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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341420/brain-metastasization-of-breast-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Tânia Custódio-Santos, Mafalda Videira, Maria Alexandra Brito
Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322181/epithelial-mesenchymal-and-hybrid-epithelial-mesenchymal-phenotypes-and-their-clinical-relevance-in-cancer-metastasis
#2
Minal Garg
Cancer metastasis occurs through local invasion of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), intravasation, transportation to distant sites, and their extravasation followed by colonisation at secondary sites. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a normal developmental phenomenon, but its aberrant activation confers tumour cells with enhanced cell motility, metastatic properties, resistant to therapies and cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype in epithelium-derived carcinoma. Experimental studies from various research papers have been reviewed to determine the factors, which interlink cancer stemness and cellular plasticity with EMT...
March 21, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319067/the-histone-demethylase-kdm3a-and-its-downstream-target-mcam-promote-ewing-sarcoma-cell-migration-and-metastasis
#3
M Sechler, J K Parrish, D K Birks, P Jedlicka
Ewing Sarcoma is the second most common solid pediatric malignant neoplasm of bone and soft tissue. Driven by EWS/Ets, or rarely variant, oncogenic fusions, Ewing Sarcoma is a biologically and clinically aggressive disease with a high propensity for metastasis. However, the mechanisms underpinning Ewing Sarcoma metastasis are currently not well understood. In the present study, we identify and characterize a novel metastasis-promotional pathway in Ewing Sarcoma, involving the histone demethylase KDM3A, previously identified by our laboratory as a new cancer-promoting gene in this disease...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315783/role-of-protein-glycosylation-in-cancer-metastasis
#4
REVIEW
Leticia Oliveira-Ferrer, Karen Legler, Karin Milde-Langosch
Although altered glycosylation has been detected in human cancer cells decades ago, only investigations in the last years have enormously increased our knowledge about the details of protein glycosylation and its role in tumour progression. Many proteins, which are heavily glycosylated, i.e. adhesion proteins or proteases, play an important role in cancer metastasis that represents the crucial and frequently life-threatening step in progression of most tumour types. Compared to normal tissue, tumour cells often show altered glycosylation patters with appearance of new tumour-specific antigens...
March 15, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299902/when-metastasis-spns-out-of-control-coverage-of-genome-wide-in-vivo-screen-identifies-novel-host-regulators-of-metastatic-colonization
#5
Marie R Webster, Curtis H Kugel, Ashani T Weeraratna
Metastasis is the major cause of death from cancer in patients. Invasive tumor cells that leave the primary tumor must undergo a strenuous journey including extravasation, survival in the blood, intravasation into the distal site, and proliferation in a new microenvironment to form metastatic colonies. The tumor cells that are successful in forming colonies have dodged multiple perils including evading immune defenses and oxidative stress in the circulatory system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
March 16, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278128/cancer-metastasis-tricks-of-the-trade
#6
REVIEW
Rabia Zeeshan, Zeeshan Mutahir
Decades of cancer research have unraveled genetic, epigenetic and molecular pathways leading to plausible therapeutic targets; many of which hold great promise in improving clinical outcomes. Metastatic tumors become evident early on and are one of the major causes of cancer-related fatalities worldwide. This review depicts the sequential events of cancer metastasis. Genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity influences local tumor cell invasion, intravasation, survival in circulation, extravasation and colonization to distant sites...
March 9, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277839/zebrafish-xenograft-models-of-cancer-and-metastasis-for-drug-discovery
#7
Hannah K Brown, Kristina Schiavone, Simon Tazzyman, Dominique Heymann, Timothy Ja Chico
Patients with metastatic cancer suffer the highest rate of cancer-related death, but existing animal models of metastasis have disadvantages that limit our ability to understand this process. The zebrafish is increasingly used for cancer modelling, particularly xenografting of human cancer cell lines, and drug discovery, and may provide novel scientific and therapeutic insights. However, this model system remains underexploited. Areas covered: The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the zebrafish xenograft model for the study of cancer, metastasis and drug discovery...
March 1, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240745/the-biological-and-prognostic-significance-of-angiotropism-in-uveal-melanoma
#8
Raymond L Barnhill, Mengliang Ye, Aude Batistella, Marc-Henri Stern, Sergio Roman-Roman, Rémi Dendale, Olivier Lantz, Sophie Piperno-Neumann, Laurence Desjardins, Nathalie Cassoux, Claire Lugassy
Angiotropism is a marker of extravascular migration of melanoma cells along vascular and other structures and a prognostic factor in cutaneous melanoma. Because of this biological and prognostic importance in cutaneous melanoma, angiotropism was studied in uveal melanoma (UM). This retrospective study performed at a single ocular oncology referral center included 89 patients from the study period 2006-2008. All patients were diagnosed with UM from the choroid and/or ciliary body. All patients underwent enucleation for prognostic purposes and definitive therapy...
February 27, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238683/endothelial-notch1-activity-facilitates-metastasis
#9
Elfriede Wieland, Juan Rodriguez-Vita, Sven S Liebler, Carolin Mogler, Iris Moll, Stefanie E Herberich, Elisa Espinet, Esther Herpel, Amitai Menuchin, Jenny Chang-Claude, Michael Hoffmeister, Christoffer Gebhardt, Hermann Brenner, Andreas Trumpp, Christian W Siebel, Markus Hecker, Jochen Utikal, David Sprinzak, Andreas Fischer
Endothelial cells (ECs) provide angiocrine factors orchestrating tumor progression. Here, we show that activated Notch1 receptors (N1ICD) are frequently observed in ECs of human carcinomas and melanoma, and in ECs of the pre-metastatic niche in mice. EC N1ICD expression in melanoma correlated with shorter progression-free survival. Sustained N1ICD activity induced EC senescence, expression of chemokines and the adhesion molecule VCAM1. This promoted neutrophil infiltration, tumor cell (TC) adhesion to the endothelium, intravasation, lung colonization, and postsurgical metastasis...
February 12, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210073/macrophages-as-key-drivers-of-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#10
REVIEW
Sebastian R Nielsen, Michael C Schmid
Macrophages are one of the most abundant immune cells in the tumour microenvironment of solid tumours and their presence correlates with reduced survival in most cancers. Macrophages are present at all stages of tumour progression and stimulate angiogenesis, tumour cell invasion, and intravasation at the primary site. At the metastatic site, macrophages and monocytes prepare for the arrival of disseminated tumour cells and promote their extravasation and survival by inhibiting immune-mediated clearance or by directly engaging with tumour cells to activate prosurvival signalling pathways...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164421/tissue-engineered-3d-microvessel-and-capillary-network-models-for-the-study-of-vascular-phenomena
#11
Max I Bogorad, Jackson DeStefano, Andrew D Wong, Peter C Searson
Advances in tissue-engineering, cell biology, microfabrication, and microfluidics, have led to the development of a wide range of vascular models. Here we review platforms based on templated microvessel fabrication to generate increasingly complex vascular models of: (1) the tumor microenvironment, (2) occluded microvessels, and (3) perfused capillary networks. We outline fabrication guidelines and demonstrate a number of experimental methods for probing vascular function such as permeability measurements, tumor cell intravasation, flow characterization, and endothelial cell morphology and proliferation...
February 5, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163189/future-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-the-melanoma-clinical-and-research-laboratory-settings
#12
Luisa M De Souza, Bailey M Robertson, Gavin P Robertson
Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have become a field of interest for oncologists based on the premise that they constitute the underpinning for metastatic dissemination. The lethal nature of cancer is no longer attributed to solid tumor formation, but rather to the process of metastasis; shifting the focus of current studies towards the isolation and identification of metastatic progenitors, such as CTCs. CTCs originate from primary tumor masses that undergo morphologic and genetic alterations, which involve the release of mesenchymal-like cancer cells into the bloodstream, capable of invading nearby tissues for secondary tumor development...
February 2, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104442/prostaglandin-e2-receptor-4-mediates-renal-cell-carcinoma-intravasation-and-metastasis
#13
Yushan Zhang, Hamsa Thayele Purayil, Joseph B Black, Francis Fetto, Lauren D Lynch, Jude N Masannat, Yehia Daaka
Treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are limited. In this study, we investigated impact of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor 4 (EP4) on RCC metastasis. We found that knockdown of EP4 in two RCC cell lines, ACHN and SN12C, does not affect xenograft tumor take or growth rate in mice, but reduces metastasis by decreasing tumor intravasation. Using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, we confirmed that blockade of EP4 signaling inhibits tumor intravasation. In vitro studies associated EP4 expression and activity with RCC cell transendothelial migration (TEM)...
April 10, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103936/elevated-collagen-i-augments-tumor-progressive-signals-intravasation-and-metastasis-of-prolactin-induced-estrogen-receptor-alpha-positive-mammary-tumor-cells
#14
Craig E Barcus, Kathleen A O'Leary, Jennifer L Brockman, Debra E Rugowski, Yuming Liu, Nancy Garcia, Menggang Yu, Patricia J Keely, Kevin W Eliceiri, Linda A Schuler
BACKGROUND: The development and progression of estrogen receptor alpha positive (ERα+) breast cancer has been linked epidemiologically to prolactin. However, activation of the canonical mediator of prolactin, STAT5, is associated with more differentiated cancers and better prognoses. We have reported that density/stiffness of the extracellular matrix potently modulates the repertoire of prolactin signals in human ERα + breast cancer cells in vitro: stiff matrices shift the balance from the Janus kinase (JAK)2/STAT5 cascade toward pro-tumor progressive extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signals, driving invasion...
January 19, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075031/angiotropic-syringomatous-carcinoma
#15
Eri Katayama, Hiroshi Saruta, Aya Nanri, Takekuni Nakama, Chika Ohata
Syringomatous carcinoma (SC) is a slow-growing malignant skin tumor that usually affects the face or scalp. An 83-year-old female developed SC on the sole, a rare location. Histopathologically, numerous ducts with few keratinizing cysts were seen in the upper dermis, and cords, strands and nests with sclerotic stroma were seen in the deep dermis and subcutis. In addition to the perineural and intraneural invasion of the tumor, the tumor cells had also invaded the vessel walls. There was no intravasation of tumor cells or interruption of the endothelium...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066805/evaluation-of-soft-tissue-sarcoma-response-to-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-using-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Wei Huang, Brooke R Beckett, Alina Tudorica, Janelle M Meyer, Aneela Afzal, Yiyi Chen, Atiya Mansoor, James B Hayden, Yee-Cheen Doung, Arthur Y Hung, Megan L Holtorf, Torrie J Aston, Christopher W Ryan
This study aims to assess the utility of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in comparison with imaging tumor size for early prediction and evaluation of soft tissue sarcoma response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. In total, 20 patients with intermediate- to high-grade soft tissue sarcomas received either a phase I trial regimen of sorafenib + chemoradiotherapy (n = 8) or chemoradiotherapy only (n = 12), and underwent DCE-MRI at baseline, after 2 weeks of treatment with sorafenib or after the first chemotherapy cycle, and after therapy completion...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979841/modeling-alveolar-soft-part-sarcoma-unveils-novel-mechanisms-of-metastasis
#17
Miwa Tanaka, Mizuki Homme, Yukari Yamazaki, Rikuka Shimizu, Yutaka Takazawa, Takuro Nakamura
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a slowly growing, but highly metastatic, sarcoma that affects adolescents and young adults. Its characteristic alveolar structure is constituted by tumor cell nests and an abundant vascular network that is responsible for metastatic activities at the initial stage. Here, we have generated a new ex vivo mouse model for ASPS that well recapitulates associated angiogenic and metastatic phenotypes. In mouse ASPS, the tumor cells frequently showed tumor intravasation, with the intravascular tumor cells presenting as organoid structures covered with hemangiopericytes, which is also observed in human ASPS...
December 15, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974798/mechanism-of-early-dissemination-and-metastasis-in-her2-mammary-cancer
#18
Kathryn L Harper, Maria Soledad Sosa, David Entenberg, Hedayatollah Hosseini, Julie F Cheung, Rita Nobre, Alvaro Avivar-Valderas, Chandandaneep Nagi, Nomeda Girnius, Roger J Davis, Eduardo F Farias, John Condeelis, Christoph A Klein, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths; metastatic lesions develop from disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) that can remain dormant. Metastasis-initiating cells are thought to originate from a subpopulation present in progressed, invasive tumours. However, DCCs detected in patients before the manifestation of breast-cancer metastasis contain fewer genetic abnormalities than primary tumours or than DCCs from patients with metastases. These findings, and those in pancreatic cancer and melanoma models, indicate that dissemination might occur during the early stages of tumour evolution...
December 14, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935881/-contrast-free-mr-phlebography-as-a-method-of-screening-of-phlebothromboses-and-extravasal-compression-of-the-inferior-vena-cava-and-its-basin
#19
V V Shebryakov, G G Karmazanovsky, Yu M Stoiko, K V Mazaishvili, D K Lyutarevich, S Yu Kim, M V Fel'dsherov, M N Yashkin
The study was aimed at assessing possibilities and determining diagnostic significance of the method of contrast-free magnetic resonance phlebography (MR phlebography) in diagnosis of diseases of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and its basin. Presented herein is experience with examining a total of 74 patients at two therapeutic-diagnostic facilities: the National Medical Surgical Centre named after N.I. Pirogov and the Medical Diagnostic Centre "Ramsey Diagnostics". The studies were carried out on magnetic resonance tomographs "Philips Intera Nova" and "GE Optima MR360", using a special protocol of contrast-free MR-phlebography in consequences at free breathing, followed by 3D reconstruction and processing of the obtained images as MIP and 3D...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901093/macrophage-dependent-tumor-cell-transendothelial-migration-is-mediated-by-notch1-mena-inv-initiated-invadopodium-formation
#20
Jeanine Pignatelli, Jose Javier Bravo-Cordero, Minna Roh-Johnson, Saumil J Gandhi, Yarong Wang, Xiaoming Chen, Robert J Eddy, Alice Xue, Robert H Singer, Louis Hodgson, Maja H Oktay, John S Condeelis
The process of intravasation involving transendothelial migration is a key step in metastatic spread. How the triple cell complex composed of a macrophage, Mena over-expressing tumor cell and endothelial cell, called the tumor microenvironment of metastasis (TMEM), facilitates tumor cell transendothelial migration is not completely understood. Previous work has shown that the physical contact between a macrophage and tumor cell results in the formation of invadopodia, actin-rich matrix degrading protrusions, important for tumor cell invasion and transendothelial migration and tumor cell dissemination...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
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