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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531893/association-study-of-serotonin-3-receptor-subunit-gene-variants-in-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#1
Clement C Zai, Arun K Tiwari, Nabilah I Chowdhury, Eva J Brandl, Sajid A Shaikh, Natalie Freeman, Jeffrey A Lieberman, Herbert Y Meltzer, James L Kennedy, Daniel J Müller
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a chronic severe neuropsychiatric disorder, where pharmacological treatment has been hindered by adverse effects, including antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) and related complications. Genetic studies have been exploring the appetite regulation and energy homeostasis pathways in AIWG with some promising leads. The serotonin system has been shown to participate in these pathways. METHODS: In the current study, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms across the serotonin receptor genes HTR3A and HTR3B...
May 23, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531645/judgment-of-moral-and-social-transgression-in-schizophrenia
#2
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Despite evidence of pervasive social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known of moral cognition in this population. While recent research indicates that impairment of explicit moral reasoning is explained by these individuals' other cognitive deficits, their capacities for basic moral judgment are unknown. METHODS: 45 people with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls completed the Moral-Conventional Distinction Task: a classic task that assesses judgment of violations of moral or social convention on permissibility, severity, and authority-contingence...
May 4, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531561/a-meta-analysis-of-neurocognition-in-youth-with-familial-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#3
E Bora, A Özerdem
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological impairment, including deficits in social cognition is evident in subjects at genetic high-risk for psychosis. However, findings in youth at genetic risk to bipolar disorder (BP) have been suggested to be less supportive of premorbid deficits. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in youth with familiar risk for bipolar disorder (FHR-BD). METHODS: A novel meta-analysis of FHR-BD (mean age 10-25), including 18 studies (786 offsprings/siblings of patients with BD and 794 healthy controls), was conducted...
March 3, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531307/following-instructions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-the-benefits-of-actions-at-encoding-and-recall
#4
Simon S Y Lui, Tian-Xiao Yang, Chris L Y Ng, Peony T Y Wong, Jessica O Y Wong, Ulrich Ettinger, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
The ability to follow spoken instructions is important to everyday functioning but has seldom been studied in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Recent evidence suggests that action-based processing may facilitate the ability to follow instructions, which relies largely on working memory. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SZ patients may also benefit from action-based advantages in following instructions. Forty-eight clinically stable SZ patients and 48 demographic- and IQ-matched controls completed a following spoken instruction span task involving varied encoding and recall conditions...
May 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531264/cariprazine-exhibits-anxiolytic-and-dopamine-d3-receptor-dependent-antidepressant-effects-in-the-chronic-stress-model
#5
Vanya Duric, Mounira Banasr, Tina Franklin, Ashley Lepack, Nika Adham, Béla Kiss, István Gyertyán, Ronald S Duman
Background: Cariprazine, a D3-preferring dopamine D2/D3 receptor partial agonist, is a new antipsychotic drug recently approved in the US for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania. We recently demonstrated that cariprazine also has significant anti-anhedonic-like effects in rats subjected to chronic stress; however, the exact mechanism of action for cariprazine's antidepressant-like properties is not known. Thus, in this study we examined whether the effects of cariprazine are mediated by dopamine D3 receptors...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530539/preparation-optimization-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-aripiprazole-loaded-nano-porous-in-situ-forming-implant
#6
Ashkan Hedayati, Sina Ghafurzadeh Yazdi, Pouya Dehghankelishadi, Nika Bahari Javan, Hamid Akbari, Farid A Dorkoosh
BACKGROUND: Multiple applications of antipsychotic agents are the main obstacle upon treatment of schizophrenia. Due to behavioral abnormalities, low compliance is observed in the most of psychotic patients. Designing of new drug delivery systems to overcome compliance problem seems to be necessary. In situ forming implants are a suitable choice for delivery of antipsychotic agents due to easy administration process and sustained release kinetics. OBJECTIVE: In this study, a novel poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) based nano-porous in situ implant system is developed for delivery of aripiprazole...
May 22, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530532/the-effect-of-cognitive-remediation-therapy-on-social-skills-in-institutionalized-elderly-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
Fatemeh Mohammadi, Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz, Seyedeh Ameneh Motallebi, Shahnaz Boosepasi
BACKGROUND: There is limited scientific investigations on cognitive remediation in elderly patients with schizophrenia. The present study was aimed to examine the efficacy of cognitive remediation therapy on social skills in institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: The study employed a randomized clinical trial. A total of 60 institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia from Razi Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran were selected and randomly allocated into two equal groups (control and intervention)...
May 22, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530015/the-relationship-between-internalized-stigma-and-quality-of-life-among-people-with-mental-illness-are-self-esteem-and-sense-of-coherence-sequential-mediators
#8
Piotr Świtaj, Paweł Grygiel, Anna Chrostek, Izabela Nowak, Jacek Wciórka, Marta Anczewska
PURPOSE: To elucidate the mechanism through which internalized stigma reduces the quality of life (QoL) of people with mental illness by exploring the mediating roles of self-esteem and sense of coherence (SOC). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 229 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or affective disorders was undertaken to test a sequential mediation model assuming that more severe internalized stigma is related to lower self-esteem, which is associated with weaker SOC, which in turn relates to worse QoL...
May 22, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529872/functional-network-changes-and-cognitive-control-in-schizophrenia
#9
Kimberly L Ray, Tyler A Lesh, Amber M Howell, Taylor P Salo, J Daniel Ragland, Angus W MacDonald, James M Gold, Steven M Silverstein, Deana M Barch, Cameron S Carter
Cognitive control is a cognitive and neural mechanism that contributes to managing the complex demands of day-to-day life. Studies have suggested that functional impairments in cognitive control associated brain circuitry contribute to a broad range of higher cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. To examine this issue, we assessed functional connectivity networks in healthy adults and individuals with schizophrenia performing tasks from two distinct cognitive domains that varied in demands for cognitive control, the RiSE episodic memory task and DPX goal maintenance task...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529369/concurrent-validity-of-indian-disability-evaluation-and-assessment-scale-with-sociooccupational-functioning-scale-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#10
Swapnajeet Sahoo, Sandeep Grover, Devakshi Dua, Subho Chakrabarti, Ajit Avasthi
BACKGROUND: The Government of India (GOI) has recommended the use of Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) for the assessment and certification of disability in patients with mental illness. Although data are available in terms of internal consistency and construct validity of IDEAS, concurrent validity of IDEAS has rarely been evaluated. AIM: The aim was to study the concurrent validity of IDEAS with Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFS) in patients with schizophrenia...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529366/wisconsin-card-sorting-test-performance-impairment-in-schizophrenia-an-indian-study-report
#11
Shailja Singh, Tapas Kumar Aich, Raju Bhattarai
AIM: The present study attempted to find out the relationship between positive and negative clinical symptoms and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performance in a group of schizophrenia patients. METHODOLOGY: Fifty schizophrenia patients were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) by a trained psychiatrist (TKA) and two groups, each of 25 positive symptom and 25 negative symptom schizophrenia patients were formed. On these fifty patients with schizophrenia and 15 normal control groups, WCST measures were applied by a clinical psychologist (SS) who remained blind to the PANSS score...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529220/clinical-correlates-of-treatment-response-among-patients-with-schizophrenia-in-a-tertiary-nigerian-hospital
#12
Mark Sunday Ezeme, Richard Uwakwe, Appolos Chidi Ndukuba, Monday N Igwe, Paul Chigozie Odinka, Kennedy Amadi, Nichodemus O Obayi
A significant proportion of patients treated for schizophrenia respond poorly to medication. Few studies have systematically examined the impact of clinical characteristics of patients to antipsychotic response in our environment. The study aimed to identify clinical variables associated with response in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 172 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia, placed on antipsychotics, who presented for the first time to the hospital or have stopped medication in the preceding six months, whose responses were assessed after four to six weeks were studied...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529219/socio-demographic-characteristics-partner-characteristics-socioeconomic-variables-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-women-with-schizophrenia-in-south-south-nigeria
#13
Taiwo Opekitan Afe, Thomas C Emedoh, Olawale O Ogunsemi, Abosede Adekeje Adegohun
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common among patients with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. Few surveys have explored IPV among this specific group of patients and the demographic characteristics of victims in Nigeria. The aim of this survey was to explore socio-demographic, socioeconomic characteristics of victims and partners. A cross-sectional randomized survey of 79 women with schizophrenia from a major adult psychiatric outpatient in South-south Nigeria was done. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) was used to establish the diagnosis of schizophrenia among the participants and a purposely designed questionnaire to assess IPV...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528597/adjunctive-memantine-for-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trials
#14
W Zheng, X-H Li, X-H Yang, D-B Cai, G S Ungvari, C H Ng, S-B Wang, Y-Y Wang, Y-P Ning, Y-T Xiang
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of memantine, a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist, in the treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: Standardized/weighted mean differences (SMDs/WMDs), risk ratio (RR), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and analyzed. RESULTS: Included in the meta-analysis were eight RCTs (n = 452) of 11...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528586/white-matter-connectivity-disruptions-in-early-and-chronic-schizophrenia
#15
M A Di Biase, V L Cropley, B T Baune, J Olver, G P Amminger, C Phassouliotis, C Bousman, P D McGorry, I Everall, C Pantelis, A Zalesky
BACKGROUND: White matter disruptions in schizophrenia have been widely reported, but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities differ between illness stages. We mapped the connectome in patients with recently diagnosed and chronic schizophrenia and investigated the extent and overlap of white matter connectivity disruptions between these illness stages. METHODS: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired in recent-onset (n = 19) and chronic patients (n = 45) with schizophrenia, as well as age-matched controls (n = 87)...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528230/effect-of-childhood-trauma-on-cognitive-functions-in-a-sample-of-chinese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#16
Xian-Bin Li, Qi-Jing Bo, Guang-Ping Zhang, Wei Zheng, Zhi-Min Wang, An-Ning Li, Qing Tian, Jin-Tong Liu, Yi-Lang Tang, Chuan-Yue Wang
In this study, we aimed to determine the influence of various types of childhood trauma (CT) on cognitive functions in Chinese patients presented with schizophrenia. One hundred sixty-two patients were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). We investigated the correlations between various types of CT, demographic characteristics, and cognitive functions. Significant negative correlations were observed in physical abuse (PA) and sexual abuse (SA) with the language score (r=-0...
May 5, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528196/a-review-of-psychiatric-co-morbidity-described-in-genetic-and-immune-mediated-movement-disorders
#17
REVIEW
K J Peall, M S Lorentzos, I Heyman, M A J Tijssen, M J Owen, R C Dale, M A Kurian
Psychiatric symptoms are an increasingly recognised feature of movement disorders. Recent identification of causative genes and autoantibodies has allowed detailed analysis of aetiologically homogenous subgroups, thereby enabling determination of the spectrum of psychiatric symptoms in these disorders. This review evaluates the incidence and type of psychiatric symptoms encountered in patients with movement disorders. A broad spectrum of psychiatric symptoms was identified across all subtypes of movement disorder, with depression, generalised anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder being most common...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527693/two-hit-model-of-schizophrenia-induced-by-neonatal-immune-activation-and-peripubertal-stress-in-rats-study-of-sex-differences-and-brain-oxidative-alterations
#18
Aline Santos Monte, Bruna Stefânia Ferreira Mello, Vládia Célia Moreira Borella, Tatiane da Silva Araujo, Francisco Eliclécio Rodrigues da Silva, Francisca Cléa F de Sousa, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Clarissa Severino Gama, Mary V Seeman, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas De Lucena, Danielle Macêdo
Schizophrenia is considered to be a developmental disorder with distinctive sex differences. Aiming to simulate the vulnerability of the third trimester of human pregnancy to the developmental course of schizophrenia, an animal model was developed, using neonatal poly(I:C) as a first-hit, and peripubertal stress as a second-hit, i.e. a two-hit model. Since, to date, there have been no references to sex differences in the two-hit model, our study sought to determine sex influences on the development of behavior and brain oxidative change in adult rats submitted to neonatal exposure to poly(I:C) on postnatal days 5-7 as well as peripubertal unpredictable stress (PUS)...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527566/abnormalities-in-high-energy-phosphate-metabolism-in-first-episode-bipolar-disorder-measured-using-31-p-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#19
Fei Du, Cagri Yuksel, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Polly Huynh, Kyle Ryan, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Öngür
BACKGROUND: Brain energy metabolism is critical for supporting synaptic function and information processing. A growing body of evidence suggests abnormalities in brain bioenergetics in psychiatric disorders, including both bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides a noninvasive window into these processes in vivo. Using this approach, we previously showed that patients with BD show normal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine levels at rest but cannot maintain normal ATP levels in the visual cortex during times of high energy demand (photic stimulation)...
April 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526281/effects-of-maternal-immune-activation-on-brain-arginine-metabolism-of-postnatal-day-2-rat-offspring
#20
Jiaxian Zhang, Yu Jing, Hu Zhang, David K Bilkey, Ping Liu
l-Arginine is a versatile semi-essential amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, and altered arginine metabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Earlier research has demonstrated that maternal immune activation (MIA; a risk factor for schizophrenia) alters arginine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of the adult offspring. The present study investigated how MIA affected the levels of l-arginine and its downstream metabolites in the whole forebrain, frontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of male and female rat offspring at the age of postnatal day 2...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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