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Memory trace

Yves F Widmer, Adem Bilican, Rémy Bruggmann, Simon G Sprecher
Memory formation is achieved by genetically tightly controlled molecular pathways that result in a change of synaptic strength and synapse organization. While for short-term memory traces rapidly acting biochemical pathways are in place, the formation of long-lasting memories requires changes in the transcriptional program of a cell. Although many genes involved in learning and memory formation have been identified, little is known about the genetic mechanisms required for changing the transcriptional program during different phases of long-term memory formation...
June 20, 2018: Genetics
Nicole Pedroarena-Leal, Larissa Heidemeyer, Carlos Trenado, Diane Ruge
Depotentiation (DP) is a crucial mechanism for the tuning of memory traces once LTP (Long Term Potentiation) has been induced via learning, artificial procedures, or other activities. Putative unuseful LTP might be abolished via this process. Its deficiency is thought to play a role in pathologies, such as drug induced dyskinesia. However, since it is thought that it represents a mechanism that is linked to the susceptibility to interference during consolidation of a memory trace, it is an important process to consider when therapeutic interventions, such as psychotherapy, are administered...
June 18, 2018: Biomedicines
Sanjay Singh, Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui, Sukanya Tripathy, Shiv Kumar, Sudipta Saha, Rajesh Ugale, Dinesh Raj Modi, Anand Prakash
In the last few decades, there has been exponential increase in studies aiming to trace the molecular mechanism of fear extinction with a hope to minimize the return of fear after exposure therapy required for operational treatment of anxiety disorders. The present study explored how the timing of extinction training after developing a specific fear, affects the consequent return of the extinguished fear and the role of histone acetylation in controlling the circuitry, thereof. It was found that rats undergone extinction training 10 min...
June 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ossama Khalaf, Siegfried Resch, Lucie Dixsaut, Victoire Gorden, Liliane Glauser, Johannes Gräff
Whether fear attenuation is mediated by inhibition of the original memory trace of fear with a new memory trace of safety or by updating of the original fear trace toward safety has been a long-standing question in neuroscience and psychology alike. In particular, which of the two scenarios underlies the attenuation of remote (month-old) fear memories is completely unknown, despite the impetus to better understand this process against the backdrop of enduring traumata. We found-chemogenetically and in an engram-specific manner-that effective remote fear attenuation is accompanied by the reactivation of memory recall-induced neurons in the dentate gyrus and that the continued activity of these neurons is critical for fear reduction...
June 15, 2018: Science
Sebastian Ganz, Michael Bülte, Zdzislaw Gajewski, Axel Wehrend
The best studied substances in bovine colostrum are the immunoglobulins. They are absorbed in the small intestine of the neonate by pinocytosis. The Fc-receptor is not highly involved in this process in calves compared to other species. However, this receptor plays a crucial role in the transport of immunoglobulins from the circulation of the dam to the udder and, therefore, into the colostrum. During colostrogenesis, which starts up to 8 weeks prior to parturition, up to 500 g of immunoglobulins are transferred daily by this process...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Francesca Pazzaglia, Chiara Meneghetti, Lucia Ronconi
Wayfinding (WF) is the ability to move around efficiently and find the way from a starting point to a destination. It is a component of spatial navigation, a coordinate and goal-directed movement of one's self through the environment. In the present study, the relationship between WF tasks (route tracing and shortcut finding) and individual factors were explored with the hypothesis that WF tasks would be predicted by different types of cognitive, affective, motivational variables, and personality factors. A group of 116 university students (88 F...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jingchu Hu, Wenqing Wang, Philipp Homan, Penggui Wang, Xifu Zheng, Daniela Schiller
Memory reminders can return a memory into an unstable state such that it will decay unless actively restabilized into long-term memory through reconsolidation. Exposure to a memory reminder, however, does not always lead to destabilization. The 'trace dominance' principle posits that the extent of exposure to memory reminders governs memory susceptibility to disruption. Here, we provide a first systematic investigation of reminder duration effects on threat memory modification in humans. Reminder duration was parametrically varied across 155 participants in a three-day protocol...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jose Fernandez-Rey, Daniel Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Jaime Redondo
Standard extinction procedures seem to imply an inhibition of the fear response, but not a modification of the original fear-memory trace, which remains intact (Bouton, 2002, 2004). Typically, the behavioral procedure used to modify this trace is the so-called postretrieval extinction, consisting of fear-memory reactivation followed by extinction applied within the reconsolidation window. However, the application of this technique yields mixed results, probably due to a series of boundary conditions that limit the effectiveness of postretrieval-extinction effects...
June 7, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Gabriel Jarjat, Sophie Portrat, Pascal Hot
Objectives: Numerous studies reported an age-related deficit in verbal working memory (WM). Beyond the well-established general factors of cognitive aging, the alteration of the specific WM maintenance mechanisms may account for this deficit. This paper aims to investigate the hypothesis that WM attentional maintenance is impaired with age. Method: In a WM task adapted to individual short-term memory and processing speed, younger and older participants maintained letters while verbally responding to a concurrent processing task, in order to constrain the use of rehearsal...
June 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Andrea Stocco, Brianna L Yamasaki, Chantel S Prat
This article describes the data analyzed in the paper "Individual differences in the Simon effect are underpinned by differences in the competitive dynamics in the basal ganglia: An experimental verification and a computational model" (Stocco et al., 2017) [1]. The data includes behavioral results from participants performing three cognitive tasks (Probabilistic Stimulus Selection (Frank et al., 2004) [2], Simon task (Craft and Simon, 1970) [3], and Automated Operation Span (Unsworth et al., 2005) [4]), as well as simulationed traces generated by a computational neurocognitive model that accounts for individual variations in human performance across the tasks...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Signy Sheldon, Sonja Chu, Jonas P Nitschke, Jens C Pruessner, Jennifer A Bartz
Although acute psychosocial stress can impact autobiographical memory retrieval, the nature of this effect is not entirely clear. One reason for this ambiguity is because stress can have opposing effects on the different stages of autobiographical memory retrieval. We addressed this issue by testing how acute stress affects three stages of the autobiographical memory retrieval - accessing, recollecting and reconsolidating a memory. We also investigate the influence of emotion valence on this effect. In a between-subjects design, participants were first exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor or a control task...
June 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrea N Suarez, Ted M Hsu, Clarissa M Liu, Emily E Noble, Alyssa M Cortella, Emily M Nakamoto, Joel D Hahn, Guillaume de Lartigue, Scott E Kanoski
The vagus nerve is the primary means of neural communication between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain. Vagally mediated GI signals activate the hippocampus (HPC), a brain region classically linked with memory function. However, the endogenous relevance of GI-derived vagal HPC communication is unknown. Here we utilize a saporin (SAP)-based lesioning procedure to reveal that selective GI vagal sensory/afferent ablation in rats impairs HPC-dependent episodic and spatial memory, effects associated with reduced HPC neurotrophic and neurogenesis markers...
June 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Timothy P O'Leary, Ahmed T Hussin, Rhian K Gunn, Richard E Brown
The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse (line 85) is a double transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with familial amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 mutations. These mice develop age-related behavioral changes reflective of the neuro-psychiatric symptoms (altered anxiety-like behaviour, hyperactivity) and cognitive dysfunction (impaired learning and memory) observed in AD. The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse has been used to examine the efficacy of therapeutic interventions on behaviour, despite previous difficulties in replicating behavioural phenotypes...
June 2, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Matthias Nahrendorf
Recent advances in cell tracing and sequencing technologies have expanded our knowledge on leukocyte behavior. As a consequence, inflammatory cells, such as monocyte-derived macrophages, and their actions and products are increasingly being considered as potential drug targets for treatment of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Particularly promising developments are the identification of harmful arterial and cardiac macrophage subsets, the cells' altered, sometimes even clonal production in hematopoietic organs, and epigenetically entrained memories of myeloid progenitors and macrophages in the setting of cardiovascular disease...
June 4, 2018: Nature Medicine
Ewa A Miendlarzewska, Sara Ciucci, Carlo V Cannistraci, Daphne Bavelier, Sophie Schwartz
Research on human memory has shown that monetary incentives can enhance hippocampal memory consolidation and thereby protect memory traces from forgetting. However, it is not known whether initial reward may facilitate the recovery of already forgotten memories weeks after learning. Here, we investigated the influence of monetary reward on later relearning. Nineteen healthy human participants learned object-location associations, for half of which we offered money. Six weeks later, most of these associations had been forgotten as measured by a test of declarative memory...
June 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kathryn E Atherton, Nicola Filippini, Adam Z J Zeman, Anna C Nobre, Christopher R Butler
The accelerated forgetting of newly learned information is common amongst patients with epilepsy and, in particular, in the syndrome of transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying accelerated forgetting are poorly understood. It has been hypothesised that interictal epileptiform activity during longer retention intervals disrupts normally established memory traces. Here, we tested a distinct hypothesis-that accelerated forgetting relates to the abnormal encoding of memories...
May 17, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Erin Glennon, Ioana Carcea, Ana Raquel O Martins, Jasmin Multani, Ina Shehu, Mario A Svirsky, Robert C Froemke
Neural representations of the external world are constructed and updated in a manner that depends on behavioral context. For neocortical networks, this contextual information is relayed by a diverse range of neuromodulatory systems, which govern attention and signal the value of internal state variables such as arousal, motivation, and stress. Neuromodulators enable cortical circuits to differentially process specific stimuli and modify synaptic strengths in order to maintain short- or long-term memory traces of significant perceptual events and behavioral episodes...
May 31, 2018: Brain Research
Dominic M D Tran, R Frederick Westbrook
Exposure to a high-fat high-sugar (HFHS) diet rapidly impairs novel-place- but not novel-object-recognition memory in rats (Tran & Westbrook, 2015, 2017). Three experiments sought to investigate the generality of diet-induced cognitive deficits by examining whether there are conditions under which object-recognition memory is impaired. Experiments 1 and 3 tested the strength of short- and long-term object-memory trace, respectively, by varying the interval of time between object familiarization and subsequent novel object test...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Alberto Cordella, Paraskevi Krashia, Annalisa Nobili, Annabella Pignataro, Livia La Barbera, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Alessandro Valzania, Flavio Keller, Martine Ammassari-Teule, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Nicola Berretta, Marcello D'Amelio
The functional loop involving the ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal hippocampus and nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a pivotal role in the formation of spatial memory and persistent memory traces. In particular, the dopaminergic innervation from the VTA to the hippocampus is critical for hippocampal-related memory function and alterations in the midbrain dopaminergic system are frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD), contributing to age-related decline in memory and non-cognitive functions. However, much less is known about the hippocampus-NAc connectivity in AD...
August 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Yi Pu, Brian R Cornwell, Douglas Cheyne, Blake W Johnson
In rodents, hippocampal cell assemblies formed during learning of a navigation task are observed to re-emerge during resting (offline) periods, accompanied by high-frequency oscillations (HFOs). This phenomenon is believed to reflect mechanisms for strengthening newly-formed memory traces. Using magnetoencephalography recordings and a beamforming source location algorithm (synthetic aperture magnetometry), we investigated high-gamma (80-140 Hz) oscillations in the hippocampal region in 18 human participants during inter-trial rest periods in a virtual navigation task...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
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