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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888489/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-hypertension
#1
Masashi Demura, Kiyofumi Saijoh
DNA methylation is the covalent modification of DNA that affects its function, without altering DNA sequences. Three important roles of DNA methylation include intrauterine programming, acquired predisposition, and transgenerational inheritance. A wide variety of factors can affect DNA methylation. Intrauterine programming involves drastic changes in DNA methylation patterns during cellular development and differentiation, which have a long-lasting effect on the predisposition of offspring. Influences from the mother, including maternal nutritional status, modify intrauterine epigenetic programming...
November 26, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846492/transgenerational-inheritance-models-and-mechanisms-of-non-dna-sequence-based-inheritance
#2
REVIEW
Eric A Miska, Anne C Ferguson-Smith
Heritability has traditionally been thought to be a characteristic feature of the genetic material of an organism-notably, its DNA. However, it is now clear that inheritance not based on DNA sequence exists in multiple organisms, with examples found in microbes, plants, and invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In mammals, the molecular mechanisms have been challenging to elucidate, in part due to difficulties in designing robust models and approaches. Here we review some of the evidence, concepts, and potential mechanisms of non-DNA sequence-based transgenerational inheritance...
October 7, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826318/epigenetic-inheritance-across-the-landscape
#3
REVIEW
Amy V Whipple, Liza M Holeski
The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819277/the-transgenerational-inheritance-of-autism-like-phenotypes-in-mice-exposed-to-valproic-acid-during-pregnancy
#4
Chang Soon Choi, Edson Luck Gonzales, Ki Chan Kim, Sung Min Yang, Ji-Woon Kim, Darine Froy Mabunga, Jae Hoon Cheong, Seol-Heui Han, Geon Ho Bahn, Chan Young Shin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneously pervasive developmental disorder in which various genetic and environmental factors are believed to underlie its development. Recently, epigenetics has been suggested as a novel concept for ASD aetiology with a proposition that epigenetic marks can be transgenerationally inherited. Based on this assumption of epigenetics, we investigated the transgenerational inheritance of ASD-like behaviours and their related synaptic changes in the VPA animal model of ASD...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781385/an-epigenetic-perspective-on-the-midwife-toad-experiments-of-paul-kammerer-1880-1926
#5
REVIEW
Alexander O Vargas, Quirin Krabichler, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna
Paul Kammerer was the most outstanding neo-Lamarckian experimentalist of the early 20th century. He reported spectacular results in the midwife toad, including crosses of environmentally modified toads with normal toads, where acquired traits were inherited in Mendelian fashion. Accusations of fraud generated a great scandal, ending with Kammerer's suicide. Controversy reignited in the 1970s, when journalist Arthur Koestler argued against these accusations. Since then, others have argued that Kammerer's results, even if real, were not groundbreaking and could be explained by somatic plasticity, inadvertent selection, or conventional genetics...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748375/paramutation-and-related-phenomena-in-diverse-species
#6
Jay B Hollick
Paramutation describes a process that results in heritable epigenetic changes of gene regulation and trans-homologue interactions. Recent discoveries in model organisms have highlighted roles for the respective nuclear systems that regulate transposons via small RNA molecules both for paramutation and for defining transgenerational inheritance. Differences between plants and animals may influence specific transmission behaviours but the involvement of small RNA-based mechanisms identifies a unifying eukaryotic theme...
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744335/epigenetic-inheritance-of-proteostasis-and-ageing
#7
Cheryl Li, Olivia Casanueva
Abundant evidence shows that the genome is not as static as once thought and that gene expression can be reversibly modulated by the environment. In some cases, these changes can be transmitted to the next generation even if the environment has reverted. Such transgenerational epigenetic inheritance requires that information be stored in the germline in response to exogenous stressors. One of the most elusive questions in the field of epigenetic inheritance is the identity of such inherited factor(s). Answering this question would allow us to understand how the environment can shape human populations for multiple generations and may help to explain the rapid rise in obesity and neurodegenerative diseases in modern society...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732791/plant-transgenerational-epigenetics
#8
Leandro Quadrana, Vincent Colot
Transgenerational epigenetics is defined in opposition to developmental epigenetics and implies an absence of resetting of epigenetic states between generations. Unlike mammals, plants appear to be particularly prone to this type of inheritance. In this review, we summarize our knowledge about transgenerational epigenetics in plants, which entails heritable changes in DNA methylation. We emphasize the role of transposable elements and other repeat sequences in the creation of epimutable alleles. We also argue that because reprogramming of DNA methylation across generations seems limited in plants, the inheritance of DNA methylation defects results from the failure to reinforce rather than reset this modification during sexual reproduction...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652382/a-historical-and-evolutionary-perspective-on-the-biological-significance-of-circulating-dna-and-extracellular-vesicles
#9
Janine Aucamp, Abel J Bronkhorst, Christoffel P S Badenhorst, Piet J Pretorius
The discovery of quantitative and qualitative differences of the circulating DNA (cirDNA) between healthy and diseased individuals inclined researchers to investigate these molecules as potential biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis and prognosis of various pathologies. However, except for some prenatal tests, cirDNA analyses have not been readily translated to clinical practice due to a lack of knowledge regarding its composition, function, and biological and evolutionary origins. We believe that, to fully grasp the nature of cirDNA and the extracellular vesicles (EVs) and protein complexes with which it is associated, it is necessary to probe the early and badly neglected work that contributed to the discovery and development of these concepts...
September 20, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647895/evolutionary-learning-of-adaptation-to-varying-environments-through-a-transgenerational-feedback
#10
BingKan Xue, Stanislas Leibler
Organisms can adapt to a randomly varying environment by creating phenotypic diversity in their population, a phenomenon often referred to as "bet hedging." The favorable level of phenotypic diversity depends on the statistics of environmental variations over timescales of many generations. Could organisms gather such long-term environmental information to adjust their phenotypic diversity? We show that this process can be achieved through a simple and general learning mechanism based on a transgenerational feedback: The phenotype of the parent is progressively reinforced in the distribution of phenotypes among the offspring...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618130/histological-and-transcriptomic-changes-in-male-zebrafish-testes-due-to-early-life-exposure-to-low-level-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
#11
Bridget B Baker, Jeremiah S Yee, Danielle N Meyer, Doris Yang, Tracie R Baker
We have shown that zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an excellent model for evaluating the link between early life stage exposure to environmental chemicals and disease in adulthood and subsequent unexposed generations. Previously, we used this model to identify transgenerational effects of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD]) on skeletal development, sex ratio, and reproductive capacity. Transgenerational inheritance of TCDD toxicity, notably decreased reproductive capacity, appears to be mediated through the male germ line...
October 2016: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578043/epigenetics-in-male-reproduction-effect-of-paternal-diet-on-sperm-quality-and-offspring-health
#12
REVIEW
Undraga Schagdarsurengin, Klaus Steger
Epigenetic inheritance and its underlying molecular mechanisms are among the most intriguing areas of current biological and medical research. To date, studies have shown that both female and male germline development follow distinct paths of epigenetic events and both oocyte and sperm possess their own unique epigenomes. Fertilizing male and female germ cells deliver not only their haploid genomes but also their epigenomes, which contain the code for preimplantation and postimplantation reprogramming and embryonal development...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563304/epigenetic-control-of-defense-signaling-and-priming-in-plants
#13
REVIEW
Nino A Espinas, Hidetoshi Saze, Yusuke Saijo
Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518304/genetic-and-sex-specific-transgenerational-effects-of-a-high-fat-diet-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Kelly Dew-Budd, Julie Jarnigan, Laura K Reed
An organism's phenotype is the product of its environment and genotype, but an ancestor's environment can also be a contributing factor. The recent increase in caloric intake and decrease in physical activity of developed nations' populations is contributing to deteriorating health and making the study of the longer term impacts of a changing lifestyle a priority. The dietary habits of ancestors have been shown to affect phenotype in several organisms, including humans, mice, and the fruit fly. Whether the ancestral dietary effect is purely environmental or if there is a genetic interaction with the environment passed down for multiple generations, has not been determined previously...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496588/demethylation-and-re-methylation-dynamics-in-transgenerational-epigenetic-inheritance
#15
Melvin Khee-Shing Leow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486249/erasure-of-dna-methylation-genomic-imprints-and-epimutations-in-a-primordial-germ-cell-model-derived-from-mouse-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Norikatsu Miyoshi, Jente M Stel, Keiko Shioda, Na Qu, Junko Odahima, Shino Mitsunaga, Xiangfan Zhang, Makoto Nagano, Konrad Hochedlinger, Kurt J Isselbacher, Toshi Shioda
The genome-wide depletion of 5-methylcytosines (5meCs) caused by passive dilution through DNA synthesis without daughter strand methylation and active enzymatic processes resulting in replacement of 5meCs with unmethylated cytosines is a hallmark of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Although recent studies have shown that in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) mimics the in vivo differentiation of epiblast cells to PGCs, how DNA methylation status of PGCLCs resembles the dynamics of 5meC erasure in embryonic PGCs remains controversial...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466489/obesity-and-intestinal-tumorigenesis-in-adult-min-mice-from-early-life-high-fat-diet-exposure-were-not-inherited-transgenerationally
#17
Inger-Lise Steffensen
BACKGROUND/AIM: Exposure to 45% fat diet in utero and during nursing increased body weight and small intestinal tumor numbers in adult F1 multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min/+) mice, implicating that early-life obesogenic conditions predispose for obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis later in life. In this study, it was examined whether these effects were transferred to the next two generations. RESULTS: In F2 mice, exposed to the obesogenic diet as germ cells within the embryonic F1 mice, there were no consistent differences in body weight, blood glucose levels or small intestinal tumor numbers whether their mother or father, both, or no parents were exposed to 45% vs...
August 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446239/epigenetics-and-inheritance-of-phenotype-variation-in-livestock
#18
REVIEW
Kostas A Triantaphyllopoulos, Ioannis Ikonomopoulos, Andrew J Bannister
Epigenetic inheritance plays a crucial role in many biological processes, such as gene expression in early embryo development, imprinting and the silencing of transposons. It has recently been established that epigenetic effects can be inherited from one generation to the next. Here, we review examples of epigenetic mechanisms governing animal phenotype and behaviour, and we discuss the importance of these findings in respect to animal studies, and livestock in general. Epigenetic parameters orchestrating transgenerational effects, as well as heritable disorders, and the often-overlooked areas of livestock immunity and stress, are also discussed...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413106/methoxychlor-and-vinclozolin-induce-rapid-changes-in-intercellular-and-intracellular-signaling-in-liver-progenitor-cells
#19
Pavel Babica, Rimma Zurabian, Esha R Kumar, Rajus Chopra, Maxwell J Mianecki, Joon-Suk Park, Libor Jaša, James E Trosko, Brad L Upham
Methoxychlor (MXC) and vinclozolin (VIN) are well-recognized endocrine disrupting chemicals known to alter epigenetic regulations and transgenerational inheritance; however, non-endocrine disruption endpoints are also important. Thus, we determined the effects of MXC and VIN on the dysregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. Both chemicals induced a rapid dysregulation of GJIC at non-cytotoxic doses, with 30 min EC50 values for GJIC inhibition being 10 µM for MXC and 126 µM for VIN...
September 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399791/phenotype-as-agent-for-epigenetic-inheritance
#20
John S Torday, William B Miller
The conventional understanding of phenotype is as a derivative of descent with modification through Darwinian random mutation and natural selection. Recent research has revealed Lamarckian inheritance as a major transgenerational mechanism for environmental action on genomes whose extent is determined, in significant part, by germ line cells during meiosis and subsequent stages of embryological development. In consequence, the role of phenotype can productively be reconsidered. The possibility that phenotype is directed towards the effective acquisition of epigenetic marks in consistent reciprocation with the environment during the life cycle of an organism is explored...
2016: Biology
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