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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231610/polygenic-risk-scores-for-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-associate-with-addiction
#1
Gunnar W Reginsson, Andres Ingason, Jack Euesden, Gyda Bjornsdottir, Sigurgeir Olafsson, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Hogni Oskarsson, Thorarinn Tyrfingsson, Valgerdur Runarsdottir, Ingunn Hansdottir, Stacy Steinberg, Hreinn Stefansson, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Thorgeir E Thorgeirsson, Kari Stefansson
We use polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) to predict smoking, and addiction to nicotine, alcohol or drugs in individuals not diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Using PRSs for 144 609 subjects, including 10 036 individuals admitted for in-patient addiction treatment and 35 754 smokers, we find that diagnoses of various substance use disorders and smoking associate strongly with PRSs for SCZ (P = 5.3 × 10(-50) -1.4 × 10(-6) ) and BPD (P = 1.7 × 10(-9) -1...
February 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230630/update-on-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-its-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#2
Lily Van, Erik Boot, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia occurs in ∼25% of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the strongest known molecular genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. This review highlights recent literature in 22q11.2DS as it pertains to psychosis and schizophrenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in noninvasive prenatal testing allow for early detection of 22q11.2DS in utero, whereas premature birth has been shown to be a significant risk factor for development of psychotic illness in 22q11...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223808/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibody-could-be-a-cause-of-catatonic-symptoms-in-psychiatric-patients-case-reports-and-methods-for-detection
#3
Ko Tsutsui, Takashi Kanbayashi, Manabu Takaki, Yuki Omori, Yumiko Imai, Seiji Nishino, Keiko Tanaka, Tetsuo Shimizu
The symptoms of catatonia have been reported to be similar to the initial symptoms of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Subsequently, this autoimmune limbic encephalitis has been noticed by many psychiatrists. For a differential diagnosis of catatonic state, it is important to detect anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This encephalitis is expected to be in remission by early detection and treatment. We should be more cautious about catatonic symptoms of schizophrenia. When a patient is suspected of having encephalitis, we should screen for anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples using a cell-based assay...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222824/curiosity-killed-the-cat-no-evidence-of-an-association-between-cat-ownership-and-psychotic-symptoms-at-ages-13-and-18-years-in-a-uk-general-population-cohort
#4
F Solmi, J F Hayes, G Lewis, J B Kirkbride
BACKGROUND: Congenital or early life infection with Toxoplasma gondii has been implicated in schizophrenia aetiology. Childhood cat ownership has been hypothesized as an intermediary marker of T. gondii infection and, by proxy, as a risk factor for later psychosis. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is, however, limited. METHOD: We used birth cohort data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to investigate whether cat ownership in pregnancy and childhood (ages 4 and 10 years) was associated with psychotic experiences (PEs) in early (age 13, N = 6705) and late (age 18, N = 4676) adolescence, rated from semi-structured interviews...
February 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221282/characteristics-and-triage-of-children-presenting-in-mental-health-crisis-to-emergency-departments-at-detroit-regional-hospitals
#5
Kristen Williams, Amanda R Levine, David M Ledgerwood, Alireza Amirsadri, Leslie H Lundahl
OBJECTIVES: The number of children in the United States utilizing emergency department (ED) services for psychiatric crises is increasing, and psychiatric-related ED visits disproportionately burden hospital resources. Yet, there is limited available information on the epidemiology and outcomes of pediatric mental health emergencies. The present study sought to characterize pediatric mental health-related ED presentations in a large urban center and identify factors predictive of inpatient hospitalization...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220044/pregnenolone-blocks-cannabinoid-induced-acute-psychotic-like-states-in-mice
#6
A Busquets-Garcia, E Soria-Gómez, B Redon, Y Mackenbach, M Vallée, F Chaouloff, M Varilh, G Ferreira, P-V Piazza, G Marsicano
Cannabis-induced acute psychotic-like states (CIAPS) represent a growing health issue, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines against CIAPS is limited by side effects and/or by their ability to tackle only certain aspects of psychosis. Thus, safer wide-spectrum treatments are currently needed. Although the blockade of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) had been suggested as a therapeutical means against CIAPS, the use of orthosteric CB1 receptor full antagonists is strongly limited by undesired side effects and low efficacy...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219788/immersion-in-altered-experience-an-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-absorption-and-psychopathology
#7
REVIEW
Cherise Rosen, Nev Jones, Kayla A Chase, Jennifer K Melbourne, Linda S Grossman, Rajiv P Sharma
Understanding alterations in perceptual experiences as a component of the basic symptom structure of psychosis may improve early detection and the identification of subtle shifts that can precede symptom onset or exacerbation. We explored the phenomenological construct of absorption and psychotic experiences in both clinical (bipolar psychosis and schizophrenia spectrum) and non-clinical participants. Participants with psychosis endorsed significantly higher absorption compared to the non-clinical group. Absorption was positively correlated with all types of hallucinations and multiple types of delusions...
February 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216171/toward-a-unified-theory-of-childhood-trauma-and-psychosis-a-comprehensive-review-of-epidemiological-clinical-neuropsychological-and-biological-findings
#8
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Maja Krefft, Tomasz Bielawski, Ahmed A Moustafa, Maria M Sąsiadek, Dorota Frydecka
There is a growing body of research focused on the relationship between childhood trauma and the risk of developing psychosis. Numerous studies, including many large-scale population-based studies controlling for possible mediating variables, provide persuasive evidence of a dose-response association and are indicative of a causal relationship. Existing evidence supports the specificity model, showing differential associations between particular adversities and clinical symptoms, with cumulative adversity causing less favorable clinical and functional outcomes in psychotic patients...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216146/divergent-levels-of-marker-chromosomes-in-an-hipsc-based-model-of%C3%A2-psychosis
#9
Julia Tcw, Claudia M B Carvalho, Bo Yuan, Shen Gu, Alyssa N Altheimer, Shane McCarthy, Dheeraj Malhotra, Jonathan Sebat, Arthur J Siegel, Uwe Rudolph, James R Lupski, Deborah L Levy, Kristen J Brennand
In the process of generating presumably clonal human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from two carriers of a complex structural rearrangement, each having a psychotic disorder, we also serendipitously generated isogenic non-carrier control hiPSCs, finding that the rearrangement occurs as an extrachromosomal marker (mar) element. All confirmed carrier hiPSCs and differentiated neural progenitor cell lines were found to be mosaic. We caution that mar elements may be difficult to functionally evaluate in hiPSC cultures using currently available methods, as it is difficult to distinguish cells with and without mar elements in live mosaic cultures...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214175/the-traumatic-experience-of-first-episode-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Rebecca Rodrigues, Kelly K Anderson
INTRODUCTION: A psychotic episode may be sufficiently traumatic to induce symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which could impact outcomes in first-episode psychosis (FEP). The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to estimate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in relation to psychosis in FEP and to identify risk factors for the development of PTSD symptoms. METHODS: We searched electronic databases and conducted manual searching of reference lists and tables of contents to identify relevant studies...
February 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213813/waiting-time-variation-in-early-intervention-psychosis-services-longitudinal-evidence-from-the-sepea-naturalistic-cohort-study
#11
James B Kirkbride, Y Hameed, L Wright, K Russell, C Knight, J Perez, P B Jones
PURPOSE: Early Intervention Psychosis [EIP] services have gained traction internationally, but are currently undergoing various forms of reconfiguration. In England, such services are now mandated to ensure 50% of accepted referrals commence care within 14 days, but no empirical evidence exists. We sought to estimate waiting times to EIP services in a large, representative epidemiological cohort in England, and investigate possible reasons for any variation. METHODS: We estimated median waiting time from referral to acceptance by EIP services and investigated whether this varied by clinical, demographic or neighbourhood-level factors, amongst 798 participants, 16-35 years old, presenting to six EIP services over 3...
February 18, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212506/dimensional-and-discrete-variations-on-the-psychosis-continuum-in-a-dutch-crowd-sourcing-population-sample
#12
J T W Wigman, K J Wardenaar, R B K Wanders, S H Booij, B F Jeronimus, L van der Krieke, M Wichers, P de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Mild psychotic experiences are common in the general population. Although transient and benign in most cases, these experiences are predictive of later mental health problems for a significant minority. The goal of the present study was to perform examinations of the dimensional and discrete variations in individuals' reporting of subclinical positive and negative psychotic experiences in a unique Dutch internet-based sample from the general population. METHODS: Positive and negative subclinical psychotic experiences were measured with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences in 2870 individuals...
December 18, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212505/long-term-validity-of-the-at-risk-mental-state-arms-for-predicting-psychotic-and-non-psychotic-mental-disorders
#13
P Fusar-Poli, G Rutigliano, D Stahl, C Davies, A De Micheli, V Ramella-Cravaro, I Bonoldi, P McGuire
BACKGROUND: The long-term clinical validity of the At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for the prediction of non-psychotic mental disorders is unknown. METHODS: Clinical register-based cohort study including all non-psychotic individuals assessed by the Outreach And Support in South London (OASIS) service (2002-2015). The primary outcome was risk of developing any mental disorder (psychotic or non-psychotic). Analyses included Cox proportional hazard models, Kaplan-Meier survival/failure function and C statistics...
December 6, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212173/prediction-of-conversion-to-psychosis-in-individuals-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-a-brief-update-on-recent-developments
#14
Anita Riecher-Rössler, Erich Studerus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: So far, only little more than one-third of individuals classified as being at-risk for psychosis have been shown to actually convert to frank psychosis during follow-up. There have therefore been enormous efforts to improve the accuracy of predicting this transition. We reviewed the most recent studies in the field with the aim to clarify whether accuracy of prediction has been improved by the different research endeavors and what could be done to further improve it, and/or what alternative goals research should pursue...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210522/acute-hyperglycemia-associated-with-psychotic-symptoms-in-a-patient-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-case-report
#15
Swapnajeet Sahoo, Aseem Mehra, Sandeep Grover
Although psychiatric manifestations in the form of delirium, confusional states, and psychosis have been commonly reported in relation to hypoglycemia, association of hyperglycemia with psychiatric manifestations has been less commonly reported. In this case report, we present the case of a 36-year-old woman suffering from Type 1 diabetes mellitus who developed recurrent episodes of psychosis following poor adherence to her insulin therapy, leading to significantly high levels of blood glucose. Adequate control of blood glucose levels by improving the adherence with insulin led to lack of recurrence of psychosis...
November 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210217/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-a-quantitative-review-of-cognitive-outcomes
#16
REVIEW
Joshua E Mervis, Riley J Capizzi, Elias Boroda, Angus W MacDonald
Cognitive deficits are a core and disabling feature of psychotic disorders, specifically schizophrenia. Current treatments for impaired cognition in schizophrenia remain insufficient. Recent research suggests transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can potentiate cognitive improvements in healthy individuals and those with psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. However, this burgeoning literature has not been quantitatively evaluated. Through a literature search and quantitative review, we identified 194 papers on tDCS, psychosis, and cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203081/the-spectrum-of-psychosis-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-clinical-case-series
#17
Thomas G Gilberthorpe, Kara E O'Connell, Alison Carolan, Eli Silber, Peter A Brex, Naomi A Sibtain, Anthony S David
Psychosis in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS) has previously been reported as a rare occurrence. However, recent epidemiological studies have found prevalence rates of psychosis in MS that are two to three times higher than those in the general population. Untreated psychosis in patients with MS can adversely impact on adherence to MS medication, levels of disability, and quality of life. This retrospective case series describes the spectrum of psychotic disorders occurring in association with MS using demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging data...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196549/mental-health-related-stigma-and-pathways-to-care-for-people-at-risk-of-psychotic-disorders-or-experiencing-first-episode-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#18
P C Gronholm, G Thornicroft, K R Laurens, S Evans-Lacko
BACKGROUND: Stigma associated with mental illness can delay or prevent help-seeking and service contact. Stigma-related influences on pathways to care in the early stages of psychotic disorders have not been systematically examined. METHOD: This review systematically assessed findings from qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods research studies on the relationship between stigma and pathways to care (i.e. processes associated with help-seeking and health service contact) among people experiencing first-episode psychosis or at clinically defined increased risk of developing psychotic disorder...
February 15, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187857/adaptive-and-behavioral-changes-in-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-knockout-mice-relevance-to-psychotic-disorders
#19
Sophie Erhardt, Ana Pocivavsek, Mariaelena Repici, Xi-Cong Liu, Sophie Imbeault, Daniel C Maddison, Marian A R Thomas, Joshua L Smalley, Markus K Larsson, Paul J Muchowski, Flaviano Giorgini, Robert Schwarcz
BACKGROUND: Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its inhibition shunts the kynurenine pathway-which is implicated as dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders-toward enhanced synthesis of kynurenic acid, an antagonist of both α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Possibly as a result of reduced kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity, elevated central nervous system levels of kynurenic acid have been found in patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia...
December 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185785/can-antibiotics-cause-a-psychosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Duy Ly, Lynn E DeLisi
It is relatively unknown that some of the possible side effects of antibiotic treatment can be transient psychotic episodes and other encephalopathies such as seizure disorders. Since these are rare events, there have not been many studies about them, nor is there a clear understanding of the underlying basis for these symptoms. This phenomenon was recently brought to our attention by a patient whose case history is discussed here. For the past few years, he has been diagnosed at different times with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder with psychosis, temporal lobe epilepsy, and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures...
February 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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