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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223783/prior-stress-promotes-the-generalization-of-contextual-fear-memories-involvement-of-the-gabaergic-signaling-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-complex
#1
C L Bender, A Otamendi, G D Calfa, V A Molina
Fear generalization occurs when a response, previously acquired with a threatening stimulus, is transferred to a similar one. However, it could be maladaptive when stimuli that do not represent a real threat are appraised as dangerous, which is a hallmark of several anxiety disorders. Stress exposure is a major risk factor for the occurrence of anxiety disorders and it is well established that it influences different phases of fear memory; nevertheless, its impact on the generalization of contextual fear memories has been less studied...
December 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214631/system-matrix-computation-vs-storage-on-gpu-a-comparative-study-in-cone-beam-ct
#2
Dmitri Matenine, Geoffroi Côté, Julia Mascolo-Fortin, Yves Goussard, Philippe Després
PURPOSE: Iterative reconstruction algorithms in computed tomography (CT) require a fast method for computing the intersection distances between the trajectories of photons and the object, also called ray-tracing or system matrix computation. This work focused on the thin-ray model and is aimed at comparing different system matrix handling strategies using graphical processing units (GPUs). METHODS: In this work, the system matrix is modeled by thin rays intersecting a regular grid of box-shaped voxels, known to be an accurate representation of the forward projection operator in CT...
December 6, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214551/keeping-it-together-semantic-coherence-stabilizes-phonological-sequences-in-short-term-memory
#3
Nicola Savill, Rachel Ellis, Emma Brooke, Tiffany Koa, Suzie Ferguson, Elena Rojas-Rodriguez, Dominic Arnold, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Our ability to hold a sequence of speech sounds in mind, in the correct configuration, supports many aspects of communication, but the contribution of conceptual information to this basic phonological capacity remains controversial. Previous research has shown modest and inconsistent benefits of meaning on phonological stability in short-term memory, but these studies were based on sets of unrelated words. Using a novel design, we examined the immediate recall of sentence-like sequences with coherent meaning, alongside both standard word lists and mixed lists containing words and nonwords...
December 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201002/a-comparison-of-different-slicing-planes-in-preservation-of-major-hippocampal-pathway-fibers-in-the-mouse
#4
Guoxiang Xiong, Hannah Metheny, Brian N Johnson, Akiva S Cohen
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory and higher cognitive functions, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various neuropathological disorders. Electrophysiological recording undertaken in live brain slices is one of the most powerful tools for investigating hippocampal cellular and network activities. The plane for cutting the slices determines which afferent and/or efferent connections are best preserved, and there are three commonly used slices: hippocampal-entorhinal cortex (HEC), coronal and transverse...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172188/-posterior-cingulate-cascading-delay-model-for-timing-behavior
#5
Kazuo Okanoya, Tohru Kurotani
We present a novel model for timing behavior. This model is based on the firing property of neurons in the superficial layers of the posterior cingulate granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS) and does not require a unit-time clock. Suppose that event B occurs N seconds after event A and triggers behavior C. By our behavioral, physiological and anatomical experiments, we found the following facts. 1) Thalamic input carrying sensory information, A, is provided to the superficial layers of the GRS and delayed by the lateral cascading connection within the layers...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163088/simultaneous-reality-filtering-and-encoding-of-thoughts-the-substrate-for-distinguishing-between-memories-of-real-events-and-imaginations
#6
Raphaël Thézé, Aurélie L Manuel, Louis Nahum, Adrian G Guggisberg, Armin Schnider
Any thought, whether it refers to the present moment or reflects an imagination, is again encoded as a new memory trace. Orbitofrontal reality filtering (ORFi) denotes an on-line mechanism which verifies whether upcoming thoughts relate to ongoing reality or not. Its failure induces reality confusion with confabulations and disorientation. If the result of this process were simultaneously encoded, it would easily explain later distinction between memories relating to a past reality and memories relating to imagination, a faculty called reality monitoring...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160691/bioinspired-tribotronic-resistive-switching-memory-for-self-powered-memorizing-mechanical-stimuli
#7
Yihui Sun, Xin Zheng, Xiaoqin Yan, Qingliang Liao, Shuo Liu, Guangjie Zhang, Yong Li, Yue Zhang
Haptic memory, from the interaction of skin and brain, can not only perceive external stimuli but also memorize it after removing the external stimuli. For the mimicry of human sensory memory, a self-powered artificial tactile memorizing system were developed by coupling bionic electronic skin and nonvolatile RRAM. The tribotronic nanogenerator is utilized as electronic skin to transform the touching signal into electric pulse, which will be programmed into the artificial brain: RRAM. Owing to the advanced structural designs and accurately parameter matching, including the output voltages and the resistances in different resistive states, the artificial brain can be operated at self-powered mode to memorize the touch stimuli with the responsivity up to 2000%...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159849/spoken-sentence-production-in-college-students-with-dyslexia-working-memory-and-vocabulary-effects
#8
Rebecca Wiseheart, Lori J P Altmann
BACKGROUND: Individuals with dyslexia demonstrate syntactic difficulties on tasks of language comprehension, yet little is known about spoken language production in this population. AIMS: To investigate whether spoken sentence production in college students with dyslexia is less proficient than in typical readers, and to determine whether group differences can be attributable to cognitive differences between groups. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Fifty-one college students with and without dyslexia were asked to produce sentences from stimuli comprising a verb and two nouns...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155095/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-by-which-prior-experience-impacts-subsequent-learning
#9
Ryan G Parsons
Memory is often thought about in terms of its ability to recollect and store information about the past, but its function likely rests with the fact that it permits adaptation to ongoing and future experience. Thus, the brain circuitry that encodes memory must act as if stored information is likely to be modified by subsequent experience. Considerable progress has been made in identifying the behavioral and neural mechanisms supporting the acquisition and consolidation of memories, but this knowledge comes largely from studies in laboratory animals in which the training experience is presented in isolation from prior experimentally-controlled events...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147068/the-italian-version-of-the-five-word-test-a-simple-diagnostic-test-for-dementia-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease-in-routine-clinical-practice
#10
Luca Rozzini, Anna Ceraso, Marina Zanetti, Silvia Pelizzari, Evita Tomasoni, Vivian Accardo, Alessandro Padovani
Background: The five-word test (FWT) is a neuropsychological tool (derived from the Grober and Buschke paradigm), measuring hippocampal memory trace consolidation. The study aimed to validate the test for the Italian language and to verify its ability to discriminate patients affected by mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease from healthy matches. Methods: 217 subjects (127 controls, 47 MCI due to AD, and 43 AD) underwent neuropsychological evaluation...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146175/autobiographical-memory-sources-of-threats-in-dreams
#11
Alexandre Lafrenière, Monique Lortie-Lussier, Allyson Dale, Raphaëlle Robidoux, Joseph De Koninck
Temporal sources of dream threats were examined through the paradigm of the Threat Simulation Theory. Two groups of young adults (18-24 years old), who did not experience severe threatening events in the year preceding their dream and reported a dream either with or without threats, were included. Participants (N = 119) kept a log of daily activities and a dream diary, indicating whether dream components referred to past experiences. The occurrence of oneiric threats correlated with the reporting of threats in the daily logs, their average severity, and the stress level experienced the day preceding the dream...
November 13, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145007/sleep-preserves-original-and-distorted-memory-traces
#12
Scott A Cairney, Shane Lindsay, Ken A Paller, M Gareth Gaskell
Retrieval facilitates the long-term retention of memories, but may also enable stored representations to be updated with new information that is available at the time of retrieval. However, if information integrated during retrieval is erroneous, future recall can be impaired: a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced distortion (RID). Whether RID causes an "overwriting" of existing memory traces or leads to the co-existence of original and distorted memory traces is unknown. Because sleep enhances memory consolidation, the effects of sleep after RID can provide novel insights into the structure of updated memories...
October 16, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134480/false-memory-for-orthographically-versus-semantically-similar-words-in-adolescents-with-dyslexia-a-fuzzy-trace-theory-perspective
#13
Michał Obidziński, Marek Nieznański
The presented research was conducted in order to investigate the connections between developmental dyslexia and the functioning of verbatim and gist memory traces-assumed in the fuzzy-trace theory. The participants were 71 high school students (33 with dyslexia and 38 without learning difficulties). The modified procedure and multinomial model of Stahl and Klauer (simplified conjoint recognition model) was used to collect and analyze data. Results showed statistically significant differences in four of the model parameters: (a) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of orthographically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (b) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (c) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the dyslexia than control group, and (d) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon target stimulus presentation (in the semantic condition) was higher in the control than dyslexia group...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125497/quantum-brain-theory-and-the-appearing-of%C3%A2-world
#14
Gordon Globus
The appearing of world is approached via the dream world which has generally been thought to be merely derivative: a "composition" of memory traces from waking life, which are merged and fused into a dream world that in some instances can be indiscernable from the world of waking life. Two dreams are presented which challenge the composition theory of dream formation. An alternative unified theory of world appearance in both waking and dreaming is proposed, which makes use of developments in quantum brain dynamics...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116882/lingering-cognitive-states-shape-fundamental-mnemonic-abilities
#15
Anuya Patil, Katherine Duncan
Why are people sometimes able to recall associations in exquisite detail while at other times left frustrated by the deficiencies of memory? Although this apparent fickleness of memory has been extensively studied by investigating factors that build strong memory traces, researchers know less about whether memory success also depends on cognitive states that are in place when a cue is encountered. Motivating this possibility, neurocomputational models propose that the hippocampus's capacity to support associative recollection (pattern completion) is biased by persistent neurochemical states, which can be elicited by exposure to familiarity and novelty...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104557/high-fidelity-visual-long-term-memory-within-an-unattended-blink-of-an-eye
#16
Christof Kuhbandner, Elizabeth A Rosas-Corona, Philipp Spachtholz
What is stored in long-term memory from current sensations is a question that has attracted considerable interest. Over time, several prominent theories have consistently proposed that only attended sensory information leaves a durable memory trace whereas unattended information is not stored beyond the current moment, an assumption that seems to be supported by abundant empirical evidence. Here we show, by using a more sensitive memory test than in previous studies, that this is actually not true. Observers viewed a rapid stream of real-world object pictures overlapped by words (presentation duration per stimulus: 500 ms, interstimulus interval: 200 ms), with the instruction to attend to the words and detect word repetitions, without knowing that their memory would be tested later...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092589/auditory-memory-for-random-time-patterns
#17
HiJee Kang, Trevor R Agus, Daniel Pressnitzer
The acquisition of auditory memory for temporal patterns was investigated. The temporal patterns were random sequences of irregularly spaced clicks. Participants performed a task previously used to study auditory memory for noise [Agus, Thorpe, and Pressnitzer (2010). Neuron 66, 610-618]. The memory for temporal patterns displayed strong similarities with the memory for noise: temporal patterns were learnt rapidly, in an unsupervised manner, and could be distinguished from statistically matched patterns after learning...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079340/sleep-on-your-memory-traces-how-sleep-effects-can-be-explained-by-act-in-a-functional-memory-model
#18
REVIEW
Mélaine Cherdieu, Rémy Versace, Amandine E Rey, Guillaume T Vallet, Stéphanie Mazza
Numerous studies have explored the effect of sleep on memory. It is well known that a period of sleep, compared to a similar period of wakefulness, protects memories from interference, improves performance, and might also reorganize memory traces in a way that encourages creativity and rule extraction. It is assumed that these benefits come from the reactivation of brain networks, mainly involving the hippocampal structure, as well as from their synchronization with neocortical networks during sleep, thereby underpinning sleep-dependent memory consolidation and reorganization...
September 30, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078382/organizing-principles-for-the-cerebral-cortex-network-of-commissural-and-association-connections
#19
Larry W Swanson, Joel D Hahn, Olaf Sporns
Cognition is supported by a network of axonal connections between gray matter regions within and between right and left cerebral cortex. Global organizing principles of this circuitry were examined with network analysis tools applied to monosynaptic association (within one side) and commissural (between sides) connections between all 77 cortical gray matter regions in each hemisphere of the rat brain. The analysis used 32,350 connection reports expertly collated from published pathway tracing experiments, and 5,394 connections of a possible 23,562 were identified, for a connection density of 23%-of which 20% (1,084) were commissural...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075209/early-executive-function-at-age-two-predicts-emergent-mathematics-and-literacy-at-age-five
#20
Hanna Mulder, Josje Verhagen, Sanne H G Van der Ven, Pauline L Slot, Paul P M Leseman
Previous work has shown that individual differences in executive function (EF) are predictive of academic skills in preschoolers, kindergartners, and older children. Across studies, EF is a stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than literacy. However, research on EF in children below age three is scarce, and it is currently unknown whether EF, as assessed in toddlerhood, predicts emergent academic skills a few years later. This longitudinal study investigates whether early EF, assessed at two years, predicts (emergent) academic skills, at five years...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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