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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726552/on-the-sources-of-forgetting-in-working-memory-the-test-of-competing-hypotheses
#1
Pierre Barrouillet, Kim Uittenhove, Annalisa Lucidi, Naomi Langerock
Whether forgetting from working memory (WM) is only due to interference or is also caused by temporal decay is still a matter of debate. In the present study, this question was examined using complex span tasks in which each memory item was followed by a series of processing episodes, the duration and number of which were varied. It is known that recall performance in these tasks depends on the cognitive load (CL) of concurrent processing conceived as the ratio between processing time and free time, higher CL resulting in lower spans...
July 20, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720388/strain-specific-effects-of-low-level-lead-exposure-on-associative-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#2
Megha Verma, J S Schneider
Exposure to lead (Pb) remains a significant public health concern. Lead exposure in early life impairs the normal development of numerous cognitive and neurobehavioral processes. Previous work has shown that the effects of developmental Pb exposure on gene expression patterns in the brain are modulated by various factors including the developmental timing of the exposure, level of exposure, sex, and genetic background. Using gene microarray profiling, we previously reported a significant strain-specific effect of Pb exposure on the hippocampal transcriptome, with the greatest number of differentially expressed transcripts in Long Evans (LE) rats and the fewest in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats...
July 15, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715373/new-methods-to-study-gustatory-coding
#3
Alejandra Boronat-García, Sam Reiter, Kui Sun, Mark Stopfer
The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemicals in the environment, giving rise to behaviors critical for survival. When Gustatory Receptor Neurons (GRNs) detect tastant molecules, they encode information about the identity and concentration of the tastant as patterns of electrical activity that then propagate to follower neurons in the brain. These patterns constitute internal representations of the tastant, which then allow the animal to select actions and form memories. The use of relatively simple animal models has been a powerful tool to study basic principles in sensory coding...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712947/cortical-dynamics-of-emotional-autobiographical-memory-retrieval-differ-between-women-and-men
#4
Joseph R Manns, Nicole L Varga, John B Trimper, Patricia J Bauer
Retrieval of autobiographical memories entails periods of search, access, and elaboration. Women's reports of their memories feature more detail and emotional content relative to men's. A key question is how these gender differences relate to unfolding changes in cortical activity during retrieval. We recorded EEG activity from 32 scalp electrodes as women and men were cued to retrieve positive, negative, and neutral autobiographical memories. Alpha (9-12Hz) oscillations were prominent at all EEG channels. Alpha coherence between channels was calculated as a measure of ms-level cortical synchrony...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710971/intrinsic-volatility-of-synaptic-connections-a-challenge-to-the-synaptic-trace-theory-of-memory
#5
REVIEW
Gianluigi Mongillo, Simon Rumpel, Yonatan Loewenstein
According to the synaptic trace theory of memory, activity-induced changes in the pattern of synaptic connections underlie the storage of information for long periods. In this framework, the stability of memory critically depends on the stability of the underlying synaptic connections. Surprisingly however, synaptic connections in the living brain are highly volatile, which poses a fundamental challenge to the synaptic trace theory. Here we review recent experimental evidence that link the initial formation of a memory with changes in the pattern of connectivity, but also evidence that synaptic connections are considerably volatile even in the absence of learning...
July 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709783/role-of-the-lateral-habenula-in-memory-through-online-processing-of-information
#6
REVIEW
Victor Mathis, Lucas Lecourtier
Our memory abilities, whether they involve short-term working memory or long-term episodic or procedural memories, are essential for our well-being, our capacity to adapt to constraints of our environment and survival. Therefore, several key brain regions and neurotransmitter systems are engaged in the processing of sensory information to either maintain such information in working memory so that it will quickly be used, and/or participate in the elaboration and storage of enduring traces useful for longer periods of time...
July 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708877/median-raphe-region-stimulation-alone-generates-remote-but-not-recent-fear-memory-traces
#7
Diána G Balázsfi, Dóra Zelena, Lívia Farkas, Kornél Demeter, István Barna, Csaba Cserép, Virág T Takács, Gábor Nyíri, Flóra Gölöncsér, Beáta Sperlágh, Tamás F Freund, József Haller
The median raphe region (MRR) is believed to control the fear circuitry indirectly, by influencing the encoding and retrieval of fear memories by amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Here we show that in addition to this established role, MRR stimulation may alone elicit the emergence of remote but not recent fear memories. We substituted electric shocks with optic stimulation of MRR in C57BL/6N male mice in an optogenetic conditioning paradigm and found that stimulations produced agitation, but not fear, during the conditioning trial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700099/potential-avenues-for-exercise-to-activate-episodic-memory-related-pathways-a-narrative-review
#8
REVIEW
Paul D Loprinzi, Meghan K Edwards, Emily Frith
Memory function plays an important role in activities of daily living, and consequently, quality and quantity of life. In this narrative review we discuss the anatomical components of episodic memory, including the structure of the hippocampus and the routes of communication to and from this structure. We also highlight cellular traces of memory, such as the engram cell and pathway. To provide etiological insight, the biological mechanisms of episodic memory are discussed, including factors subserving memory encoding (e...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699028/the-occipital-face-area-is-causally-involved-in-the-formation-of-identity-specific-face-representations
#9
Géza Gergely Ambrus, Maria Dotzer, Stefan R Schweinberger, Gyula Kovács
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and neuroimaging studies suggest a role of the right occipital face area (rOFA) in early facial feature processing. However, the degree to which rOFA is necessary for the encoding of facial identity has been less clear. Here we used a state-dependent TMS paradigm, where stimulation preferentially facilitates attributes encoded by less active neural populations, to investigate the role of the rOFA in face perception and specifically in image-independent identity processing...
July 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693861/supplementation-with-zinc-in-rats-enhances-memory-and-reverses-an-age-dependent-increase-in-plasma-copper
#10
Leslie A Sandusky-Beltran, Bryce L Manchester, Ewan C McNay
Zinc and copper are essential trace elements. Dyshomeostasis in these two metals has been observed in Alzheimer's disease, which causes profound cognitive impairment. Insulin therapy has been shown to enhance cognitive performance; however, recent data suggest that this effect may be at least in part due to the inclusion of zinc in the insulin formulation used. Zinc plays a key role in regulation of neuronal glutamate signaling, suggesting a possible link between zinc and memory processes. Consistent with this, zinc deficiency causes cognitive impairments in children...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690511/neurotessmesh-a-tool-for-the-generation-and-visualization-of-neuron-meshes-and-adaptive-on-the-fly-refinement
#11
Juan J Garcia-Cantero, Juan P Brito, Susana Mata, Sofia Bayona, Luis Pastor
Gaining a better understanding of the human brain continues to be one of the greatest challenges for science, largely because of the overwhelming complexity of the brain and the difficulty of analyzing the features and behavior of dense neural networks. Regarding analysis, 3D visualization has proven to be a useful tool for the evaluation of complex systems. However, the large number of neurons in non-trivial circuits, together with their intricate geometry, makes the visualization of a neuronal scenario an extremely challenging computational problem...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689051/projection-targets-of-medial-frontal-d1dr-expressing-neurons
#12
Sang-Woo Han, Young-Cho Kim, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Prefrontal neurons expressing D1-type dopamine receptors (D1DRs) have been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes including working memory and timing. Although D1DRs are most strongly expressed on layer V/VI projection neurons, it is unknown which brain areas are specifically targeted by these projections. Here we selectively marked D1DR neurons using cre-loxP techniques with AAV carrying mCherry fluorescent protein, and traced projection targets of D1DR+ neurons in the mouse medial frontal cortex (MFC)...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685489/short-term-visual-memory-for-location-in-depth-a-u-shaped-function-of-time
#13
Adam Reeves, Quan Lei
Short-term visual memory was studied by displaying arrays of four or five numerals, each numeral in its own depth plane, followed after various delays by an arrow cue shown in one of the depth planes. Subjects reported the numeral at the depth cued by the arrow. Accuracy fell with increasing cue delay for the first 500 ms or so, and then recovered almost fully. This dipping pattern contrasts with the usual iconic decay observed for memory traces. The dip occurred with or without a verbal or color-shape retention load on working memory...
July 6, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683338/encoding-focus-alters-diagnostic-recollection-and-event-related-potentials-erps
#14
P Andrew Leynes, Brittany A Mok
The influence of encoding focus on source memory was investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs). Encoding was focused on the self (self-focus) or on the speaker (other-focus) while hearing words spoken in a male or female voice. Examination of the behavioral and ERP evidence suggests that encoding focus alters the amount of diagnostic recollection. Self-focus encoding produced more positive encoding ERPs, led to greater old/new recognition, and elicited a greater Late Positive Component (LPC; the putative neural correlate of recollection) during the source test...
July 3, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681760/department-of-neurosurgery-seth-gordhandas-sunderdas-medical-college-and-king-edward-vii-memorial-k-e-m-hospital-mumbai
#15
Sunil Pandya, Atul Goel
Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward VII Memorial (K.E.M.) Hospital, Mumbai were inaugurated in 1925. This article traces its illustrious history and of the eminent neurosurgeons who shaped its destiny.
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680660/memory-for-stimulus-sequences-a-divide-between-humans-and-other-animals
#16
Stefano Ghirlanda, Johan Lind, Magnus Enquist
Humans stand out among animals for their unique capacities in domains such as language, culture and imitation, yet it has been difficult to identify cognitive elements that are specifically human. Most research has focused on how information is processed after it is acquired, e.g. in problem solving or 'insight' tasks, but we may also look for species differences in the initial acquisition and coding of information. Here, we show that non-human species have only a limited capacity to discriminate ordered sequences of stimuli...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667669/optogenetic-stimulation-of-dentate-gyrus-engrams-restores-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#17
Jennifer N Perusini, Stephanie A Cajigas, Omid Cohensedgh, Sean C Lim, Ina P Pavlova, Zoe R Donaldson, Christine A Denny
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles. APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice have been developed as an AD model and are characterized by plaque formation at 4-6 months of age. Here, we sought to better understand AD-related cognitive decline by characterizing various types of memory. In order to better understand how memory declines with AD, APP/PS1 mice were bred with ArcCreER(T2) mice. In this line, neural ensembles activated during memory encoding can be indelibly tagged and directly compared with neural ensembles activated during memory retrieval (i...
July 1, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650315/transient-acidosis-while-retrieving-a-fear-related-memory-enhances-its-lability
#18
Jianyang Du, Margaret P Price, Rebecca J Taugher, Daniel Grigsby, Jamison J Ash, Austin C Stark, Md Zubayer Hossain Saad, Kritika Singh, Juthika Mandal, John A Wemmie, Michael J Welsh
Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644892/r-modafinil-exerts-weak-effects-on-spatial-memory-acquisition-and-dentate-gyrus-synaptic-plasticity
#19
Bharanidharan Shanmugasundaram, Yogesh D Aher, Jana Aradska, Marija Ilic, Daniel Daba Feyissa, Predrag Kalaba, Nilima Y Aher, Vladimir Dragacevic, Babak Saber Marouf, Thierry Langer, Harald H Sitte, Harald Hoeger, Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
Modafinil is a wake promoting drug approved for clinical use and also has cognitive enhancing properties. Its enantiomer R-Modafinil (R-MO) is not well studied in regard to cognitive enhancing properties. Hence we studied its effect in a spatial memory paradigm and its possible effects on dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (DG-LTP). Clinically relevant doses of R-MO, vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or saline were administered for three days during the hole-board test and in in vivo DG-LTP. Synaptic levels of dopamine receptors D1R, D2R, dopamine transporter (DAT), and its phosphorylated form (ph-DAT) in DG tissue 4 h after LTP induction were quantified by western blot analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641116/mechanisms-for-selective-single-cell-reactivation-during-offline-sharp-wave-ripples-and-their-distortion-by-fast-ripples
#20
Manuel Valero, Robert G Averkin, Ivan Fernandez-Lamo, Juan Aguilar, Diego Lopez-Pigozzi, Jorge R Brotons-Mas, Elena Cid, Gabor Tamas, Liset Menendez de la Prida
Memory traces are reactivated selectively during sharp-wave ripples. The mechanisms of selective reactivation, and how degraded reactivation affects memory, are poorly understood. We evaluated hippocampal single-cell activity during physiological and pathological sharp-wave ripples using juxtacellular and intracellular recordings in normal and epileptic rats with different memory abilities. CA1 pyramidal cells participate selectively during physiological events but fired together during epileptic fast ripples...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
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