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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458190/cannabinoids-prevent-depressive-like-symptoms-and-alterations-in-bdnf-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-ptsd
#1
Or Burstein, Noa Shoshan, Ravid Doron, Irit Akirav
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition highly comorbid with depression. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are suggestively involved in both disorders. We examined whether cannabinoids can prevent the long-term depressive-like symptoms induced by exposure to the shock and situational reminders (SRs) model of PTSD. The CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.), the fatty acid hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle were administered 2 h after severe shock...
February 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456928/behavioural-and-emotional-disorders-in-childhood-a-brief-overview-for-paediatricians
#2
REVIEW
Michael O Ogundele
Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454288/apocynum-venetum-leaf-extract-reverses-depressive-like-behaviors-in-chronically-stressed-rats-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#3
Xiangting Li, Ting Wu, Zhonghai Yu, Tingting Li, Jingsi Zhang, Zhennian Zhang, Min Cai, Wen Zhang, Jun Xiang, Dingfang Cai
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common but serious psychiatric disorder, but current treatments are inadequate for approximately half of the patients with MDD. Thus, better methods of treatment are urgently needed. This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanism of Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CUMS rat model of depression was used to investigate the antidepressant-like activity and relevant mechanism of AVLE (30, 60, and 125 mg/kg, i...
February 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454180/tryptophan-kynurenine-and-lipid-related-metabolites-as-blood-biomarkers-for-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-an-exploratory-pilot-case-control-study
#4
Nobuki Kuwano, Takahiro A Kato, Daiki Setoyama, Mina Sato-Kasai, Norihiro Shimokawa, Kohei Hayakawa, Masahiro Ohgidani, Noriaki Sagata, Hiroaki Kubo, Junji Kishimoto, Dongchon Kang, Shigenob Kanba
BACKGROUND: Early intervention in depression has been critical to prevent its negative impact including suicide. Recent blood biomarker studies for major depressive disorder (MDD) have suggested that tryptophan-kynurenine and lipid related metabolites are involved in the pathophysiology of MDD. However, there have been limited studies investigating these blood biomarkers in first-episode drug-naïve MDD, which are particularly important for early intervention in depression. METHODS: As an exploratory pilot case-control study, we examined the above blood biomarkers, and analyzed how these biomarkers are associated with clinical variables in first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients, based on metabolome/lipidome analysis...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454164/self-reported-inhibition-predicts-history-of-suicide-attempts-in-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depression
#5
André Ponsoni, Laura Damiani Branco, Charles Cotrena, Flávio Milman Shansis, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Rochele Paz Fonseca
BACKGROUND: Studies have reliably identified an association between suicide attempts and executive functions such as decision making (DM) and inhibitory control (IC) in patients with mood disorders. As such, the present study aimed to investigate the association between inhibition, DM, impulsivity and the history of suicide attempts in individuals with bipolar (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD), identifying which assessment instruments may be most strongly associated with suicide in clinical samples...
February 14, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453749/lifelong-robbery-victimisation-and-mental-disorders-at-age-18-years-brazilian-population-based-study
#6
Joseph Murray, Natália Peixoto Lima, Ana Carolina Oliveira Ruivo, Andrea Ramírez Varela, Caroline Cardozo Bortolotto, Elma Izze da Silva Magalhães, Franciéle Marabotti Costa Leite, Mariana Otero Xavier, Jean-Baptiste Pingault, Seena Fazel, Gregore Iven Mielke, Luciana Anselmi, Fernando César Wehrmeister, Helen Gonçalves, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes
PURPOSE: Urban violence is a major problem in Brazil and may contribute to mental disorders among victims. The aim of this study was to assess the association between robbery victimisation and mental health disorders in late adolescence. METHODS: At age 18 years, 4106 participants in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study were assessed. A questionnaire about history of robbery victimisation was administered, the Self-Report Questionnaire was used to screen for common mental disorders, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder...
February 17, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447051/targeting-crosstalk-between-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-and-nuclear-factor-kappa-beta-pathway-by-nrf2-activator-dimethyl-fumarate-in-epileptogenesis
#7
Neha Singh, Sheekha Vijayanti, Lekha Saha
Epilepsy is a complex, chronic neurological disorder characterized by increased and abnormal synchronization of neuronal electrical activity, which is manifested as seizures. It is associated with many comorbid conditions such as depression, anxiety, sleep disorder, psychiatric disorder etc. which consequently causes higher mortality rate. The understanding of its cellular and molecular mechanism is partial, because of which it remains an ongoing health problem, despite the increasing availability of newer antiepileptic drugs...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439083/psychological-outcomes-following-a-nurse-led-preventative-psychological-intervention-for-critically-ill-patients-poppi-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-clinical-trial-of-a-complex-intervention
#8
Alvin Richards-Belle, Paul R Mouncey, Dorothy Wade, Chris R Brewin, Lydia M Emerson, Richard Grieve, David A Harrison, Sheila Harvey, David Howell, Monty Mythen, Zia Sadique, Deborah Smyth, John Weinman, John Welch, Kathryn M Rowan
INTRODUCTION: Acute psychological stress, as well as unusual experiences including hallucinations and delusions, are common in critical care unit patients and have been linked to post-critical care psychological morbidity such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. Little high-quality research has been conducted to evaluate psychological interventions that could alleviate longer-term psychological morbidity in the critical care unit setting. Our research team developed and piloted a nurse-led psychological intervention, aimed at reducing patient-reported PTSD symptom severity and other adverse psychological outcomes at 6 months, for evaluation in the POPPI trial...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437752/towards-high-quality-useful-practice-guidelines-for-child-and-youth-mental-health-disorders-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-consensus-exercise
#9
Kathryn Bennett, Stephanie Duda, Melissa Brouwers, Peter Szatmari, Amanda Newton, John McLennan, Purnima Sundar, Kristin Cleverley, Alice Charach, Joanna Henderson, Darren Courtney, Maureen Rice
INTRODUCTION: The quality of clinical practice guidelines (PGs) has not been evaluated in child and youth mental health (CYMH). To address this gap, we will: (1) conduct a systematic review (SR) to answer the question 'among eligible PGs relevant to the prevention or treatment of CYMH conditions, which PGs meet criteria for minimum and high quality?'; (2) apply nominal group methods to create recommendations for how CYMH PG quality, completeness and usefulness can be strengthened. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: SR: Potentially eligible PGs will be identified in 12 databases using a reproducible search strategy developed by a research librarian...
February 6, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436984/effectiveness-of-pharmacological-or-psychological-interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-smokers-with-major-depression-or-depressive-symptoms-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#10
Giulia A Aldi, Giuly Bertoli, Francesca Ferraro, Aldo Pezzuto, Fiammetta Cosci
BACKGROUND: Smokers with major depressive disorder (MDD) or depressive symptoms (DS) represent a subgroup in need of attention since they have specific clinical features and prognosis. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature (Cochrane, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Web Of Science databases from inception to June 2017) of randomized clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological, psychological or combined interventions for smoking cessation in subjects with current or past MDD/DS without medical or comorbid psychiatric disorder(s) was run following the PRISMA guidelines...
February 13, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433843/biological-alterations-affecting-risk-of-adult-psychopathology-following-childhood-trauma-a-review-of-sex-differences
#11
REVIEW
Ashwini Tiwari, Andrea Gonzalez
Childhood trauma exposure is a significant public health problem. While adult mental health consequences of such experiences are well documented, sex differences in both prevalence and severity are less understood. Sex-based differences in biological circuitry and physiological trauma responses are proposed to potentiate the differential risk for pathogenesis of mental health disorders among adults. This paper will provide a contextualized summary of neuroendocrine, neuroimaging, and behavioral epigenetic studies on biological sex differences contributing to internalizing psychopathology, specifically posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, among adults with a history of childhood abuse...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432506/eating-habits-and-nutritional-status-of-patients-with-affective-disorders-and-schizophrenia
#12
Ewa Stefańska, Magdalena Lech, Agnieszka Wendołowicz, Beata Konarzewska, Napoleon Waszkiewicz, Lucyna Ostrowska
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional value of the food intake in the group of men and women suffering from recurrent affective disorders and schizophrenia, and also to determine the relation between selected nutritional parameters with anthropometric indices defining the nutritional status of the subjects. METHODS: 219 persons participated in the study (61 patients with recurrent depressive disorders, 60 patients with schizophrenia and 98 healthy volunteers)...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428813/gaging-the-impact-of-multiple-substance-use-on-community-corrections-involvement
#13
C Brendan Clark, Jeffrey A Swails, Karen A Akao, Heidi M Pontinen, Karen L Cropsey
Historically, research has demonstrated that multiple substance use, compared to single substance use, poses additional challenges for treatment throughout the continuum of care including referrals, interventions, and relapse prevention. However, it appears that this pattern cannot be easily generalized to all criminal justice settings as evidenced by mixed findings across criminal justice samples. The purpose of the current study is to investigate possible differences in legal and substance-related outcomes between multiple substance users and single substance users within a community corrections sample...
February 8, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428118/meaning-of-depressive-syndrome-for-general-practice-physicians-in-a-colombian-region
#14
Laura Milena Múnera Restrepo, Lucia Uribe Restrepo, Carlos Enrique Yepes Delgado
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perception that some general clinical practitioners have about depressive syndrome in a region of Colombia. METHODOLOGY: The qualitative approach was established as a basis for this study using grounded theory for the description, analysis, and interpretation of data collected in 20 semi-structured interviews aimed at general medical practitioners who had treated patients with depressive syndrome in their clinical practice. RESULTS: Throughout the interviews, some essential elements are highlighted such as: "seeing beyond a body," where the interest of the physician is reflected by individualising each patient case because regardless of having the same disease, knowing that not all can be addressed or treated equally...
January 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425951/a-novel-approach-to-challenging-ocd-related-beliefs-using-a-mobile-app-an-exploratory-study
#15
María Roncero, Amparo Belloch, Guy Doron
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to cognitive models, obsessive compulsive symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and the use of counterproductive strategies to manage them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) related beliefs such as inflated responsibility, importance of thoughts and perfectionism increases the likelihood of such misinterpretations. Consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the usefulness of mobile delivered technologies in fostering cognitive behavior change, the present study assessed the effectiveness of a novel cognitive training exercise designed to challenge OCD-related beliefs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415858/identification-of-heavy-drinking-in-the-10-item-audit-results-from-a-prospective-study-among-18-21years-old-non-dependent-german-males
#16
Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Sioned Pfab, Maria Garbusow, Andreas Heinz, Paula T Kuitunen, Jakob Manthey, Stephan Nebe, Michael N Smolka, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is pivotal for the subsequent development of alcohol use disorders (AUD). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is a recommended AUD screening tool for prevention and primary care settings. The objectives of this study were to test how many participants with heavy drinking are unidentified by the AUDIT, if proportions of unidentified participants vary over time, and whether this unidentified risk group (URG) was clinically relevant in terms of drinking behavior reports and AUD risk factors, as well as future adverse outcomes, such as craving, dependence symptoms, or depression...
March 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415229/military-personnel-who-seek-health-and-mental-health-services-outside-the-military
#17
Howard Waitzkin, Mario Cruz, Bryant Shuey, Daniel Smithers, Laura Muncy, Marylou Noble
Background: Although research conducted within the military has assessed the health and mental health problems of military personnel, little information exists about personnel who seek care outside the military. The purpose of this study is to clarify the personal characteristics, mental health diagnoses, and experiences of active duty U.S. military personnel who sought civilian sector services due to unmet needs for care. Materials and Methods: This prospective, multi-method study included 233 clients, based in the United States, Afghanistan, South Korea, and Germany, who obtained care between 2013 and 2016 from a nationwide network of volunteer civilian practitioners...
February 5, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411996/emergence-of-depressive-symptoms-from-kindergarten-to-sixth-grade
#18
Gretchen R Gudmundsen, Isaac C Rhew, Elizabeth McCauley, Jahun Kim, Ann Vander Stoep
This study documents the emergence of symptoms of anxiety and depression in a community sample of school-age children and describes the temporal progression of symptoms leading to depressive episodes. Caregivers of 468 seventh graders reported retrospectively the manifestation of 14 symptoms of depression and anxiety in their children from kindergarten through sixth grade. The sample was balanced by sex and reflected the racial and economic diversity of the urban school district. Childhood period prevalence was calculated for each symptom, and discrete time survival analyses compared likelihoods of early symptom emergence in children who did and did not meet diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) by ninth grade...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407766/dopamine-d3-receptor-blockade-rescues-hyper-dopamine-activity-induced-deficit-in-novel-object-recognition-memory
#19
Pi-Kai Chang, Lung Yu, Jin-Chung Chen
Patients afflicted with bipolar disorder demonstrate significant impairments in recognition and episodic memory during acute depressive and manic episodes. These impairments and the related pathophysiology may result from over-activation of the brain dopamine (DA) system. In order to model overactive DA transmission in a well-established novel object recognition (NOR) memory test, we used DA transporter knockdown (DAT-KD) mice, which exhibit reduced DAT expression and display hyper-dopaminergic phenotypes. DAT-KD mice exhibited impaired NOR memory compared to wild-type (WT) mice...
February 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407544/toward-subtyping-of-suicidality-brief-suicidal-ideation-is-associated-with-greater-stress-response
#20
Mina M Rizk, Hanga Galfalvy, Tanya Singh, John G Keilp, M Elizabeth Sublette, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Barbara Stanley
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a heterogeneous phenomenon, and thus defining more homogeneous subgroups may help in understanding its underlying biology and ultimately in its prevention. Suicidal ideation is far more common than suicidal behavior and predicts future suicide attempts. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis reactivity has been implicated in individuals with suicidal ideation but findings are mixed with some studies showing increased and others demonstrating decreased reactivity...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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