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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100032/sequential-learning-during-contextual-fear-conditioning-guides-the-rate-of-systems-consolidation-implications-for-consolidation-of-multiple-memory-traces
#1
Lizeth K Pedraza, Rodrigo O Sierra, Ana P Crestani, Jorge A Quillfeldt, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares
Systems consolidation has been described as a time-dependent reorganization process involving the neocortical and hippocampal networks underlying memory storage and retrieval. Previous studies of our lab were able to demonstrate that systems consolidation is a dynamic process, rather than a merely passive, time-dependent phenomenon. Here, we studied the influence of sequential learning in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) with different training intensities in the time-course of hippocampal dependency and contextual specificity...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096845/cognitive-impairment-after-sudden-cardiac-arrest
#2
Magdalena Jaszke-Psonka, Magdalena Piegza, Piotr Ścisło, Robert Pudlo, Jacek Piegza, Karina Badura-Brzoza, Aleksandra Leksowska, Robert T Hese, Piotr W Gorczyca
AIM: To evaluate the incidence and severity of the impairment of selected cognitive functions in patients after sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in comparison to patients after myocardial infarction without SCA and healthy subjects and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic and clinical parameters and the duration of cardiac arrest on the presence and severity of the described disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group comprised 30 cardiac arrest survivors, the reference group comprised 31 survivors of myocardial infarction without cardiac arrest, and the control group comprised 30 healthy subjects...
December 2016: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077709/semantic-congruence-accelerates-the-onset-of-the-neural-signals-of-successful-memory-encoding
#3
Pau A Packard, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Nico Bunzeck, Berta Nicolás, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer, Lluís Fuentemilla
: As the stream of experience unfolds, our memory system rapidly transforms current inputs into long-lasting meaningful memories. A putative neural mechanism that strongly influences how input elements are transformed into meaningful memory codes relies on the ability to integrate them with existing structures of knowledge or schemas. However, it is not yet clear whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding. In the current investigation, we examined the encoding-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077707/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#4
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. Although studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077263/learning-in-mosquito-larvae-aedes-aegypti-habituation-to-a-visual-danger-signal
#5
Hugo Baglan, Claudio Lazzari, Fernando Guerrieri
In spite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti being a vector of several infectious diseases, a limited number of studies has been undertaken on learning in this species. Moreover, larval stages have been neglected as model organisms, although they are active, aquatic and perform stereotyped behavioural responses, e.g. the escape response when disturbed. To study the learning abilities of mosquito larvae, we focused on habituation, a form of non-associative learning widely studied in vertebrates and invertebrates. Habituation was defined as the progressive and reversible decrease in response to a reiterative stimulus...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069463/extinction-and-recovery-of-an-avoidance-memory-impaired-by-scopolamine
#6
N M Navarro, M C Krawczyk, M M Boccia, M G Blake
Pre-training administration of scopolamine (SCP) resembles situations of cholinergic dysfunction, leading to memory impairment of mice trained in an inhibitory avoidance task. We suggest here that SCP does not impair memory formation, but acquisition is affected in a way that reduces the strength of the stored memory, thus making this memory less able to control behavior when tested. Hence, a memory trace is stored, but is poorly expressed during the test. Although weakly expressed, this memory shows extinction during successive tests, and can be strengthened by using a reminder...
January 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068117/the-neural-representation-of-the-gender-of-faces-in-the-primate-visual-system-a-computer-modeling-study
#7
Thomas Minot, Hannah L Dury, Akihiro Eguchi, Glyn W Humphreys, Simon M Stringer
We use an established neural network model of the primate visual system to show how neurons might learn to encode the gender of faces. The model consists of a hierarchy of 4 competitive neuronal layers with associatively modifiable feedforward synaptic connections between successive layers. During training, the network was presented with many realistic images of male and female faces, during which the synaptic connections are modified using biologically plausible local associative learning rules. After training, we found that different subsets of output neurons have learned to respond exclusively to either male or female faces...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067469/visual-working-memory-resources-are-best-characterized-as-dynamic-quantifiable-mnemonic-traces
#8
Bella Z Veksler, Rachel Boyd, Christopher W Myers, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hansjörg Neth, Wayne D Gray
Visual working memory (VWM) is a construct hypothesized to store a small amount of accurate perceptual information that can be brought to bear on a task. Much research concerns the construct's capacity and the precision of the information stored. Two prominent theories of VWM representation have emerged: slot-based and continuous-resource mechanisms. Prior modeling work suggests that a continuous resource that varies over trials with variable capacity and a potential to make localization errors best accounts for the empirical data...
January 9, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065713/goldfish-hippocampal-pallium-is-essential-to-associate-temporally-discontiguous-events
#9
B Rodríguez-Expósito, A Gómez, I Martín-Monzón, M Reiriz, F Rodríguez, C Salas
There is general agreement that the hippocampus of vertebrates, from fish to mammals, is involved in map-like spatial memory. However, in mammals the role of the hippocampus goes beyond the spatial domain as it is also involved in binding the temporally separate events that compose episodic memories. In this regard, the hippocampus of mammals is essential for trace classical conditioning, in which a stimulus-free time gap separates the end of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), but not in delay conditioning, in which both stimuli coincide in time...
January 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063334/towards-interference-free-hplc-sers-for-the-trace-analysis-of-drug-metabolites-in-biological-fluids
#10
Waleed A Hassanain, Emad L Izake, Arumugam Sivanesan, Godwin A Ayoko
Sofosbuvir metabolite, 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methyluridine (PSI-6206) was studied for the first time by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using the paper-based SERS substrate. The quantification limit of PSI-6206 by SERS was found to be 13ngL(-1) (R(2) value=0.959, RSD=5.23%). For the structural and quantitative analysis of PSI-6206 in blood plasma, an interference-free HPLC-SERS method was developed and compared to HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS methods. The SERS quantification of the drug by the paper substrate was 4 orders of magnitude more sensitive than that by the diode array detector...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062924/memory-formation-orchestrates-the-wiring-of-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons-into-brain-circuits
#11
Petnoi Petsophonsakul, Kevin Richetin, Trinovita Andraini, Laurent Roybon, Claire Rampon
During memory formation, structural rearrangements of dendritic spines provide a mean to durably modulate synaptic connectivity within neuronal networks. New neurons generated throughout the adult life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus contribute to learning and memory. As these neurons become incorporated into the network, they generate huge numbers of new connections that modify hippocampal circuitry and functioning. However, it is yet unclear as to how the dynamic process of memory formation influences their synaptic integration into neuronal circuits...
January 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054811/overdistribution-illusions-categorical-judgments-produce-them-confidence-ratings-reduce-them
#12
C J Brainerd, K Nakamura, V F Reyna, R E Holliday
Overdistribution is a form of memory distortion in which an event is remembered as belonging to too many episodic states, states that are logically or empirically incompatible with each other. We investigated a response formatting method of suppressing 2 basic types of overdistribution, disjunction and conjunction illusions, which parallel some classic illusions in the judgment and decision making literature. In this method, subjects respond to memory probes by rating their confidence that test cues belong to specific episodic states (e...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046518/tu-h-campus-iep2-04-efficient-binary-tree-description-of-high-resolution-breast-models-for-in-silico-imaging
#13
A Badal, C Graff, R Zeng, F Samuelson, A Badano
PURPOSE: We introduce a new geometric model for Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of breast tomosynthesis and mammography images with very high resolution digital breast phantoms voxelized at resolutions down to 50 microns or less. This fine sampling of the anatomy is required to reproduce the spiculated lesions and microcalcifications visible in clinical mammograms with pixel sizes under 100 microns. Phantoms voxelized at this resolution require such a large amount of computer memory that it might not be possible to execute the simulation in regular computers or in Graphics Processing Units (GPU), limiting the realism that can be achieved in virtual clinical trials...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045534/l%C3%A3-vy-defects-in-matrix-immobilized-j-aggregates-tracing-intra-and-inter-segmental-exciton-relaxation
#14
Larry Lüer, Sai Kiran Rajendran, Tatjana Stoll, Lucia Ganzer, Julien Réhault, David M Coles, David George Lidzey, Tersilla Virgili, Giulio Cerullo
One-dimensional J aggregates present narrow and intense absorption and emission spectra which are interesting for photonics applications. Matrix immobilization of the aggregates, as required for most device architectures, has recently been shown to induce a non-Gaussian (Lévy type) defect distribution with heavy tails, expected to influence exciton relaxation. Here we perform two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) in one-dimensional J aggregates of the cyanine dye TDBC, immobilized in a gel matrix, and we quantitatively model 2DES maps by non-linear optimization coupled to quantum mechanical calculations of the transient excitonic response...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044430/the-role-of-sleep-in-cognitive-processing-focusing-on-memory-consolidation
#15
REVIEW
Alexis M Chambers
Research indicates that sleep promotes various cognitive functions, such as decision-making, language, categorization, and memory. Of these, most work has focused on the influence of sleep on memory, with ample work showing that sleep enhances memory consolidation, a process that stores new memories in the brain over time. Recent psychological and neurophysiological research has vastly increased understanding of this process. Such work not only suggests that consolidation relies on plasticity-related mechanisms that reactivate and stabilize memory representations, but also that this process may be experimentally manipulated by methods that target which memory traces are reactivated during sleep...
January 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039087/inhibition-of-transcription-and-translation-in-the-striatum-after-memory-reactivation-lack-of-evidence-of-reconsolidation
#16
Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Andrea Cristina Medina, Paola C Bello-Medina, Gina L Quirarte
It has been found that interference with neural activity after a consolidated memory is retrieved produces an amnestic state; this has been taken has indicative of destabilization of the memory trace that would have been produced by a process of reconsolidation (allowing for maintenance of the original trace). However, a growing body of evidence shows that this is not a reliable effect, and that it is dependent upon some experimental conditions, such as the age of the memory, memory reactivation procedures, the predictability of the reactivation stimulus, and strength of training...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034785/modulation-of-the-consolidation-and-reconsolidation-of-fear-memory-by-three-different-serotonin-receptors-in-hippocampus
#17
S D Schmidt, C R G Furini, C G Zinn, L E Cavalcante, F F Ferreira, J A K Behling, J C Myskiw, I Izquierdo
The process of memory formation is complex and highly dynamic. During learning, the newly acquired information is found in a fragile and labile state. Through a process known as consolidation, which requires specific mechanisms such as protein synthesis, the memory trace is stored and stabilized. It is known that when a consolidated memory is recalled, it again becomes labile and sensitive to disruption. To be maintained, this memory must undergo an additional process of restabilization called reconsolidation, which requires another phase of protein synthesis...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032674/parahippocampal-and-retrosplenial-connections-of-rat-posterior-parietal-cortex
#18
Grethe M Olsen, Shinya Ohara, Toshio Iijima, Menno P Witter
The posterior parietal cortex has been implicated in spatial functions, including navigation. The hippocampal and parahippocampal region and the retrosplenial cortex are crucially involved in navigational processes and connections between the parahippocampal/retrosplenial domain and the posterior parietal cortex have been described. However, an integrated account of the organization of these connections is lacking. Here we investigated parahippocampal connections of each posterior parietal subdivision and the neighboring secondary visual cortex using conventional retrograde and anterograde tracers as well as transsynaptic retrograde tracing with a modified rabies virus...
December 29, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025812/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-eyeblink-classical-conditioning
#19
Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
This chapter reviews the past research toward identifying the brain circuit and its computation underlying the associative memory in eyeblink classical conditioning. In the standard delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm, the conditioned stimulus (CS) and eyeblink-eliciting unconditioned stimulus (US) converge in the cerebellar cortex and interpositus nucleus (IPN) through the pontine nuclei and inferior olivary nucleus. Repeated pairings of CS and US modify synaptic weights in the cerebellar cortex and IPN, enabling IPN neurons to activate the red nucleus and generate the conditioned response (CR)...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024275/stress-disrupts-the-reconsolidation-of-fear-memories-in-men
#20
Shira Meir Drexler, Oliver T Wolf
Reconsolidation is a post-retrieval process of restabilization of the memory trace. Previous findings from our group suggest that cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone secreted in response to stress, enhances the reconsolidation of fear memories in healthy men. Cortisol effect was found to be very specific, enhancing only the fear memory that was reactivated (i.e. retrieved), but not the non-reactivated memory. In the current study we aimed to investigate the effects of psychosocial stress, a more ecologically valid intervention, on fear memory reconsolidation in men...
November 25, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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