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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051381/learning-enhanced-coupling-between-ripple-oscillations-in-association-cortices-and-hippocampus
#1
Dion Khodagholy, Jennifer N Gelinas, György Buzsáki
Consolidation of declarative memories requires hippocampal-neocortical communication. Although experimental evidence supports the role of sharp-wave ripples in transferring hippocampal information to the neocortex, the exact cortical destinations and the physiological mechanisms of such transfer are not known. We used a conducting polymer-based conformable microelectrode array (NeuroGrid) to record local field potentials and neural spiking across the dorsal cortical surface of the rat brain, combined with silicon probe recordings in the hippocampus, to identify candidate physiological patterns...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049888/closing-in-behavior-compensation-or-attraction
#2
Elisabetta Ambron, Nicoletta Beschin, Chiara Cerrone, Sergio Della Sala
OBJECTIVE: Closing-in behavior (CIB) defines the abnormal misplacement of the copy performance, positioned very closed to or on the top of the model. This symptom is observed in graphic copying by patients suffering from different neurological diseases, most commonly dementia. The cognitive origins of this behavior are still a matter of investigation, and research of the last 10 years has been focused on exploring 2 main accounts of CIB, the compensation and the attraction hypotheses, providing evidence in both directions...
October 19, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042777/self-rated-cognitive-functions-following-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-6-month-prospective-study
#3
Ryosuke Kitahata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Hiroyuki Uchida, Tetsu Hayashida, Maiko Takahashi, Shintaro Nio, Jinichi Hirano, Maki Nagaoka, Takefumi Suzuki, Hiromitsu Jinno, Yuko Kitagawa, Masaru Mimura
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate subjective (self-rated), family-rated, and objective (researcher-rated) cognitive functions in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy. METHOD: We conducted a prospective study to trace self-rated cognitive functions in 30 patients with breast cancer at the completion of chemotherapy (T0) and 6 months later (T1). Subjective cognitive functions were assessed with Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX-S), and Everyday Memory Checklist (EMC-S) for attention, executive function, and episodic memory, respectively...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038217/hippocampal-area-ca1-and-remote-memory-in-rats
#4
Amber C Ocampo, Larry R Squire, Robert E Clark
Hippocampal lesions often produce temporally graded retrograde amnesia (TGRA), whereby recent memory is impaired more than remote memory. This finding has provided support for the process of systems consolidation. However, temporally graded memory impairment has not been observed with the watermaze task, and the findings have been inconsistent with context fear conditioning. One possibility is that large hippocampal lesions indirectly disrupt (by retrograde degeneration) the function of areas that project to the hippocampus that are important for task performance or thought to be important for storing consolidated memories...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033855/implicit-recognition-of-familiar-and-unfamiliar-faces-in-schizophrenia-a-study-of-the-skin-conductance-response-in-familiarity-disorders
#5
Aurely Ameller, Aline Picard, Fabien D'Hondt, Guillaume Vaiva, Pierre Thomas, Delphine Pins
OBJECTIVE: Familiarity is a subjective sensation that contributes to person recognition. This process is described as an emotion-based memory-trace of previous meetings and could be disrupted in schizophrenia. Consequently, familiarity disorders could be involved in the impaired social interactions observed in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies have primarily focused on famous people recognition. Our aim was to identify underlying features, such as emotional disturbances, that may contribute to familiarity disorders in schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031510/pain-and-consciousness
#6
REVIEW
Luis Garcia-Larrea, Hélène Bastuji
The aversive experience we call "pain" results from the coordinated activation of multiple brain areas, commonly described as a "pain matrix". This is not a fixed arrangement of structures but rather a fluid system composed of several interacting networks: A 'nociceptive matrix' includes regions receiving input from ascending nociceptive systems, and ensures the bodily characteristics of physical pain. A further set of structures receiving secondary input supports the 'salience' attributes of noxious stimuli, triggers top-down cognitive controls, and -most importantly- ensures the passage from pre-conscious nociception to conscious pain...
October 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030296/modulating-influences-of-memory-strength-and-sensitivity-of-the-retrieval-test-on-the-detectability-of-the-sleep-consolidation-effect
#7
Sarah F Schoch, Maren J Cordi, Björn Rasch
Emotionality can increase recall probability of memories as emotional information is highly relevant for future adaptive behavior. It has been proposed that memory processes acting during sleep selectively promote the consolidation of emotional memories, so that neutral memories no longer profit from sleep consolidation after learning. This appears as a selective effect of sleep for emotional memories. However, other factors contribute to the appearance of a consolidation benefit and influence this interpretation...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025687/serine-racemase-and-d-serine-in-the-amygdala-are-dynamically-involved-in-fear-learning
#8
Darrick T Balu, Kendall Taylor Presti, Cathy C Y Huang, Kevin Muszynski, Inna Radzishevsky, Herman Wolosker, Guia Guffanti, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph T Coyle
BACKGROUND: The amygdala is a central component of the neural circuitry that underlies fear learning. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent plasticity in the amygdala is required for pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation requires the binding of a coagonist, D-serine, which is synthesized from L-serine by the neuronal enzyme serine racemase (SR). However, little is known about SR and D-serine function in the amygdala. METHODS: We used immunohistochemical methods to characterize the cellular localization of SR and D-serine in the mouse and human amygdala...
August 26, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024752/overtraining-modifies-spatial-memory-susceptibility-to-corticosterone-administration
#9
Alejandro Múnera, Mayerli A Prado-Rivera, D Carolina Cárdenas-Poveda, Marisol R Lamprea
Even though the effects of overtraining and glucocorticoids on different phases of spatial memory are known, the interaction between these factors on the retrieval and extinction of spatial memory has not yet been described. Adult male Wistar rats received eight training trials per day in the Barnes maze for either one or two days. Twenty-four hours after the last training trial they were randomly assigned for receiving an intraperitoneal vehicle or corticosterone injection (0.125 or 0.5 mg/kg) and ten minutes later they were given a memory test, followed by seven extinction trials...
October 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019445/the-beneficial-effect-of-contextual-emotion-on-memory-the-role-of-integration
#10
Anthony Macri, Amélie Pavard, Rémy Versace
This study investigates the effects of emotion on the integration mechanism which binds together the components of an event and the relations between these components and encodes them within a memory trace [Versace, R., Vallet, G. T., Riou, B., Lesourd, M., Labeye, É, & Brunel, L. (2014). Act-In: An integrated view of memory mechanisms. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 26(3), 280-306. doi: 10.1080/20445911.2014.892113 ]. Based on the literature, the authors argue that, in a memory task, contextual emotion could strengthen the integration mechanism and, more specifically, the relations between a target item and its contextual features...
October 11, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017910/developmental-ethanol-exposure-alters-the-morphology-of-mouse-prefrontal-neurons-in-a-layer-specific-manner
#11
Emma L Louth, Hanna D Luctkar, Kayla A Heney, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic developmental exposure to ethanol can lead to a wide variety of teratogenic effects, which in humans are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Individuals affected by FASD may exhibit persistent impairments to cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and attention, which are highly dependent on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. The objective of this study was to determine long-term effects of chronic developmental ethanol exposure on mPFC neuron morphology, in order to better-understand potential neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments associated with FASD...
October 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993465/camp-signaling-mediates-behavioral-flexibility-and-consolidation-of-social-status-in-drosophila-aggression
#12
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Krithika Mohan, Aurnab Ghose
Social rituals, like male-male aggression in Drosophila, are often stereotyped and the component behavioral patterns modular. The likelihood of transition from one behavioral pattern to another is malleable by experience and confers flexibility to the behavioral repertoire. Experience-dependent modification of innate aggressive behavior in flies alters fighting strategies during fights and establishes dominant-subordinate relationships. Dominance hierarchies resulting from agonistic encounters are consolidated to longer lasting social status-dependent behavioral modifications resulting in a robust loser effect...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987617/mitigation-of-postnatal-ethanol-induced-neuroinflammation-ameliorates-trace-fear-memory-deficits-in-juvenile-rats
#13
Molly J Goodfellow, Youn Ju Shin, Derick H Lindquist
Impairments in behavior and cognition are common in individuals diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In this study, FASD model rats were intragastrically intubated with ethanol (5g/kg/day; 5E), sham-intubated (SI), or maintained as naïve controls (NC) over postnatal days (PD) 4-9. Ethanol exposure during this human third trimester-equivalent period induces persistent impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. The ability of ibuprofen (IBU), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to diminish ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and rescue deficits in hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning (TFC) was investigated in 5E rats...
October 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962870/when-birds-and-sias-fly-a-neural-indicator-of-inferring-a-word-meaning-in-context
#14
Pablo Rodríguez-Gómez, Natalia Martínez-García, Miguel A Pozo, José A Hinojosa, Eva M Moreno
Inference generation is a crucial skill in language comprehension. Recent research suggests that readers use both the contents from prior written text and their background knowledge, stored in long-term memory, to generate predictive inferences about what will come up next in a sentence. We recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to examine the reader's ability to make online inferences even in the presence of pseudowords (orthographically legal, but meaningless letter strings), that is, in the presence of referents with no a priori match to vocabulary stored knowledge...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959217/attention-contributes-to-arithmetic-deficits-in-new-onset-childhood-absence-epilepsy
#15
Dazhi Cheng, Xiuxian Yan, Zhijie Gao, Keming Xu, Qian Chen
Neuropsychological studies indicate that new-onset childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is associated with deficits in attention and executive functioning. However, the contribution of these deficits to impaired academic performance remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether attention and executive functioning deficits account for the academic difficulties prevalent in patients with new-onset CAE. We analyzed cognitive performance in several domains, including language, mathematics, psychomotor speed, spatial ability, memory, general intelligence, attention, and executive functioning, in 35 children with new-onset CAE and 33 control participants...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955261/a-semantic-and-episodic-memory-test-semep-developed-within-the-embodied-cognition-framework-application-to-normal-aging-alzheimer-s-disease-and-semantic-dementia
#16
Guillaume T Vallet, Carol Hudon, Nathalie Bier, Joël Macoir, Rémy Versace, Martine Simard
Embodiment has highlighted the importance of sensory-motor components in cognition. Perception and memory are thus very tightly bound together, and episodic and semantic memories should rely on the same grounded memory traces. Reduced perception should then directly reduce the ability to encode and retrieve an episodic memory, as in normal aging. Multimodal integration deficits, as in Alzheimer's disease, should lead to more severe episodic memory impairment. The present study introduces a new memory test developed to take into account these assumptions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953837/emotionally-responsive-wearable-technology-and-stress-detection-for-affective-disorders
#17
Jenny Tillotson
As humans, we are born with no knowledge of odour. Our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the emotional part of our brain responsible for memory and behaviour, and therefore, our individual sense of smell is based purely on life's deep experiences and impressions. The roots of "Aromatherapy" can be traced back more than 3,500 years, to a time when essential oils were first recorded in human history for their therapeutic and medicinal properties. However, in the 21(st) century, it remains one of the most controversial complementary therapies applied in medicine because of its pseudoscience connotations and limited available data on health benefits, despite the importance of smell on human health...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951321/repeated-corticosterone-enhances-the-acquisition-and-recall-of-trace-fear-conditioning
#18
Wendie N Marks, Lisa E Kalynchuk
Repeated exposure to high levels of stress hormones can enhance contextual and discrete fear conditioning in rats. A common belief is that this enhanced fear memory is largely mediated by the amygdala because both contextual and discrete fear conditioning are dependent on an intact amygdala. However, trace fear conditioning is thought to be amygdala independent, and therefore, it is not clear what impact stress would have on this form of fear learning. Here, we examined whether the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) would enhance memory in a hippocampal-dependent trace fear conditioning test...
September 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951163/dynamic-changes-in-large-scale-functional-network-organization-during-autobiographical-memory-retrieval
#19
Cory S Inman, G Andrew James, Katherine Vytal, Stephan Hamann
Autobiographical memory (AM), episodic memory for life events, involves the orchestration of multiple dynamic cognitive processes, including memory access and subsequent elaboration. Previous neuroimaging studies have contrasted memory access and elaboration processes in terms of regional brain activation and connectivity within large, multi-region networks. Although interactions between key memory-related regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to play an important role in AM retrieval, it remains unclear how such connectivity between specific, individual regions involved in AM retrieval changes dynamically across the retrieval process and how these changes relate to broader memory networks throughout the whole brain...
September 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949874/under-which-conditions-can-older-participants-maintain-information-in-working-memory
#20
Gaën Plancher, Hélène Boyer, Benoît Lemaire, Sophie Portrat
Background/Study Context: Age-related deficits in working memory (WM) are commonly described in the literature. However, age-related deficits in WM maintenance mechanisms have received less attention. Based on recent models of WM, the present study aims at determining the conditions under which older adults are able to maintain information. More precisely, we wondered whether the cognitive load effect, taken as evidence for active maintenance in WM, is observed in normal aging and whether it interacts with the level of interference of a concurrent task...
September 26, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
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