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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215046/genome-resolved-metagenomics-of-a-bioremediation-system-for-degradation-of-thiocyanate-in-mine-water-containing-suspended-solid-tailings
#1
Sumayah F Rahman, Rose S Kantor, Robert Huddy, Brian C Thomas, Andries W van Zyl, Susan T L Harrison, Jillian F Banfield
Thiocyanate (SCN(-) ) is a toxic compound that forms when cyanide (CN(-) ), used to recover gold, reacts with sulfur species. SCN(-) -degrading microbial communities have been studied, using bioreactors fed synthetic wastewater. The inclusion of suspended solids in the form of mineral tailings, during the development of the acclimatized microbial consortium, led to the selection of an active planktonic microbial community. Preliminary analysis of the community composition revealed reduced microbial diversity relative to the laboratory-based reactors operated without suspended solids...
February 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214987/severe-convulsions-and-dysmyelination-in-both-jimpy-and-cx32-47-mice-may-associate-astrocytic-l-channel-function-with-myelination-and-oligodendrocytic-connexins-with-internodal-kv-channels
#2
Y H Gerald Chaban, Ye Chen, Elna Hertz, Leif Hertz
The Jimpy mouse illustrates the importance of interactions between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. It has a mutation in Plp coding for proteolipid protein and DM20. Its behavior is normal at birth but from the age of ~2 weeks it shows severe convulsions associated with oligodendrocyte/myelination deficits and early death. A normally occurring increase in oxygen consumption by highly elevated K(+) concentrations is absent in Jimpy brain slices and cultured astrocytes, reflecting that Plp at early embryonic stages affects common precursors as also shown by the ability of conditioned medium from normal astrocytes to counteract histological abnormalities...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214986/astrocyte-sodium-signalling-and-panglial-spread-of-sodium-signals-in-brain-white-matter
#3
Behrouz Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Evelyn L Hammel, Karl W Kafitz, Christine R Rose
In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214961/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#4
EDITORIAL
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan L Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also for Chronic Kidney Disease. A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset Chronic Kidney Disease. In individuals affected by obesity, a compensatory hyperfiltration occurs to meet the heightened metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in intraglomerular pressure can damage the kidneys and raise the risk of developing Chronic Kidney Disease in the long-term...
February 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214930/investigation-of-optical-neuro-monitoring-technique-for-detection-of-maintenance-and-emergence-states-during-general-anesthesia
#5
Gabriela Hernandez-Meza, Meltem Izzetoglu, Mary Osbakken, Michael Green, Hawa Abubakar, Kurtulus Izzetoglu
The American Society of Anesthesiologist recommends peripheral physiological monitoring during general anesthesia, which offers no information regarding the effects of anesthetics on the brain. Since no "gold standard" method exists for this evaluation, such a technique is needed to ensure patient comfort, procedure quality and safety. In this study we investigated functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as possible monitor of anesthetic effects on the prefrontal cortex. Anesthetic drugs, such as sevoflurane, suppress the cerebral metabolism and alter the cerebral blood flow...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214892/baicalin-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-and-myocardial-remodeling-in-a-chronic-pressure-overload-mice-model
#6
Yanqing Zhang, Pingping Liao, Meng'en Zhu, Wei Li, Dan Hu, Siming Guan, Long Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Baicalin has been shown to be effective for various animal models of cardiovascular diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis and myocardial ischaemic injury. However, whether baicalin plays a role in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Here we investigated the protective effects of baicalin on cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and explored the potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: C57BL/6J-mice were treated with baicalin or vehicle following transverse aortic constriction or Sham surgery for up to 8 weeks, and at different time points, cardiac function and heart size measurement and histological and biochemical examination were performed...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214891/up-regulated-atf4-expression-increases-cell-sensitivity-to-apoptosis-in-response-to-radiation
#7
Ying Zong, Shijie Feng, Jinwei Cheng, Chenlin Yu, Guocai Lu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a member of the activating transcription factor family which regulates the expression of genes involved in amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis and ER stress responses. ATF4 is also over-expressed in human solid tumors, although its effect on responsiveness to radiation is largely unexplored. METHODS: Real-time PCR was used to detect ATF4 mRNA levels in cells treated with different doses of 60Coγ radiation...
February 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214879/thiamine-deprivation-produces-a-liver-atp-deficit-and-metabolic-and-genomic-effects-in-mice-findings-are-parallel-to-those-of-biotin-deficiency-and-have-implications-for-energy-disorders
#8
Alain de J Hernandez-Vazquez, Josue Andres Garcia-Sanchez, Elizabeth Moreno-Arriola, Ana Salvador-Adriano, Daniel Ortega-Cuellar, Antonio Velazquez-Arellano
Thiamine is one of several essential cofactors for ATP generation. Its deficiency, like in beriberi and in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, has been studied for many decades. However, its mechanism of action is still not completely understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Since it acts as a coenzyme for dehydrogenases of pyruvate, branched-chain keto acids, and ketoglutarate, its nutritional privation is partly a phenocopy of inborn errors of metabolism, among them maple syrup urine disease. In the present paper, we report metabolic and genomic findings in mice deprived of thiamine...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214871/restraint-stress-during-pregnancy-rapidly-raises-kynurenic-acid-levels-in-mouse-placenta-and-fetal-brain
#9
Francesca M Notarangelo, Robert Schwarcz
Stressful events during pregnancy adversely affect brain development and may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders later in life. Early changes in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) degradation, which contains several neuroactive metabolites, including kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and quinolinic acid (QUIN), may constitute a molecular link between prenatal stress and delayed pathological consequences. To begin testing this hypothesis experimentally, we examined the effects of a 2-h restraint stress on KP metabolism in pregnant FVB/N mice on gestational day 17...
February 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214864/a-comparative-study-of-intravenous-injection-form-and-oral-jelly-form-of-alendronate-sodium-hydrate-for-bone-mineral-disorder-after-gastrectomy
#10
Chikara Kunisaki, Yusaku Tanaka, Takashi Kosaka, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Sho Sato, Hideaki Suematsu, Norio Yukawa, Kei Sato, Yusuke Izumisawa, Hirotoshi Akiyama, Masataka Taguri, Takeharu Yamanaka, Itaru Endo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteoporosis is found to have high prevalence after gastrectomy and therefore, it is important to prevent this condition by means of effective medication, such as alendronate sodium hydrate. METHODS: A total number of 48 gastric cancer patients diagnosed with osteoporosis after R0 gastrectomy was registered in this study between December 2013 and August 2014. Twenty-three patients received intravenous (i.v.) alendronate sodium hydrate and 25 patients received the drug in an oral jelly form...
February 18, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214853/chronic-consumption-of-artificial-sweetener-in-packets-or-tablets-and-type-2-diabetes-risk-evidence-from-the-e3n-european-prospective-investigation-into-cancer-and-nutrition-study
#11
Guy Fagherazzi, Gaëlle Gusto, Aurélie Affret, Francesca Romana Mancini, Courtney Dow, Beverley Balkau, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Fabrice Bonnet, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
BACKGROUND: The influence of artificial sweeteners on metabolic diseases is controversial. Artificially sweetened beverages have been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) but biases and reverse causation have been suspected to have influenced the observed association. In addition, it has been suggested that investigation into the relationship between the frequency and duration of the consumption of packet or tablet artificial sweeteners and T2D risk is necessary...
February 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214830/hyper-elongation-in-colorectal-cancer-tissue-cerotic-acid-is-a-potential-novel-serum-metabolic-marker-of-colorectal-malignancies
#12
Adriana Mika, Jaroslaw Kobiela, Aleksandra Czumaj, Michał Chmielewski, Piotr Stepnowski, Tomasz Sledzinski
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) cells show some alterations of lipid metabolism. Elongation of fatty acids (FA) has not been studied in CRC tissues thus far. The aim of this study was to verify if CRC specimens and normal colon mucosa differ in terms of their levels of very long-chain FAs, a product of FA elongation. Moreover, the expression of elongase genes has been studied in normal tissue and CRC. Finally, we searched for some specific products of FA elongation in serum of CRC patients...
February 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214776/the-metabolic-impact-of-extracellular-nitrite-on-aerobic-metabolism-of-paracoccus-denitrificans
#13
K R Hartop, M J Sullivan, G Giannopoulos, A J Gates, P L Bond, Z Yuan, T A Clarke, G Rowley, D J Richardson
Nitrite, in equilibrium with free nitrous acid (FNA), can inhibit both aerobic and anaerobic growth of microbial communities through bactericidal activities that have considerable potential for control of microbial growth in a range of water systems. There has been much focus on the effect of nitrite/FNA on anaerobic metabolism and so, to enhance understanding of the metabolic impact of nitrite/FNA on aerobic metabolism, a study was undertaken with a model denitrifying bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222...
February 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214775/role-of-c-di-gmp-in-anammox-aggregation-and-systematic-analysis-of-its-turnover-protein-in-candidatus-jettenia-caeni
#14
Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu, Xi Tang, Fenglin Yang
The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process has been recognized as a promising sewage treatment approach. Considering the susceptibility, it is meaningful to study the behaviors of anammox bacteria under the unfavorable conditions. Here, we found that anammox bacteria more probably tended to aggregation by the regulation of c-di-GMP against the unfavorable environmental stresses (low temperature, aerobic condition and low pH). Further using multiple protein sequence alignment, we systematically examined the functionality of thirteen genes encoding putative c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes in anammox organism Candidatus Jettenia caeni, revealing most of the predicted enzymes were predicted to be active...
February 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214752/metabolic-syndrome-and-cardiovascular-risk-among-institutionalized-patients-with-schizophrenia-receiving-long-term-tertiary-care
#15
Lee Seng Esmond Seow, Siow Ann Chong, Peizhi Wang, Saleha Shafie, Hui Lin Ong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk are highly prevalent among individuals with schizophrenia. This study aimed to determine the cardiometabolic profile and the associated risk factors in a group of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder receiving prolonged hospital care in the only tertiary psychiatric institution in Singapore. METHODS: Patients residing in long stay wards who were hospitalized for a minimum period of 1year were recruited...
February 2, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214707/shortcuts-to-a-functional-adipose-tissue-the-role-of-small-non-coding-rnas
#16
REVIEW
Bruna B Brandão, Beatriz A Guerra, Marcelo A Mori
Metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes are a major public health issue worldwide. These diseases are often linked to a dysfunctional adipose tissue. Fat is a large, heterogenic, pleiotropic and rather complex tissue. It is found in virtually all cavities of the human body, shows unique plasticity among tissues, and harbors many cell types in addition to its main functional unit - the adipocyte. Adipose tissue function varies depending on the localization of the fat depot, the cell composition of the tissue and the energy status of the organism...
February 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214685/role-of-laxative-and-antioxidant-properties-of-malva-sylvestris-leaves-in-constipation-treatment
#17
Mohamed-Amine Jabri, Dalanda Wannes, Najla Hajji, Mohsen Sakly, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai
INTRODUCTION: Mallaw (Malva sylvestris L.) is a medicinal plant who is traditionally being used as an antiulcer, laxative and anti-hemorrhoid, besides of its culinary use as a food in Tunisian cuisine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Malva sylvestris aqueous extract (MSAE) on constipation- induced by loperamide in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each: Control, Loperamide (LOP), LOP+ yohimbine (2mg/kg b...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214648/toxicity-degradation-and-metabolic-fate-of-ibuprofen-on-freshwater-diatom-navicula-sp
#18
Tengda Ding, Mengting Yang, Junmin Zhang, Bo Yang, Kunde Lin, Juying Li, Jay Gan
Ibuprofen (IBU) is one of the most widely used and frequently detected human pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment. However, the toxicity of IBU on diatom and its fate remain still unkown. In the present study, the toxicity of IBU on the diatom was evaluated by the algal growth rate, the chlorophyll-a and carotenoids contents. The degradation of IBU including in particular the potential for the formation of incomplete degradation products was also explored. Biochemical characteristics of Navicula sp. were significantly inhibited at IBU concentrations up to 50mgL(-1) after 10days of exposure...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214560/mitochondrial-genotype-modulates-mtdna-copy-number-and-organismal-phenotype-in-drosophila
#19
Tiina S Salminen, Marcos T Oliveira, Giuseppe Cannino, Päivi Lillsunde, Howard T Jacobs, Laurie S Kaguni
We evaluated the role of natural mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation on mtDNA copy number, biochemical features and life history traits in Drosophila cybrid strains. We demonstrate the effects of both coding region and non-coding A+T region variation on mtDNA copy number, and demonstrate that copy number correlates with mitochondrial biochemistry and metabolically important traits such as development time. For example, high mtDNA copy number correlates with longer development times. Our findings support the hypothesis that mtDNA copy number is modulated by mtDNA genome variation and suggest that it affects OXPHOS efficiency through changes in the organization of the respiratory membrane complexes to influence organismal phenotype...
February 15, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214558/small-heterodimer-partner-shp-contributes-to-insulin-resistance-in-cardiomyocytes
#20
Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo, Dipanjan Chanda, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Marie Miglianico, Will A Coumans, Emma Barroso, Marta Tajes, Joost Jfp Luiken, Jan Fc Glatz, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera, Dietbert Neumann
Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an atypical nuclear receptor expressed in heart that has been shown to inhibit the hypertrophic response. Here, we assessed the role of SHP in cardiac metabolism and inflammation. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) displayed glucose intolerance accompanied by increased cardiac mRNA levels of Shp. In HL-1 cardiomyocytes, SHP overexpression inhibited both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and impaired the insulin signalling pathway (evidenced by reduced AKT and AS160 phosphorylation), similar to insulin resistant cells generated by high palmitate/high insulin treatment (HP/HI; 500μM/100nM)...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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