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Memory trace

Sélim Yahia Coll, Sascha Frühholz, Didier Grandjean
Different parts of our brain code the perceptual features and actions related to an object, causing a binding problem: how does the brain discriminate the information of a particular event from the features of other events? Hommel (1998) suggested the event file concept: an episodic memory trace binding perceptual and motor information pertaining to an object. By adapting Hommel's paradigm to emotional faces in a previous study (Coll & Grandjean, 2016), we demonstrated that emotion could take part in an event file with motor responses...
April 19, 2018: Psychological Research
Shu-Han You, Yao-Lung Chang, Chih-Feng Yen
OBJECTIVE: To study the maternal and fetal outcomes and assess the risk factors in patients with rupture at the lower-segment or non-lower-segment scarred, or unscarred gravid uterus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gravid patients with uterine rupture were retrospectively collected in Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital from November 2004 to July 2017. The rupture timing and location in association with maternal and fetal outcomes were collected as well as the possible risk factors including surgical history and interval prior to conception were analyzed...
April 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Ina P Pavlova, Shannon C Shipley, Marcos Lanio, René Hen, Christine A Denny
Recent genetic tools have allowed researchers to visualize and manipulate memory traces (i.e. engrams) in small brain regions. However, the ultimate goal is to visualize memory traces across the entire brain in order to better understand how memories are stored in neural networks and how multiple memories may coexist. Intact tissue clearing and imaging is a new and rapidly growing area of focus that could accomplish this task. Here, we utilized the leading protocols for whole-brain clearing and applied them to the ArcCreERT2 mice, a murine line that allows for the indelible labeling of memory traces...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
Philip Kuhn
In July 1962, Toronto-based surgeon, Herbert Bruce, wrote a private and confidential letter to social worker and historian Cyril Greenland with some memories and impressions of Sigmund Freud's lifelong friend and biographer, Ernest Jones, in Toronto (1908-1913). In the letter, Bruce described Jones as a 'sexual pervert'. Despite Bruce's condemnation of Jones, historians and biographers have largely ignored this controversial aspect of Jones' impression in Toronto. The article traces how scholars have handled the existence of the Bruce letter, and the consequences for how this history has been understood...
April 16, 2018: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
Shin Yanagihara, Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama
Behavioral states of animals, such as observing the behavior of a conspecific, modify signal perception and/or sensations that influence state-dependent higher cognitive behavior, such as learning. Recent studies have shown that neuronal responsiveness to sensory signals is modified when animals are engaged in social interactions with others or in locomotor activities. However, how these changes produce state-dependent differences in higher cognitive function is still largely unknown. Zebra finches, which have served as the premier songbird model, learn to sing from early auditory experiences with tutors...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Francesco Ianì, Dalila Burin, Adriana Salatino, Lorenzo Pia, Raffaella Ricci, Monica Bucciarelli
Memory for action phrases improves in the listeners when the speaker accompanies them with gestures compared to when the speaker stays still. Since behavioral studies revealed a pivotal role of the listeners' motor system, we aimed to disentangle the role of primary motor and premotor cortices. Participants had to recall phrases uttered by a speaker in two conditions: in the gesture condition, the speaker performed gestures congruent with the action; in the no-gesture condition, the speaker stayed still. In Experiment 1, half of the participants underwent inhibitory rTMS over the hand/arm region of the left premotor cortex (PMC) and the other half over the hand/arm region of the left primary motor cortex (M1)...
April 10, 2018: Brain and Language
Shizhao Liu, Andres D Grosmark, Zhe Chen
It has been suggested that reactivation of previously acquired experiences or stored information in declarative memories in the hippocampus and neocortex contributes to memory consolidation and learning. Understanding memory consolidation depends crucially on the development of robust statistical methods for assessing memory reactivation. To date, several statistical methods have seen established for assessing memory reactivation based on bursts of ensemble neural spike activity during offline states. Using population-decoding methods, we propose a new statistical metric, the weighted distance correlation, to assess hippocampal memory reactivation (i...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
Vanessa M Loaiza, Valérie Camos
Two main mechanisms, articulatory rehearsal and attentional refreshing, are argued to be involved in the maintenance of verbal information in working memory (WM). Whereas converging research has suggested that rehearsal promotes the phonological representations of memoranda in working memory, little is known about the representations that refreshing may promote. Not only would examining this question address this gap in the literature, but the investigation has profound implications for different theoretical proposals of how refreshing functions and on the relationships between WM and long-term memory (LTM)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Anthony L A Murkar, Joseph De Koninck
Research suggests sleep plays a role in the consolidation of recently acquired memories for long-term storage. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been shown to play a complex role in emotional-memory processing, and may be involved in subsequent waking-day emotional reactivity and amygdala responsivity. Interaction of the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala with the medial-prefrontal cortex is associated with sleep-dependent learning and emotional memory processing. REM is also implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by sleep disturbance, heightened reactivity to fearful stimuli, and nightmares...
March 15, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Dalel Askri, Souhir Ouni, Said Galai, Josiane Arnaud, Benoit Chovelon, Sylvia G Lehmann, Nathalie Sturm, Mohsen Sakly, Michel Sève, Salem Amara
Over the last decades, engineered nanomaterials have been widely used in various applications due to their interesting properties. Among them, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are used as theranostic agents for cancer, and also as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. With the increasing production and use of these IONPs, there is an evident raise of IONP exposure and subsequently a higher risk of adverse outcome for humans and the environment. In this work, we aimed to investigate the effects of sub-acute IONP exposure on Wistar rat, particularly (i) on the emotional and learning/memory behavior, (ii) on the hematological and biochemical parameters, (iii) on the neurotransmitter content, and (vi) on the trace element homeostasis...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yan H Yu, Valerie L Shafer, Elyse S Sussman
Speech perception behavioral research suggests that rates of sensory memory decay are dependent on stimulus properties at more than one level (e.g., acoustic level, phonemic level). The neurophysiology of sensory memory decay rate has rarely been examined in the context of speech processing. In a lexical tone study, we showed that long-term memory representation of lexical tone slows the decay rate of sensory memory for these tones. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long-term memory representation of vowels slows the rate of auditory sensory memory decay in a similar way to that of lexical tone...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tim James Viney, Minas Salib, Abhilasha Joshi, Gunes Unal, Naomi Berry, Peter Somogyi
Rhythmic theta frequency (~5-12 Hz) oscillations coordinate neuronal synchrony and higher frequency oscillations across the cortex. Spatial navigation and context-dependent episodic memories are represented in several interconnected regions including the hippocampal and entorhinal cortices, but the cellular mechanisms for their dynamic coupling remain to be defined. Using monosynaptically-restricted retrograde viral tracing in mice, we identified a subcortical GABAergic input from the medial septum that terminated in the entorhinal cortex, with collaterals innervating the dorsal presubiculum...
April 5, 2018: ELife
Alessia Mastrodonato, Randy Martinez, Ina P Pavlova, Christina T LaGamma, Rebecca A Brachman, Alfred J Robison, Christine A Denny
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that a single injection of ketamine prior to stress protects against the onset of depressive-like behavior and attenuates learned fear. However, the molecular pathways and brain circuits underlying ketamine-induced stress resilience are still largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we tested whether prophylactic ketamine administration altered neural activity in the prefrontal cortex and/or hippocampus. Mice were injected with saline or ketamine (30 mg/kg) 1 week before social defeat...
February 23, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Maryna Pilkiw, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
Many cognitive processes, such episodic memory and decision making, rely on the ability to form associations between two events that occur separately in time. The formation of such temporal associations depends on neural representations of three types of information: what has been presented (trace holding), what will follow (temporal expectation), and when the following event will occur (explicit timing). The present review seeks to link these representations with firing patterns of single neurons recorded while rodents and non-human primates associate stimuli, outcomes, and motor responses over time intervals...
March 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ilona M Bloem, Yurika L Watanabe, Melissa M Kibbe, Sam Ling
How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Francesca Peressotti, Michele Scaltritti, Michele Miozzo
The languages developed by deaf communities are unique for using visual signs produced by the hand. In the present study, we explored the cognitive effects of employing the hand as articulator. We focused on the arbitrariness of the form-meaning relationship-a fundamental feature of natural languages-and asked whether sign languages change the processing of arbitrary non-linguistic stimulus-response (S-R) associations involving the hand. This was tested using the Simon effect, which specifically requires such type of associations...
2018: PloS One
René Gapert
Unidentified bones were donated to the Buchenwald Memorial Museum in Weimar, Germany. The donor thought the bones may have belonged to internees of the concentration camp and had been decoratively carved by camp personnel. Non-destructive forensic anthropological examination was carried out on the bones to identify their possible origin. Comparative human and non-human bones samples were used to determine the provenance of the bones and the anatomical region they may have come from. Literature and internet searches were conducted to trace the origin of the carved motifs on the bones...
March 28, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
C J Brainerd, S H Bookbinder
The emotional valence of target information has been a centerpiece of recent false memory research, but in most experiments, it has been confounded with emotional arousal. We sought to clarify the results of such research by identifying a shared mathematical relation between valence and arousal ratings in commonly administered normed materials. That relation was then used to (a) decide whether arousal as well as valence influences false memory when they are confounded and to (b) determine whether semantic properties that are known to affect false memory covary with valence and arousal ratings...
March 26, 2018: Emotion
Victorita E Ivan, Parker J Banks, Kris Goodfellow, Aaron J Gruber
The propensity of animals to shift choices immediately after unexpectedly poor reinforcement outcomes is a pervasive strategy across species and tasks. We report here on the memory supporting such lose-shift responding in humans, assessed using a binary choice task in which random responding is the optimal strategy. Participants exhibited little lose-shift responding when fully attending to the task, but this increased by 30%-40% in participants that performed with additional cognitive load that is known to tax executive systems...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Suncica Lah, Chloe Gott, Adrienne Epps, Louise Parry
OBJECTIVES: Imagining the future events is thought to rely on re-combination and integration of past episodic memory traces into future events. Future and past events contain episodic and non-episodic details. Children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were found to have impaired recall of past episodic (but not semantic) event details. Here we examined whether severe TBI impairs construction of future events. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Children with severe TBI (n = 14) and healthy controls (NC; n = 33) (i) completed tests of anterograde (narrative and relational) memory and executive skills, (ii) recalled past events and generated future events, and (iii) rated events' phenomenological qualities...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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