-interpretations-of-human-suffering
#6
Miguel Salas Soneira
This article addresses the controversy associated with the construct schizophrenia/psychosis/madness, indicating the need to acknowledge the multiplicity of experiences and interpretations which arise through the use of the construct. The plurality and complexity intrinsic to the phenomenon, the discrepancies in its possible meanings and the value of first-hand experience are indicated as aspects whose recognition is indispensable to both understanding suffering and confronting it socio-educationally. Using interviews carried out in September 2013 and May 2014 with six people diagnosed at least with schizophrenia, who gave their informed consent to participate, these dimensions are explored...
October 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339664/cenesthopathy-and-subjective-cognitive-complaints-an-exploratory-study-in-schizophrenia
#7
Natalia Jimeno, Martin L Vargas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cenesthopathy is mainly associated with schizophrenia; however, its neurobiological basis is nowadays unclear. The general objective was to explore clinical correlates of cenesthopathy and subjective cognitive complaints in schizophrenia. METHODS: Participants (n = 30) meeting DSM-IV criteria for psychotic disorder were recruited from a psychiatry unit and assessed with: Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) system, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS)...
January 16, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339324/oscillatory-synchronous-inhibition-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-and-its-primary-dependence-on-nr2a-containing-nmda-receptors
#8
Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Volodymyr I Pidoplichko, Taiza H Figueiredo, Maria F M Braga
Synchronous, rhythmic firing of GABAergic interneurons is a fundamental mechanism underlying the generation of brain oscillations, and evidence suggests that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a key role in oscillatory activity by regulating the activity of interneurons. Consistent with this, derangement of brain rhythms in certain neuropsychiatric disorders, notably schizophrenia and autism, is associated with NMDAR hypofunction and loss of inhibitory interneurons. In the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-dysfunction of which is involved in a host of neuropsychiatric diseases-, principal neurons display spontaneous, rhythmic "bursts" of inhibitory activity, which could potentially be involved in the orchestration of oscillations in the BLA network; here, we investigated the role of NMDARs in these inhibitory oscillations...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338959/a-new-window-into-psychosis-the-rise-digital-phenotyping-smartphone-assessment-and-mobile-monitoring
#9
John Torous, Matcheri Keshavan
This commentary piece discusses recent advances in the use of mobile technologies like smartphone and wearable sensors for schizophrenia research. By framing both the opportunities as well as challenges for the field, this piece aims to frame the both current and future research efforts.
January 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338891/gray-and-white-matter-changes-and-their-relation-to-illness-trajectory-in-first-episode-psychosis
#10
Alejandro Keymer-Gausset, Anna Alonso-Solís, Iluminada Corripio, Rosa B Sauras-Quetcuti, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Erick J Canales-Rodriguez, Eva Grasa-Bello, Enric Álvarez, Maria J Portella
Previous works have studied structural brain characteristics in first-episode psychosis (FEP), but few have focused on the relation between brain differences and illness trajectories. The aim of this study is to analyze gray and white matter changes in FEP patients and their relation with one-year clinical outcomes. A sample of 41 FEP patients and 41 healthy controls (HC), matched by age and educational level was scanned with a 3T MRI during the first month of illness onset. One year later, patients were assigned to two illness trajectories (schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia)...
January 12, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338621/assessing-the-acute-effects-of-cdp-choline-on-sensory-gating-in-schizophrenia-a-pilot-study
#11
Robert Aidelbaum, Alain Labelle, Ashley Baddeley, Verner Knott
Deficient sensory gating (SG) in schizophrenia is associated with functional outcome and offers a therapeutic target as it is linked to the altered function/expression of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study analyzed the effects of citicoline (CDP-choline), a supplement with α7 nAChRs agonist properties, on SG in a sample of schizophrenia (SZ) patients. Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design the dose-dependent (500 mg, 1000 mg, 2000 mg) and baseline-dependent (deficient versus normal suppressors) effects of CDP-choline on SG were examined using the P50 event-related potential (ERP) index of SG...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338548/glycine-transporter-1-inhibitors-a-patent-review-2011-2016
#12
Christopher L Cioffi
Numerous research groups have developed GlyT-1 inhibitors in the pursuit of providing a novel antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia. Despite multiple compounds advancing into clinical trials, a GlyT-1 inhibitor has yet to emerge to treat patients. However, the approach remains heavily investigated as it presents potential therapeutic utility for several other CNS and non-CNS-related indications. Areas covered: This review discusses various GlyT-1 inhibitor chemotypes identified and provides an overview of patent applications filed and published during the period of 2011-2016...
January 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338492/genetic-variation-of-gria3-gene-is-associated-with-vulnerability-to-methamphetamine-dependence-and-its-associated-psychosis
#13
Sri-Arun Iamjan, Samur Thanoi, Paritat Watiktinkorn, Gavin P Reynolds, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi
Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug commonly leading to schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. Disturbances in glutamatergic neurotransmission have been proposed as neurobiological mechanisms and the α-amino-3 hydroxy-5 methyl-4 isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor has been implicated in these processes. Moreover, genetic variants in GRIAs, genes encoding AMPA receptor subunits, have been observed in association with both drug dependence and psychosis. We hypothesized that variation of GRIA genes may be associated with METH dependence and METH-induced psychosis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338491/the-effect-of-ketamine-on-the-consolidation-and-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memory
#14
Nicholas E Clifton, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Ketamine, principally an antagonist of N-methyl-ᴅ-aspartate receptors, induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in adult humans, warranting its use in the investigation of psychosis-related phenotypes in animal models. Genomic studies further implicate N-methyl-ᴅ-aspartate receptor-mediated processes in schizophrenia pathology, together with more broadly-defined synaptic plasticity and associative learning processes. Strong pathophysiological links have been demonstrated between fear learning and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338277/assessment-of-inpatient-psychiatric-readmission-risk-among-patients-discharged-on-an-antipsychotic-polypharmacy-regimen-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Esad Boskailo, Aldin Malkoc, Dustin B McCurry, Jacob Venter, David Drachman, Gilbert M Ramos
OBJECTIVE: Patients are frequently prescribed multiple antipsychotic medications, leading to higher healthcare costs and increased risk for side effects. The efficacy of multiple versus single antipsychotics to prevent acute relapse, measured by incidence of inpatient readmission, is investigated in Arizona, USA. METHOD: A retrospective chart review compared socio-demographic and clinical data from 1,010 patients discharged on a single and 377 discharged on multiple antipsychotic medications...
November 2017: Acta Medica Academica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337238/advantages-of-the-alpha-lipoic-acid-association-with-chlorpromazine-in-a-model-of-schizophrenia-induced-by-ketamine-in-rats-behavioral-and-oxidative-stress-evidences
#16
Luis Rafael Leite Sampaio, Francisco Maurício Sales Cysne Filho, Jamily Cunha de Almeida, Danilo Dos Santos Diniz, Cláudio Felipe Vasconcelos Patrocínio, Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo Patrocínio, Danielle S Macêdo, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder reported to compromise about 1% of the world's population. Although its pathophysiological process is not completely elucidated, evidence showing the presence of an oxidative imbalance has been increasingly highlighted in the literature. Thus, the use of antioxidant substances may be of importance for schizophrenia treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavioral and oxidative alterations by the combination of chlorpromazine (CP) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a potent antioxidant, in the ketamine (KET) model of schizophrenia in rats...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336872/abundance-of-ribosomal-rna-gene-copies-in-the-genomes-of-schizophrenia-patients
#17
I V Chestkov, E M Jestkova, E S Ershova, V E Golimbet, T V Lezheiko, N Y Kolesina, L N Porokhovnik, N A Lyapunova, V L Izhevskaya, S I Kutsev, N N Veiko, S V Kostyuk
OBJECTIVE: The ribosome is a critical component of the translation machinery. The key component of ribosomes is ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Dysregulation of rRNA biogenesis has been implicated in some human diseases. One of the factors affecting rRNA biogenesis is the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) copy number in the genome. The aim of this study was to examine the rDNA copy number (CN) variation in the genomes of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) compared to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: We evaluated rDNA CN in leukocytes of 179 subjects with SZ (108 male/71 female) in comparison with 122 HC (60 male/62 female) using two techniques: qPCR and nonradioactive quantitative hybridization (NQH), which is based on the use of biotinylated rDNA probes...
January 11, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336603/comparison-of-unlicensed-and-off-label-use-of-antipsychotics-prescribed-to-child-and-adolescent-psychiatric-outpatients-for-treatment-of-mental-and-behavioral-disorders-with-different-guidelines-the-china-food-and-drug-administration-versus-the-fda
#18
Xiuqing Zhu, Jinqing Hu, Bin Sun, Shuhua Deng, Yuguan Wen, Weijia Chen, Chang Qiu, Dewei Shang, Ming Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the prevalence of unlicensed and off-label use of antipsychotics among child and adolescent psychiatric outpatients with guidelines proposed by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and to identify factors associated with inconsistencies between the two regulations. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 29,326 drug prescriptions for child and adolescent outpatients from the Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University was conducted...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335774/genomic-trade-offs-are-autism-and-schizophrenia-the-steep-price-of-the-human-brain
#19
J M Sikela, V B Searles Quick
Evolution often deals in genomic trade-offs: changes in the genome that are beneficial overall persist even though they also produce disease in a subset of individuals. Here, we explore the possibility that such trade-offs have occurred as part of the evolution of the human brain. Specifically, we provide support for the possibility that the same key genes that have been major contributors to the rapid evolutionary expansion of the human brain and its exceptional cognitive capacity also, in different combinations, are significant contributors to autism and schizophrenia...
January 15, 2018: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335431/synaptic-localisation-of-srf-coactivators-mkl1-and-mkl2-and-their-role-in-dendritic-spine-morphology
#20
Marisa Kaneda, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Yamato Hida, Toshihisa Ohtsuka, Natsumi Satou, Yuta Ishibashi, Mamoru Fukuchi, Anna Krysiak, Mitsuru Ishikawa, Daisuke Ihara, Katarzyna Kalita, Akiko Tabuchi
The megakaryoblastic leukaemia (MKL) family are serum response factor (SRF) coactivators, which are highly expressed in the brain. Accordingly, MKL plays important roles in dendritic morphology, neuronal migration, and brain development. Further, nucleotide substitutions in the MKL1 and MKL2 genes are found in patients with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder, respectively. Thus, studies on the precise synaptic localisation and function of MKL in neurons are warranted. In this study, we generated and tested new antibodies that specifically recognise endogenously expressed MKL1 and MKL2 proteins in neurons...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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