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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919830/newly-acquired-and-reactivated-contextual-fear-memories-are-more-intense-and-prone-to-generalize-after-activation-of-prelimbic-cortex-nmda-receptors
#1
Ana C Vanvossen, Marina A M Portes, Rafael Scoz-Silva, Hugo B Reichmann, Cristina A J Stern, Leandro J Bertoglio
Activity in the rodent prelimbic (PL) cortex contributes to consolidation, retrieval and reconsolidation of learned fear. The PL cortex is considered homologous to the primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the dACC is often reported to be hyperactive after acquisition and/or around the retrieval of the traumatic memory. It is still unknown, however, whether there is a relationship between altered dACC functioning at these time points and PTSD-associated behavioral outcomes, such as fear overgeneralization...
December 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918435/piecemeal-buildup-of-the-genetic-code-ribosomes-and-genomes-from-primordial-trna-building-blocks
#2
Derek Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés
The origin of biomolecular machinery likely centered around an ancient and central molecule capable of interacting with emergent macromolecular complexity. tRNA is the oldest and most central nucleic acid molecule of the cell. Its co-evolutionary interactions with aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase protein enzymes define the specificities of the genetic code and those with the ribosome their accurate biosynthetic interpretation. Phylogenetic approaches that focus on molecular structure allow reconstruction of evolutionary timelines that describe the history of RNA and protein structural domains...
December 2, 2016: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917021/the-impact-of-testing-on-the-formation-of-children-s-and-adults-false-memories
#3
Nathalie Brackmann, Henry Otgaar, Melanie Sauerland, Mark L Howe
Witnesses are frequently questioned immediately following a crime. The effects of such testing on false recall are inconclusive: Testing may inoculate against subsequent misinformation or enhance false memory formation. We examined whether different types of processing can account for these discrepancies. Drawing from Fuzzy-trace and Associative-activation theories, immediate questions that trigger the processing of the global understanding of the event can heighten false memory rates. However, questions that trigger the processing of specific details can inoculate memories against subsequent misinformation...
September 2016: Applied Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#4
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907838/fear-memory-in-a-neurodevelopmental-model-of-schizophrenia-based-on-the-postnatal-blockade-of-nmda-receptors
#5
Joachim Latusz, Aleksandra Radaszkiewicz, Ewelina Bator, Krzysztof Wędzony, Marzena Maćkowiak
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data have indicated that memory impairment is observed during adolescence in groups at high risk for schizophrenia and might precede the appearance of schizophrenia symptoms in adulthood. METHODS: In the present study, we used a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia based on the postnatal blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in rats to investigate fear memory in adolescence and adulthood. The rats were treated with increasing doses of CGP 37849 (CGP), a competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (1...
October 17, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907808/models-that-allow-us-to-perceive-the-world-more-accurately-also-allow-us-to-remember-past-events-more-accurately-via-differentiation
#6
Aslı Kılıç, Amy H Criss, Kenneth J Malmberg, Richard M Shiffrin
Differentiation is a theory that originally emerged from the perception literature and proposes that with experience, the representation of stimuli becomes more distinct from or less similar to the representation of other stimuli. In recent years, the role of differentiation has played a critical role in models of memory. Differentiation mechanisms have been implemented in episodic memory models by assuming that information about new experiences with a stimulus in a particular context accumulates in a single memory trace and these updated memory traces become more distinct from the representations of other stimuli...
November 28, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905080/a-neural-model-of-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-consolidation-adaptively-timed-conditioning-hippocampus-amnesia-neurotrophins-and-consciousness
#7
Daniel J Franklin, Stephen Grossberg
How do the hippocampus and amygdala interact with thalamocortical systems to regulate cognitive and cognitive-emotional learning? Why do lesions of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex have differential effects depending on the phase of learning when they occur? In particular, why is the hippocampus typically needed for trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning, and what do the exceptions reveal? Why do amygdala lesions made before or immediately after training decelerate conditioning while those made later do not? Why do thalamic or sensory cortical lesions degrade trace conditioning more than delay conditioning? Why do hippocampal lesions during trace conditioning experiments degrade recent but not temporally remote learning? Why do orbitofrontal cortical lesions degrade temporally remote but not recent or post-lesion learning? How is temporally graded amnesia caused by ablation of prefrontal cortex after memory consolidation? How are attention and consciousness linked during conditioning? How do neurotrophins, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), influence memory formation and consolidation? Is there a common output path for learned performance? A neural model proposes a unified answer to these questions that overcome problems of alternative memory models...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903705/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#8
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. While studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically-arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903704/semantic-congruence-accelerates-the-onset-of-the-neural-signals-of-successful-memory-encoding
#9
P A Packard, A Rodríguez-Fornells, N Bunzeck, B Nicolás, R de Diego-Balaguer, L Fuentemilla
: As the stream of experience unfolds, our memory system rapidly transforms current inputs into long-lasting meaningful memories. A putative neural mechanism that strongly influences how input elements are transformed into meaningful memory codes relies on the ability to integrate them with existing structures of knowledge or schemas. However, it is not yet clear whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding. In the current investigation, we examined the encoding-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896312/the-memory-trace-supporting-lose-shift-responding-decays-rapidly-after-reward-omission-and-is-distinct-from-other-learning-mechanisms-in-rats
#10
Aaron J Gruber, Rajat Thapa
The propensity of animals to shift choices immediately after unexpectedly poor reinforcement outcomes is a pervasive strategy across species and tasks. We report here that the memory supporting such lose-shift responding in rats rapidly decays during the intertrial interval and persists throughout training and testing on a binary choice task, despite being a suboptimal strategy. Lose-shift responding is not positively correlated with the prevalence and temporal dependence of win-stay responding, and it is inconsistent with predictions of reinforcement learning on the task...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888283/retrograde-conditioning-of-place-preference-and-motor-activity-with-cocaine-in-mice
#11
Ritu A Shetty, Margaret A Rutledge, Michael J Forster
RATIONALE: In order to improve understanding of the nature of drug-associated memory, the current studies addressed whether conditioned place preference (CPP) could develop under conditions in which there was a delay between presentation of context and drug exposure (i.e., retrograde or trace conditioning). OBJECTIVES: The objective was to assess development of CPP when cocaine or methamphetamine was injected simultaneously with exposure to a salient context (S+), or after delays differing in length...
November 25, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887994/tactile-stimulation-during-sleep-alters-slow-oscillation-and-spindle-densities-but-not-motor-skill
#12
Sofia Isabel Ribeiro Pereira, Felipe Beijamini, Frederik D Weber, Roberta Almeida Vincenzi, Felipe Augusto Cini da Silva, Fernando Mazzilli Louzada
Studies using targeted memory reactivation have shown that presentation of auditory or olfactory contextual cues during sleep can bias hippocampal reactivations towards the preferential replay of the cue-associated material, thereby resulting in enhanced consolidation of that information. If the same cortical ensembles are indeed used for encoding and storage of a given piece of information, forcing the sleeping brain to re-engage in task-intrinsic information processing should disturb the natural ongoing consolidation processes and therefore impair possible sleep benefits...
November 23, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882455/memory-consolidation-effects-on-memory-stabilization-and-item-integration-in-older-adults
#13
Helen Brown, Elizabeth A Maylor
This study examined the differential effects of aging on consolidation processes that strengthen newly acquired memory traces in veridical form (memory stabilization) versus consolidation processes that are responsible for integrating these memory traces into an existing body of knowledge (item integration). Older adults learned 13 nonwords and were tested on their memory for the nonwords, and on whether these nonwords impacted upon processing of similar-sounding English words immediately and 24 hours later...
November 23, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872374/what-s-statistical-about-learning-insights-from-modelling-statistical-learning-as-a-set-of-memory-processes
#14
REVIEW
Erik D Thiessen
Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872372/do-infants-retain-the-statistics-of-a-statistical-learning-experience-insights-from-a-developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Rebecca L Gómez
Statistical structure abounds in language. Human infants show a striking capacity for using statistical learning (SL) to extract regularities in their linguistic environments, a process thought to bootstrap their knowledge of language. Critically, studies of SL test infants in the minutes immediately following familiarization, but long-term retention unfolds over hours and days, with almost no work investigating retention of SL. This creates a critical gap in the literature given that we know little about how single or multiple SL experiences translate into permanent knowledge...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860305/forgetting-of-the-recollection-and-familiarity-components-of-recognition-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Maria Giovanna Lombardi, Roberta Perri, Lucia Fadda, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo
INTRODUCTION: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) are deficient in storing memory traces relative to recollective forms of declarative memory. Controversial data have, instead, been reported concerning the storage of new memory traces relative to familiarity, with some studies reporting impairment and others sparing of the storage of this form of memory. No data have been reported concerning the consolidation of recollection and familiarity memory traces subsequent to their storage...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858379/effects-of-varying-presentation-time-on-long-term-recognition-memory-for-scenes-verbatim-and-gist-representations
#17
Fahad N Ahmad, Morris Moscovitch, William E Hockley
Konkle, Brady, Alvarez and Oliva (Psychological Science, 21, 1551-1556, 2010) showed that participants have an exceptional long-term memory (LTM) for photographs of scenes. We examined to what extent participants' exceptional LTM for scenes is determined by presentation time during encoding. In addition, at retrieval, we varied the nature of the lures in a forced-choice recognition task so that they resembled the target in gist (i.e., global or categorical) information, but were distinct in verbatim information (e...
November 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857318/improved-look-up-table-method-of-computer-generated-holograms
#18
Hui Wei, Guanghong Gong, Ni Li
Heavy computation load and vast memory requirements are major bottlenecks of computer-generated holograms (CGHs), which are promising and challenging in three-dimensional displays. To solve these problems, an improved look-up table (LUT) method suitable for arbitrarily sampled object points is proposed and implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU) whose reconstructed object quality is consistent with that of the coherent ray-trace (CRT) method. The concept of distance factor is defined, and the distance factors are pre-computed off-line and stored in a look-up table...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856766/context-dependent-memory-traces-in-the-crab-s-mushroom-bodies-functional-support-for-a-common-origin-of-high-order-memory-centers
#19
Francisco Javier Maza, Julieta Sztarker, Avishag Shkedy, Valeria Natacha Peszano, Fernando Federico Locatelli, Alejandro Delorenzi
The hypothesis of a common origin for the high-order memory centers in bilateral animals is based on the evidence that several key features, including gene expression and neuronal network patterns, are shared across several phyla. Central to this hypothesis is the assumption that the arthropods' higher order neuropils of the forebrain [the mushroom bodies (MBs) of insects and the hemiellipsoid bodies (HBs) of crustaceans] are homologous structures. However, even though involvement in memory processes has been repeatedly demonstrated for the MBs, direct proof of such a role in HBs is lacking...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842701/the-relationship-between-eye-movements-and-subsequent-recognition-evidence-from-individual-differences-and-amnesia
#20
Rosanna K Olsen, Vinoja Sebanayagam, Yunjo Lee, Morris Moscovitch, Cheryl L Grady, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Jennifer D Ryan
There is consistent agreement regarding the positive relationship between cumulative eye movement sampling and subsequent recognition, but the role of the hippocampus in this sampling behavior is currently unknown. It is also unclear whether the eye movement repetition effect, i.e., fewer fixations to repeated, compared to novel, stimuli, depends on explicit recognition and/or an intact hippocampal system. We investigated the relationship between cumulative sampling, the eye movement repetition effect, subsequent memory, and the hippocampal system...
October 22, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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