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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278352/mobile-phone-based-interactive-voice-response-as-a-tool-for-improving-access-to-healthcare-in-remote-areas-in-ghana-an-evaluation-of-user-experiences
#1
J Brinkel, J May, R Krumkamp, M Lamshöft, B Kreuels, E Owusu-Dabo, A Mohammed, A Bonacic Marinovic, P Dako-Gyeke, A Krämer, J N Fobil
OBJECTIVES: To investigate and determine the factors that enhanced or constituted barriers to the acceptance of an mHealth system which was piloted in Asante-Akim North District of Ghana to support healthcare of children. METHODS: Four semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 37 mothers. Participants were selected from a study population of mothers who subscribed to a pilot mHealth system which used an interactive voice response for its operations...
March 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179007/global-research-trends-of-world-health-organization-s-top-eight-emerging-pathogens
#2
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: On December 8(th), 2015, World Health Organization published a priority list of eight pathogens expected to cause severe outbreaks in the near future. To better understand global research trends and characteristics of publications on these emerging pathogens, we carried out this bibliometric study hoping to contribute to global awareness and preparedness toward this topic. METHOD: Scopus database was searched for the following pathogens/infectious diseases: Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Rift valley, Crimean-Congo, Nipah, Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Severe Respiratory Acute Syndrome (SARS)...
February 8, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167603/at-home-with-mastomys-and-rattus-human-rodent-interactions-and-potential-for-primary-transmission-of-lassa-virus-in-domestic-spaces
#3
Jesse Bonwitt, Almudena Mari Sáez, Joseph Lamin, Rashid Ansumana, Michael Dawson, Jacob Buanie, Joyce Lamin, Diana Sondufu, Matthias Borchert, Foday Sahr, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Hannah Brown
The multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir for Lassa virus (LASV). Zoonotic transmission occurs when humans are directly or indirectly exposed to fluids of the multimammate mouse, such as urine, saliva, and blood. Housing characteristics and domestic organization affect rodent density in and around households and villages, and are likely to be a risk factor for Lassa fever in humans where the reservoir exists. We use semi-structured interviews (N = 51), a quantitative survey (N = 429), direct observations, and a rodent ecology study to provide new insights into how the organization of domestic spaces brings together humans and rodents and creates pathways for infection in rural settlements in Bo District, Sierra Leone...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111475/immunobiology-of-ebola-and-lassa-virus-infections
#4
REVIEW
Joseph B Prescott, Andrea Marzi, David Safronetz, Shelly J Robertson, Heinz Feldmann, Sonja M Best
Two of the most important contemporary emerging viruses that affect human health in Africa are Ebola virus (EBOV) and Lassa virus (LASV). The 2013-2016 West African outbreak of EBOV was responsible for more than 11,000 deaths, primarily in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. LASV is constantly emerging in these and surrounding West African countries, with an estimate of more than 500,000 cases of Lassa fever, and approximately 5,000 deaths, annually. Both EBOV and LASV are zoonotic, and human infection often results in a severe haemorrhagic fever in both cases...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093544/annual-incidence-of-lassa-virus-infection-in-southern-mali
#5
David Safronetz, Nafomon Sogoba, Sory Ibrahim Diawara, Sidy Bane, Kyle Rosenke, Ousmane Maiga, Matt Boisen, Robert F Garry, Luis M Branco, L Robbin Lindsay, Sékou F Traoré, Heinz Feldmann, Seydou Doumbia
Previously, we reported a high seroprevalence rate of Lassa virus antibodies in inhabitants of three villages in southern Mali where infected rodents have been demonstrated. Herein, we report a 1-year follow-up study in which we were able to collect a second blood samples from 88.7% of participants of the same cohort. We identified 23 seroconversions for IgG antibodies reactive against Lassa virus, representing an incidence of 6.3% (95% confidence interval = 3.8-8.8%). Seroconversion was frequently seen in preteenage children (12/23, 51...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999160/25-hydroxycholesterol-inhibition-of-lassa-virus-infection-through-aberrant-gp1-glycosylation
#6
Punya Shrivastava-Ranjan, Éric Bergeron, Ayan K Chakrabarti, César G Albariño, Mike Flint, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
Lassa virus (LASV) infection is a major public health concern due to high fatality rates and limited effective treatment. The interferon-stimulated gene cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC). 25HC is involved in regulating cholesterol biosynthesis and has recently been identified as a potent antiviral targeting enveloped virus entry. Here, we show a previously unrecognized role of CH25H in inhibiting LASV glycoprotein glycosylation and the production of infectious virus...
December 20, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975074/imported-case-of-lassa-fever-in-sweden-with-encephalopathy-and-sensorineural-hearing-deficit
#7
Anna Grahn, Andreas Bråve, Martin Lagging, Leif Dotevall, David Ekqvist, Helena Hammarström, Helen Karlberg, Nina Lagerqvist, Martina Sansone, Anders Tegnell, Peter Ulleryd, Marie Studahl
We describe an imported case of Lassa fever with both encephalopathy and bilateral sensorineural hearing deficit. Absence of fever during hospitalization, initially nonspecific symptoms, and onset of hearing deficit in a late stage of disease probably contributed to delayed diagnosis (14 days after admittance to hospital). The pathogenesis of neurological manifestations of Lassa fever is poorly understood and no specific treatment was given. A total of 118 personnel had close contact with the patient, but no secondary cases occurred...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957363/aseptic-meningitis-caused-by-lassa-virus-case-series-report
#8
Peter O Okokhere, Idowu A Bankole, Christopher O Iruolagbe, Benard E Muoebonam, Martha O Okonofua, Simeon O Dawodu, George O Akpede
The Lassa virus is known to cause disease in different organ systems of the human body, with varying clinical manifestations. The features of severe clinical disease may include bleeding and/or central nervous system manifestations. Whereas Lassa fever encephalopathy and encephalitis are well described in the literature, there is paucity of data on Lassa virus meningitis. We present the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, and management of 4 consecutive cases of aseptic meningitis associated with Lassa virus infection without bleeding seen in a region of Nigeria known to be endemic for both the reservoir rodent and Lassa fever...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855284/development-of-live-attenuated-arenavirus-vaccines-based-on-codon-deoptimization-of-the-viral-glycoprotein
#9
Benson Y H Cheng, Aitor Nogales, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa (LASV) in West Africa, cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose important public health problems in their endemic regions. To date, there are no FDA-approved arenavirus vaccines and current anti-arenaviral therapy is limited to the use of ribavirin that has very limited efficacy. In this work we document that a recombinant prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) with a codon deoptimized (CD) surface glycoprotein (GP), rLCMV/CD, exhibited wild type (WT)-like growth properties in cultured cells despite barely detectable GP expression levels in rLCMV/CD-infected cells...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795340/comparison-of-magpix-assays-and-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-detection-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses
#10
Neal G Satterly, Matthew A Voorhees, Abbe D Ames, Randal J Schoepp
Viral hemorrhagic fevers, because of their high mortality rates, the lack of medical countermeasures, and their potential use as instruments of bioterrorism, pose a significant threat to the developed and the developing areas of the world. The key to preventing the spread of these diseases is early and accurate detection. For decades, the gold-standard immunoassay for hemorrhagic fever detection has been the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); however, newer technologies are emerging with increased sensitivities...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785522/disinfection-of-aircraft-appropriate-disinfectants-and-standard-operating-procedures-for-highly-infectious-diseases
#11
Joachim Klaus, Peter Gnirs, Sabine Hölterhoff, Angela Wirtz, Matthias Jeglitza, Walter Gaber, Rene Gottschalk
For infectious diseases caused by highly pathogenic agents (e. g., Ebola/Lassa fever virus, SARS-/MERS-CoV, pandemic influenza virus) which have the potential to spread over several continents within only a few days, international Health Protection Authorities have taken appropriate measures to limit the consequences of a possible spread. A crucial point in this context is the disinfection of an aircraft that had a passenger on board who is suspected of being infected with one of the mentioned diseases...
December 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736754/favipiravir-pharmacokinetics-in-nonhuman-primates-and-insights-for-future-efficacy-studies-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses
#12
Vincent Madelain, Jérémie Guedj, France Mentré, Thi Huyen Tram Nguyen, Frédéric Jacquot, Lisa Oestereich, Takumi Kadota, Koichi Yamada, Anne-Marie Taburet, Xavier de Lamballerie, Hervé Raoul
Favipiravir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor that showed strong antiviral efficacy in vitro and in small-animal models of several viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fever (HF), including Ebola virus. The aim of this work was to characterize the complex pharmacokinetics of favipiravir in nonhuman primates (NHPs) in order to guide future efficacy studies of favipiravir in large-animal models. Four different studies were conducted in 30 uninfected cynomolgus macaques of Chinese (n = 17) or Mauritian (n = 13) origin treated with intravenous favipiravir for 7 to 14 days with maintenance doses of 60 to 180 mg/kg of body weight twice a day (BID)...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716429/serosurveillance-of-viral-pathogens-circulating-in-west-africa
#13
Aileen E O'Hearn, Matthew A Voorhees, David P Fetterer, Nadia Wauquier, Moinya R Coomber, James Bangura, Joseph N Fair, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Randal J Schoepp
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to a variety of pathogens, but disease surveillance and the healthcare infrastructure necessary for proper management and control are severely limited. Lassa virus, the cause of Lassa fever, a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans is endemic in West Africa. In Sierra Leone at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory, up to 70 % of acute patient samples suspected of Lassa fever test negative for Lassa virus infection. This large amount of acute undiagnosed febrile illness can be attributed in part to an array of hemorrhagic fever and arthropod-borne viruses causing disease that goes undetected and untreated...
October 3, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660771/genome-sequence-of-lassa-virus-isolated-from-the-first-domestically-acquired-case-in-germany
#14
Svenja Wolff, Tilman Schultze, Sarah Katharina Fehling, Jan Philipp Mengel, Gerrit Kann, Timo Wolf, Markus Eickmann, Stephan Becker, Torsten Hain, Thomas Strecker
Lassa virus (LASV) is a zoonotic, hemorrhagic fever-causing virus endemic in West Africa, for which no approved vaccines or specific treatment options exist. Here, we report the genome sequence of LASV isolated from the first case of acquired Lassa fever disease outside of Africa.
2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630390/postexposure-prophylaxis-for-lassa-fever-experience-from-a-recent-outbreak-in-nigeria
#15
Samson E Isa, Attah Okwute, Kelly O Iraoyah, Shehu Y Nathan, Gomerep S Simji, Mark O Okolo, Joseph Anejo-Okopi, Daria Spicola, Daisy E Isa
BACKGROUND: Secondary transmission of Lassa fever (LF) occurs in the community and in health-care facilities, and is associated with high fatality in Nigeria. We investigated the role of oral ribavirin postexposure prophylaxis (orPEP) in preventing LF among the primary contacts of confirmed cases from December 2015 to March 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological and clinical data of LF contacts were prospectively collected. However, information regarding ribavirin adverse effects (AEs) were collected retrospectively through a telephone interview...
July 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630230/characterization-of-the-glycoprotein-stable-signal-peptide-in-mediating-pichinde-virus-replication-and-virulence
#16
Junjie Shao, Xiaoying Liu, Hinh Ly, Yuying Liang
Arenaviruses can cause lethal hemorrhagic fevers in humans with few preventative and therapeutic measures. The arenaviral glycoprotein stable signal peptide (SSP) is unique among signal peptides in that it is an integral component of the mature glycoprotein complex (GPC) and plays important roles not only in GPC expression and processing but also in the membrane fusion process during viral entry. Using the Pichinde virus (PICV) reverse genetics system, we analyzed the effects of alanine substitutions at many conserved residues within the SSP on viral replication in cell culture and in a guinea pig infection model...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588425/a-unified-framework-for-the-infection-dynamics-of-zoonotic-spillover-and-spread
#17
Giovanni Lo Iacono, Andrew A Cunningham, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Robert F Garry, Donald S Grant, Melissa Leach, Lina M Moses, Gordon Nichols, John S Schieffelin, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Colleen T Webb, James L N Wood
A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581982/residues-k465-and-g467-within-the-cytoplasmic-domain-of-gp2-play-a-critical-role-in-the-persistence-of-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-in-mice
#18
Masaharu Iwasaki, Cherie T Ng, Beatrice Cubitt, Juan C de la Torre
Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose serious public health concerns in their regions of endemicity. Moreover, mounting evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. We have documented that a recombinant LCMV containing the glycoprotein (GPC) gene of LASV within the backbone of the immunosuppressive clone 13 (Cl-13) variant of the Armstrong strain of LCMV (rCl-13/LASV-GPC) exhibited Cl-13-like growth properties in cultured cells, but in contrast to Cl-13, rCl-13/LASV-GPC was unable to establish persistence in immunocompetent adult mice, which prevented its use for some in vivo experiments...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562602/structure-function-relationship-of-the-mammarenavirus-envelope-glycoprotein
#19
REVIEW
Wei Wang, Zheng Zhou, Leike Zhang, Shaobo Wang, Gengfu Xiao
Mammarenaviruses, including lethal pathogens such as Lassa virus and Junín virus, can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. Entry is a key step for virus infection, which starts with binding of the envelope glycoprotein (GP) to receptors on target cells and subsequent fusion of the virus with target cell membranes. The GP precursor is synthesized as a polypeptide, and maturation occurs by two cleavage events, yielding a tripartite GP complex (GPC) formed by a stable signal peptide (SSP), GP1 and GP2. The unique retained SSP interacts with GP2 and plays essential roles in virion maturation and infectivity...
October 2016: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531367/treatment-of-lassa-virus-infection-in-outbred-guinea-pigs-with-first-in-class%C3%A2-human-monoclonal-antibodies
#20
Robert W Cross, Chad E Mire, Luis M Branco, Joan B Geisbert, Megan M Rowland, Megan L Heinrich, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, Donald S Grant, Mohamed Fullah, Sheik Humarr Khan, James E Robinson, Thomas W Geisbert, Robert F Garry
Lassa fever is a significant health threat to West African human populations with hundreds of thousands of annual cases. There are no approved medical countermeasures currently available. Compassionate use of the antiviral drug ribavirin or transfusion of convalescent serum has resulted in mixed success depending on when administered or the donor source, respectively. We previously identified several recombinant human monoclonal antibodies targeting the glycoprotein of Lassa virus with strong neutralization profiles in vitro...
September 2016: Antiviral Research
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