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psychosis psychotic

Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Alexander Sumich, Anthony Harris, Thomas Whitford, Daniel Hermens, Nadja Heym, John Anderson, Claire Bloxsom, Fraenze Kibowski, Veena Kumari
OBJECTIVE: Right frontal function, as indicated by the N200 component of the event-related potential during target detection, has previously been associated with excitement (excitement, impulsivity, hostility, uncooperativeness) in men with a long-term diagnosis of schizophrenia. The current study investigated excitement in relation to N200 in men who had recently experienced their first episode of psychosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty men who had recently suffered their first psychotic episode underwent a clinical interview and auditory oddball task...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Stefanie J Schmidt, Ayla Behar, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge This case-study deals with the often difficult differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a clinical high risk state of psychosis, in particular as indicated by attenuated psychotic symptoms, as well as with its therapeutic implications. The presented case is a 10-year old girl, who has not been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder before being referred to a specialized center for early detection of psychosis due to possible hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideas...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Emanuele F Osimo, Rudolf N Cardinal, Peter B Jones, Golam M Khandaker
Low-grade inflammation is a risk factor for depression, psychosis and other major psychiatric disorders. It is associated with poor response to antidepressant and antipsychotics, and could potentially be a treatment target. However, there is limited data on the prevalence of low-grade inflammation in major psychiatric disorders, and on the characteristics of patients who show evidence of inflammation. We examined the prevalence of low-grade inflammation and associated socio-demographic and clinical factors in acute psychiatric inpatients...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Stefania Schiavone, Luigia Trabace
Recent evidence highlighted a pathogenetic link between redox dysregulation and the early stages of psychosis. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have pointed toward an association between oxidative stress, both at central and peripheral levels, and first psychotic episode. Moreover, basal low antioxidant capacity has been shown to directly correlate with cognitive impairment in the early onset of psychosis. In this context, the possibility to use antioxidant compounds in first psychotic episode, especially as supplementation to antipsychotic therapy, has become the focus of numerous investigations on rodents with the aim to translate data on the possible effects of antioxidant therapies to large populations of patients, with a diagnosis of the first psychotic episode...
March 14, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Jan Cosgrave, Katharina Wulff, Philip Gehrman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is designed to give an overview of the latest developments in research exploring the relationship between sleep and psychosis, with particular attention paid to the evidence for a causal relationship between the two. RECENT FINDINGS: The most interesting avenues currently in pursuit are focused upon sleep spindle deficits which may hallmark an endophenotype; explorations of the continuum of psychotic experiences, and experimental manipulations to explore the evidence for bidirectional causality; inflammatory markers, psychosis and sleep disturbances and finally, treatment approaches for sleep in psychosis and the subsequent impact on positive experiences...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Pamela J Taylor, Natasha Kalebic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The contribution of people with psychosis to homicide statistics is small, but there is a statistically significantly higher rate of homicide among them than in the general population. Legal authorities and the wider public call for more information. Our aim was a narrative synthesis of empirical literature generated by systematic searches for the five complete years 2013-2017. RECENT FINDINGS: One article showed that people with psychosis are five times more likely to be homicide victims than those without, but focus remains on perpetrators...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Elon Richman, Nathan J Skoller, Bernice Fokum, Brandi A Burke, Chelsea A Hickerson, Robert O Cotes
: Synthetic cathinones are a class of novel psychoactive substances. α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP), or "Flakka", is one of these substances. Users often present acutely psychotic or agitated. We present the case of a 20-year-old male without prior psychiatric history who was brought to the hospital by his family because of increasingly bizarre and erratic behavior after reported ingestion of Flakka. What ensued was a prolonged course of psychosis and severe catatonia. Synthetic cathinones are thought to cause catatonia in approximately 1% of cases...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Eugenia Tomasella, Lucila Bechelli, Mora Belén Ogando, Camilo Mininni, Mariano N Di Guilmi, Fernanda De Fino, Silvano Zanutto, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Antonia Marin-Burgin, Diego M Gelman
Excessive dopamine neurotransmission underlies psychotic episodes as observed in patients with some types of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The dopaminergic hypothesis was postulated after the finding that antipsychotics were effective to halt increased dopamine tone. However, there is little evidence for dysfunction within the dopaminergic system itself. Alternatively, it has been proposed that excessive afferent activity onto ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons, particularly from the ventral hippocampus, increase dopamine neurotransmission, leading to psychosis...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rick P F Wolthusen, Garth Coombs, Emily A Boeke, Stefan Ehrlich, Stephanie N DeCross, Shahin Nasr, Daphne J Holt
BACKGROUND: Delusions are a defining and common symptom of psychotic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that subclinical and clinical delusions may represent distinct stages on a phenomenological and biological continuum. However, few studies have tested whether subclinical psychotic experiences are associated with neural changes that are similar to those observed in clinical psychosis. For example, it is unclear if overactivity of the hippocampus, a replicated finding of neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia, is also present in individuals with subclinical psychotic symptoms...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Mary V Seeman, Alexandre González-Rodríguez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Drugs have been extensively prescribed for the treatment of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia and related disorders, as well as for the management of psychotic features in delirium, dementia and affective disorders. The aim of this narrative review is to focus on the recent literature on drug treatment in women with psychosis at the transition to menopause and subsequently. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent literature emphasizes the following points: the efficacy of antipsychotic medication in psychosis is largely confined to the alleviation of delusions and hallucinations; menopause and ageing alter the kinetics and dynamics of drug action; drugs other than antipsychotics are currently being tested to address the cognitive, affective and negative symptoms of psychotic illnesses; menopausal symptoms add to comorbidities and require simultaneous treatment, raising the probability of deleterious drug interactions; antipsychotic drugs have many side effects and contribute to high mortality rates in the older psychosis population...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Brian Villumsen Broberg, Iris E Sommer, Michael Eriksen Benros, Birte Yding Glenthøj, Christiane Gasse, Ole Köhler-Forsberg
Glucocorticoids can have psychosis as a potential side effect, but have also been suggested to yield protective effects due to anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, knowledge is sparse on the association between glucocorticoid treatment and development of psychosis, which we aimed to study in this first large-scale longitudinal study. Among all individuals born in Denmark 1995-2003 (n=597,257), we compared individuals who had redeemed ≥1 prescription for glucocorticoids to an active comparator group and a non-exposed group concerning subsequent development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders until 2013...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Hein Heuvelman, James Nazroo, Dheeraj Rai
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests risk for psychosis varies with ethnicity in Western countries. However, there is little evidence to date on the cross-cultural validity of screening instruments used for such comparisons. METHODS: Combining two existing UK population-based cohorts, we examined risk for reporting psychotic symptoms across White British (n = 3467), White Irish (n = 851), Caribbean (n = 1899), Indian (n = 2590), Pakistani (n = 1956) and Bangladeshi groups (n = 1248)...
March 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Kristen Thien, Meghan Bowtell, Scott Eaton, Melissa Bardell-Williams, Linglee Downey, Aswin Ratheesh, Patrick McGorry, Brian O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: The superior efficacy of clozapine in treatment resistant schizophrenia has been clearly demonstrated, yet there are often delays in the commencement of clozapine. In this study, we aimed to determine; the proportion of young people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) who would be considered eligible for clozapine treatment, the theoretical delay in commencing clozapine and to compare the outcomes of those treated with clozapine to those who were eligible but not treated with clozapine...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Virginie-Anne Chouinard, David C Henderson, Chiara Dalla Man, Linda Valeri, Brianna E Gray, Kyle P Ryan, Aaron M Cypess, Claudio Cobelli, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Öngür
Patients with psychotic disorders are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and there is increasing evidence that patients display glucose metabolism abnormalities before significant antipsychotic medication exposure. In the present study, we examined insulin action by quantifying insulin sensitivity in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and unaffected siblings, compared to healthy individuals, using a physiological-based model and comprehensive assessment battery. Twenty-two unaffected siblings, 18 FEP patients, and 15 healthy unrelated controls were evaluated using a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), with 7 samples of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentration measurements...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
W Veling, I E C Sommer, R Bruggeman, L de Haan
Personalised medicine (pm) means treatment that specifically targets the needs of individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic or psychosocial characteristics.<br/> AIM: To update our knowledge about the current use of pm in the treatment of psychotic disorders.<br/> METHOD: Review of the literature on pm for psychoses.<br/> RESULTS: At the moment, genetic and other biological characteristics cannot be used for the diagnosis and treatment of psychotic disorders because they are not sensitive enough and their specificity is too low...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Chunzhen Tan, Edimansyah Abdin, Wilfred Liang, Lye Yin Poon, Ngar Yee Poon, Swapna Verma
AIM: Early intervention programmes for first episode psychosis (FEP) aim to reduce the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and improve functional outcomes. The sustained maintenance of improved outcomes depends largely on patients' adherence to prescribed treatment. This paper examines the prevalence of non-adherence in a cohort of patients with FEP and the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with non-adherent behaviour. METHODS: The sample included consecutive patients accepted from 2007 to 2012 into the Early Psychosis Intervention Programme (EPIP) in Singapore...
March 9, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Frederike Schirmbeck, Max Konijn, Vera Hoetjes, Mathias Zink, Lieuwe de Haan
Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) are frequently reported in patients with schizophrenia and have been associated with subjective distress and higher impairment. Recent studies suggest fluctuation in co-occurring OCS and associations with the course of psychotic symptoms. Current evidence is limited by few studies with long assessments intervals and a sole focus on between-subject comparisons. The aim of this study was to specifically investigate co-variation of symptom domains over time within individuals...
March 8, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Rebecca McKetin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To review early case reports and experimental inductions of amphetamine and methamphetamine psychosis, prior to the prohibition of these drugs, to gain a better understanding of the nature and aetiology of methamphetamine psychosis. METHODS: Papers considered were historical case reports and case series of psychosis relating to the use and misuse of prescription amphetamine, focusing upon papers by Young & Scoville (1938), Connell (1958), and three subsequent experimental studies published in the early 1970s (Griffith 1972, Angrist & Gershon 1970 and Bell 1973), where psychosis was induced in volunteers using high-dose amphetamine and methamphetamine...
March 8, 2018: Addiction
Dominik A Moser, Gaelle E Doucet, Won Hee Lee, Alexander Rasgon, Hannah Krinsky, Evan Leibu, Alex Ing, Gunter Schumann, Natalie Rasgon, Sophia Frangou
Importance: Alterations in multiple neuroimaging phenotypes have been reported in psychotic disorders. However, neuroimaging measures can be influenced by factors that are not directly related to psychosis and may confound the interpretation of case-control differences. Therefore, a detailed characterization of the contribution of these factors to neuroimaging phenotypes in psychosis is warranted. Objective: To quantify the association between neuroimaging measures and behavioral, health, and demographic variables in psychosis using an integrated multivariate approach...
March 7, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
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