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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644892/r-modafinil-exerts-weak-effects-on-spatial-memory-acquisition-and-dentate-gyrus-synaptic-plasticity
#1
Bharanidharan Shanmugasundaram, Yogesh D Aher, Jana Aradska, Marija Ilic, Daniel Daba Feyissa, Predrag Kalaba, Nilima Y Aher, Vladimir Dragacevic, Babak Saber Marouf, Thierry Langer, Harald H Sitte, Harald Hoeger, Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
Modafinil is a wake promoting drug approved for clinical use and also has cognitive enhancing properties. Its enantiomer R-Modafinil (R-MO) is not well studied in regard to cognitive enhancing properties. Hence we studied its effect in a spatial memory paradigm and its possible effects on dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (DG-LTP). Clinically relevant doses of R-MO, vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or saline were administered for three days during the hole-board test and in in vivo DG-LTP. Synaptic levels of dopamine receptors D1R, D2R, dopamine transporter (DAT), and its phosphorylated form (ph-DAT) in DG tissue 4 h after LTP induction were quantified by western blot analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641116/mechanisms-for-selective-single-cell-reactivation-during-offline-sharp-wave-ripples-and-their-distortion-by-fast-ripples
#2
Manuel Valero, Robert G Averkin, Ivan Fernandez-Lamo, Juan Aguilar, Diego Lopez-Pigozzi, Jorge R Brotons-Mas, Elena Cid, Gabor Tamas, Liset Menendez de la Prida
Memory traces are reactivated selectively during sharp-wave ripples. The mechanisms of selective reactivation, and how degraded reactivation affects memory, are poorly understood. We evaluated hippocampal single-cell activity during physiological and pathological sharp-wave ripples using juxtacellular and intracellular recordings in normal and epileptic rats with different memory abilities. CA1 pyramidal cells participate selectively during physiological events but fired together during epileptic fast ripples...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627465/differential-proteome-analysis-of-hippocampus-and-temporal-cortex-using-label-free-based-2d-lc-ms-ms
#3
Xiaoyan Liu, Zhengguang Guo, Wei Liu, Wei Sun, Chao Ma
Hippocampus and temporal cortex are important brain regions, which play distinct, but complimentary roles in mediating learning and memory. Herein, we utilized label-free differential proteome strategy to explore function of normal human hippocampus and temporal cortex in learning and memory. As a result, a total of 5529 and 5702 proteins were identified in hippocampus and temporal cortex, respectively, 516 of which were significantly differential expressed, with abundance span 5 orders of magnitudes. Pathways analysis showed that temporal cortex was involved in growth of axons growth and synapse density regulation, through which could regulate long-term potentiation and long-term retention of trace memory...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625108/memory-dynamics-under-stress
#4
Conny W E M Quaedflieg, Lars Schwabe
Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity...
June 19, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620077/the-influence-of-recollection-and-familiarity-in-the-formation-and-updating-of-associative-representations
#5
Jason D Ozubko, Morris Moscovitch, Gordon Winocur
Prior representations affect future learning. Little is known, however, about the effects of recollective or familiarity-based representations on such learning. We investigate the ability to reuse or reassociate elements from recollection- and familiarity-based associations to form new associations. Past neuropsychological research suggests that hippocampal, and presumably recollective, representations are more flexible than extra-hippocampal, presumably familiarity-based, representations. We therefore hypothesize that the elements of recollective associations, as opposed to familiarity-based representations, may be more easily manipulated and decoupled from each other, and facilitate the formation of new associations...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616995/the-hippocampus-and-the-regulation-of-human-food-intake
#6
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis
Human and animal data suggest that the hippocampus plays certain roles in regulating food intake. However, its actual role may be far broader than currently envisaged, a claim suggested by the centrality of the hippocampus to so many aspects of human/animal cognition. Understanding these ingestion-related functions is especially significant. This is because some degree of hippocampal impairment may be quite common, resulting for example from a Western-style diet, insomnia, diabetes, and depression-among many other causes...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610951/filling-the-gap-evidence-for-a-spatial-differentiation-in-trace-eyeblink-conditioning
#7
Mauro F Larra, Andreas Behrje, Johannes B Finke, Terry D Blumenthal, Hartmut Schächinger
Trace eyeblink conditioning is used as a translational model of declarative memory but restricted to the temporal domain. Potential spatial aspects have never been experimentally addressed. We employed a spatiotemporal trace eyeblink conditioning paradigm in which a spatial dimension (application side of the unconditioned stimulus) was differentially coded by tone frequency of the conditioned stimulus and recorded conditioned reactions from both eyes. We found more and stronger conditioned reactions at the side predicted by the conditioned stimulus but only in aware participants...
June 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601001/semantic-search-during-divergent-thinking
#8
Richard W Hass
Divergent thinking, as a method of examining creative cognition, has not been adequately analyzed in the context of modern cognitive theories. This article casts divergent thinking responding in the context of theories of memory search. First, it was argued that divergent thinking tasks are similar to semantic fluency tasks, but are more constrained, and less well structured. Next, response time distributions from 54 participants were analyzed for temporal and semantic clustering. Participants responded to two prompts from the alternative uses test: uses for a brick and uses for a bottle, for two minutes each...
June 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589361/the-aid-cre-ert2-model-a-tool-for-monitoring-b-cell-immune-responses-and-generating-selective-hybridomas
#9
Simon Le Gallou, Takuya Nojima, Daisuke Kitamura, Jean-Claude Weill, Claude-Agnès Reynaud
Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the hallmark of B cells engaged in an immune response in germinal centers. We designed an inducible fate-mapping reporter mouse in which AID-expressing B cells could be timely and irreversibly marked, by knockin at the Aicda locus of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase. This mouse model allows notably for the long-term follow-up of memory B cells and plasma cells engaged in an immune response. We describe here a protocol to generate hybridomas from small memory subsets that can be easily traced and identified in this mouse line through Cre-activated fluorescent reporters...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586354/contextual-diversity-facilitates-learning-new-words-in-the-classroom
#10
Eva Rosa, José Luis Tapia, Manuel Perea
In the field of word recognition and reading, it is commonly assumed that frequently repeated words create more accessible memory traces than infrequently repeated words, thus capturing the word-frequency effect. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that a seemingly related factor, contextual diversity (defined as the number of different contexts [e.g., films] in which a word appears), is a better predictor than word-frequency in word recognition and sentence reading experiments. Recent research has shown that contextual diversity plays an important role when learning new words in a laboratory setting with adult readers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577274/unexpected-events-disrupt-visuomotor-working-memory-and-increase-guessing
#11
R Dawn Finzi, Bradley R Postle, Timothy F Brady, Adam R Aron
When an unexpected event, such as a car horn honking, occurs in daily life, it often disrupts our train of thought. In the lab, this effect was recently modeled with a task in which verbal working memory (WM) was disrupted by unexpected auditory events (Wessel et al. in Nature Communications, 7, 11195, 2016). Here we tested whether this effect extends to a different type of WM-namely, visuomotor. We found that unexpected auditory events similarly decremented visuomotor WM. Moreover, this effect persisted for many more trials than had previously been shown for verbal WM, and the effect occurred for two different types of unexpected auditory events...
June 2, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575735/fractional-order-leaky-integrate-and-fire-model-with-long-term-memory-and-power-law-dynamics
#12
Wondimu W Teka, Ranjit Kumar Upadhyay, Argha Mondal
Pyramidal neurons produce different spiking patterns to process information, communicate with each other and transform information. These spiking patterns have complex and multiple time scale dynamics that have been described with the fractional-order leaky integrate-and-Fire (FLIF) model. Models with fractional (non-integer) order differentiation that generalize power law dynamics can be used to describe complex temporal voltage dynamics. The main characteristic of FLIF model is that it depends on all past values of the voltage that causes long-term memory...
May 17, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569708/introduction-searching-for-the-historical-roots-of-11-march-2011
#13
Lisa Onaga, Aaron S Moore
Debates about preserving traces of disaster for historical commemoration have emerged amid the processes of recovery and healing from the 2011 Great Tōhoku Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disasters. Prompted by the tensions that underlie decisions about the value of maintaining damaged artifacts and structures for public memorialization, this essay introduces the forum "Japan Before Disaster Studies," which encourages a reconsideration of "disaster heritage" as something that also maintains an active awareness of the roles of technology and science in the depths of Japan's disaster histories...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562618/hebbian-learning-of-hand-centred-representations-in-a-hierarchical-neural-network-model-of-the-primate-visual-system
#14
Jannis Born, Juan M Galeazzi, Simon M Stringer
A subset of neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor areas of the primate brain respond to the locations of visual targets in a hand-centred frame of reference. Such hand-centred visual representations are thought to play an important role in visually-guided reaching to target locations in space. In this paper we show how a biologically plausible, Hebbian learning mechanism may account for the development of localized hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system, VisNet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559376/scopolamine-impairs-appetitive-but-not-aversive-trace-conditioning-role-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#15
M A Pezze, H J Marshall, H J Cassaday
The muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor is an important modulator of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) functions, such as the working memory required to bridge a trace interval in associative leaning. Aversive and appetitive trace conditioning procedures were used to examine the effects of scopolamine (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg i.p.) in male rats. Follow-up experiments tested the effects of microinfusion of 0.15 μg scopolamine (0.075 μg in 0.5 μL/side) in infralimbic (IL) versus prelimbic (PL) regions of rat mPFC, in appetitive trace and locomotor activity (LMA) procedures...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558154/theta-paced-flickering-between-place-cell-maps-in-the-hippocampus-a-model-based-on-short-term-synaptic-plasticity
#16
Shirley Mark, Sandro Romani, Karel Jezek, Misha Tsodyks
Hippocampal place cells represent different environments with distinct neural activity patterns. Following an abrupt switch between two familiar configurations of visual cues defining two environments, the hippocampal neural activity pattern switches almost immediately to the corresponding representation. Surprisingly, during a transient period following the switch to the new environment, occasional fast transitions of activity patterns between the representations (flickering) were observed (Jezek et al. 2011)...
May 30, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555875/enhancement-of-synchronized-activity-between-hippocampal-ca1-neurons-during-initial-storage-of-associative-fear-memory
#17
Yu-Zhang Liu, Yao Wang, Weida Shen, Zhiru Wang
The hippocampus is critical for memory acquisition and consolidation. This function requires activity- and experience-induced neuronal plasticity. It is known that neuronal plasticity is largely dependent on synchronized activity. As has been well characterized, repetitive correlated activity of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons can lead to long-term modifications at their synapses. Studies on network activity have also suggested that memory processing in the hippocampus may involve learning-induced changes of neuronal synchronization, as observed in vivo between hippocampal CA3 and CA1 networks as well as between the rhinal cortex and the hippocampus...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548457/on-the-research-of-time-past-the-hunt-for-the-substrate-of-memory
#18
REVIEW
Bridget N Queenan, Tomás J Ryan, Michael S Gazzaniga, Charles R Gallistel
The search for memory is one of the oldest quests in written human history. For at least two millennia, we have tried to understand how we learn and remember. We have gradually converged on the brain and looked inside it to find the basis of knowledge, the trace of memory. The search for memory has been conducted on multiple levels, from the organ to the cell to the synapse, and has been distributed across disciplines with less chronological or intellectual overlap than one might hope. Frequently, the study of the mind and its memories has been severely restricted by technological or philosophical limitations...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541919/can-we-speculate-running-application-with-server-power-consumption-trace
#19
Yuanlong Li, Han Hu, Yonggang Wen, Jun Zhang
In this paper, we propose to detect the running applications in a server by classifying the observed power consumption series for the purpose of data center energy consumption monitoring and analysis. Time series classification problem has been extensively studied with various distance measurements developed; also recently the deep learning-based sequence models have been proved to be promising. In this paper, we propose a novel distance measurement and build a time series classification algorithm hybridizing nearest neighbor and long short term memory (LSTM) neural network...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539392/sodium-pump-regulation-of-locomotor-control-circuits
#20
Laurence David Picton, HongYan Zhang, Keith Thomas Sillar
Sodium pumps are ubiquitously expressed membrane proteins that extrude three N(a+) ions in exchange for two K(+) ions using ATP as an energy source. Recent studies have illuminated additional, dynamic roles for sodium pumps in regulating the excitability of neuronal networks in an activity-dependent fashion. Here we review their role in a novel form of short-term memory within rhythmic locomotor networks. The data we review derives mainly from recent studies on Xenopus tadpoles and neonatal mice. The role and underlying mechanisms of pump action broadly match previously published data from an invertebrate, the Drosophila larva...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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