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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456500/auditory-memory-decay-as-reflected-by-a-new-mismatch-negativity-score-is-associated-with-episodic-memory-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia
#1
Daria Laptinskaya, Franka Thurm, Olivia C Küster, Patrick Fissler, Winfried Schlee, Stephan Kolassa, Christine A F von Arnim, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) peaking about 100-250 ms after the onset of a deviant tone in a sequence of identical (standard) tones. Depending on the interstimulus interval (ISI) between standard and deviant tones, the MMN is suitable to investigate the pre-attentive auditory discrimination ability (short ISIs, ≤ 2 s) as well as the pre-attentive auditory memory trace (long ISIs, >2 s). However, current results regarding the MMN as an index for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are mixed, especially after short ISIs: while the majority of studies report positive associations between the MMN and cognition, others fail to find such relationships...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452180/the-m-maze-task-an-automated-method-for-studying-fear-memory-in-rats-exposed-to-protracted-aversive-conditioning
#2
Rimenez R Souza, Nicole M Robertson, David T Pruitt, Lindsey Noble, Eric C Meyers, Phillip A Gonzales, Nathaniel P Bleker, Holle L Carey, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Christa K McIntyre, Robert L Rennaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning (FC) in rodents is the most used animal model to investigate the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although research using FC has generated a better understanding of fear memories, studies often rely on mild or moderate FC training and behavioral analysis generally focuses on measuring freezing responses within few test sessions. NEW METHOD: We introduce the M-Maze task, a system to measures extinction of conditioned fear using suppression of operant behavior...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441037/the-integration-of-realistic-episodic-memories-relies-on-different-working-memory-processes-evidence-from-virtual-navigation
#3
Gaën Plancher, Valérie Gyselinck, Pascale Piolino
Memory is one of the most important cognitive functions in a person's life as it is essential for recalling personal memories and performing many everyday tasks. Although a huge number of studies have been conducted in the field, only a few of them investigated memory in realistic situations, due to methodological issues. The various tools that have been developed using virtual environments (VEs) have gained popularity in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology because they enable to create naturalistic and controlled situations, and are thus particularly adapted to the study of episodic memory (EM), for which an ecological evaluation is of prime importance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432803/learning-and-memory-is-modulated-by-cannabidiol-when-administered-during-trace-fear-conditioning
#4
A L Uhernik, Z T Montoya, C D Balkissoon, J P Smith
Cannabidiol (CBD) is thought to have therapeutic potential for treating psychiatric conditions that affect cognitive aspects of learning and memory, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that CBD enhances extinction of fear memory when given after conditioning. This led us to hypothesize that CBD, if administered prior to fear conditioning, might modulate cognitive learning and memory processes in additional ways that would further guide its potential use for treating PTSD...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431892/correlates-of-economic-decisions-in-the-dorsal-and-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortices
#5
Habiba Azab, Benjamin Y Hayden
The anterior cingulate cortex can be divided into distinct ventral (subgenual, sgACC) and dorsal (dACC), portions. The role of dACC in value-based decision-making is hotly debated, while the role of sgACC is poorly understood. We recorded neuronal activity in both regions in rhesus macaques performing a token-gambling task. We find that both encode many of the same variables; including integrated offered values of gambles, primary as well as secondary reward outcomes, number of current tokens, and anticipated rewards...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427122/visual-search-for-changes-in-scenes-creates-long-term-incidental-memory-traces
#6
Igor S Utochkin, Jeremy M Wolfe
Humans are very good at remembering large numbers of scenes over substantial periods of time. But how good are they at remembering changes to scenes? In this study, we tested scene memory and change detection two weeks after initial scene learning. In Experiments 1-3, scenes were learned incidentally during visual search for change. In Experiment 4, observers explicitly memorized scenes. At test, after two weeks observers were asked to discriminate old from new scenes, to recall a change that they had detected in the study phase, or to detect a newly introduced change in the memorization experiment...
February 9, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389195/the-dimensionality-of-reasoning-inductive-and-deductive-inference-can-be-explained-by-a-single-process
#7
Brett K Hayes, Rachel G Stephens, Jeremy Ngo, John C Dunn
Three-experiments examined the number of qualitatively different processing dimensions needed to account for inductive and deductive reasoning. In each study, participants were presented with arguments that varied in logical validity and consistency with background knowledge (believability), and evaluated them according to deductive criteria (whether the conclusion was necessarily true given the premises) or inductive criteria (whether the conclusion was plausible given the premises). We examined factors including working memory load (Experiments 1 and 2), individual working memory capacity (Experiments 1 and 2), and decision time (Experiment 3), which according to dual-processing theories, modulate the contribution of heuristic and analytic processes to reasoning...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381415/attractive-serial-dependence-in-the-absence-of-an-explicit-task
#8
Michele Fornaciai, Joonkoo Park
Attractive serial dependence refers to an adaptive change in the representation of sensory information, whereby a current stimulus appears to be similar to a previous one. The nature of this phenomenon is controversial, however, as serial dependence could arise from biased perceptual representations or from biased traces of working memory representation at a decisional stage. Here, we demonstrated a neural signature of serial dependence in numerosity perception emerging early in the visual processing stream even in the absence of an explicit task...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370235/time-limited-involvement-of-caudal-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-trace-eyeblink-conditioning-retrieval-is-dependent-on-conditioned-stimulus-intensity
#9
Xuan Li, Guang-Yan Wu, Juan Yao, Yi Yang, Jian-Ning Ye, Jian-Feng Sui
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been widely investigated for its roles in learning and memory. The present study investigated the time-limited involvement of the caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) of the mPFC in the retrieval process for a simple associative motor learning, trace eyeblink conditioning (tEBC), using a 75 dB or 100 dB tone as the conditioned stimulus (CS). The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol was injected into the cACC of guinea pigs at 1 day or 4 weeks after tEBC acquisition. When muscimol was administered 1 day after tEBC acquisition, the conditioned response (CR) of the 75 dB group was severely impaired, whereas the CR of the 100 dB group exhibited no significant change relative to the control...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353588/enhanced-action-control-as-a-prior-function-of-episodic-memory
#10
Philipp Rau, George Botterill
Improved control of agency is likely to be a prior and more important function of episodic memory than the epistemic-communicative role pinpointed by Mahr & Csibra (M&C). Taking the memory trace upon which scenario construction is based to be a stored internal model produced in past perceptual processing promises to provide a better account of autonoetic character than metarepresentational embedding.
January 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353055/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-signaling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-modulates-cued-fear-learning-but-not-spatial-working-memory-in-female-rats
#11
Adam J Kirry, Matthew R Herbst, Sarah E Poirier, Michelle M Maskeri, Amy C Rothwell, Robert C Twining, Marieke R Gilmartin
A genetic polymorphism within the gene encoding the pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor type I (PAC1R) has recently been associated with hyper-reactivity to threat-related cues in women, but not men, with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PACAP is a highly conserved peptide, whose role in mediating adaptive physiological stress responses is well established. Far less is understood about the contribution of PACAP signaling in emotional learning and memory, particularly the encoding of fear to discrete cues...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352028/the-mysteries-of-remote-memory
#12
REVIEW
Zimbul Albo, Johannes Gräff
Long-lasting memories form the basis of our identity as individuals and lie central in shaping future behaviours that guide survival. Surprisingly, however, our current knowledge of how such memories are stored in the brain and retrieved, as well as the dynamics of the circuits involved, remains scarce despite seminal technical and experimental breakthroughs in recent years. Traditionally, it has been proposed that, over time, information initially learnt in the hippocampus is stored in distributed cortical networks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348190/pronounced-hyperactivity-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-bdnf-dysregulation-in-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats
#13
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Maria Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia E Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Gianni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats (DAT-knockout, DAT-KO rats) in which the gene encoding the DAT has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology (ZFN)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338121/does-confucianism-allow-for-body-donation
#14
REVIEW
D Gareth Jones, Jing-Bao Nie
Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted...
January 16, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336733/impaired-visuospatial-short-term-memory-in-children-with-adhd
#15
Tadamasa Narimoto, Naomi Matsuura, Michio Hiratani
Previous studies provide clear evidence that visuospatial memory performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is significantly lower than in typically developing children. In the present study, we investigated a major cause of their low performance using a spatial span test. Possibly, inattention resulting from lack of motivation or interest causes their low performance so that they do not correctly encode targets to be remembered. On the other hand, a deficit in temporary maintenance per se may cause their low performance; that is, their inefficient use of rehearsal during a retention interval may lead to memory traces' fast decay...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335678/does-mental-context-drift-or-shift
#16
Sarah DuBrow, Nina Rouhani, Yael Niv, Kenneth A Norman
Theories of episodic memory have generally proposed that individual memory traces are linked together by a representation of context that drifts slowly over time. Recent data challenge the notion that contextual drift is always slow and passive. In particular, changes in one's external environment or internal model induce discontinuities in memory that are reflected in sudden changes in neural activity, suggesting that context can shift abruptly. Furthermore, context change effects are sensitive to top-down goals, suggesting that contextual drift may be an active process...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331847/longitudinal-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-microstructural-and-macrostructural-changes-following-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#17
Cameron A Elliott, Donald W Gross, B Matt Wheatley, Christian Beaulieu, Tejas Sankar
OBJECTIVES: 1) Characterize the evolution of microstructural changes in the contralateral, non-operated hippocampus-using longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). 2) Characterize the downstream extra-hippocampal volumetric changes of the fornix and mammillary bodies after TLE surgery. 3) Examine the relationship between these measures and seizure/cognitive outcome. METHODS: Serial structural and DTI brain MRI scans were collected in 25 TLE patients pre- and post-surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy, ATL - 13; selective amygdalohippocampectomy, SelAH - 12) and in 12 healthy controls...
January 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326059/differential-requirement-of-de-novo-arc-protein-synthesis-in-the-insular-cortex-and-the-amygdala-for-safe-and-aversive-taste-long-term-memory-formation
#18
Guzmán-Ramos Kioko, Venkataraman Archana, Morin Jean-Pascal, Osorio-Gómez Daniel, Bermúdez-Rattoni Federico
Several immediate early genes products are known to be involved in the facilitation of structural and functional modifications at distinct synapses activated through experience. The IEG-encoded protein Arc (activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) has been widely implicated in long-term memory formation and stabilization. In this study, we sought to evaluate a possible role for de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex (IC) and in the amygdala (AMY) during long-term taste memory formation...
January 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318375/action-compatibility-in-spatial-knowledge-developed-through-virtual-navigation
#19
Qi Wang, Holly A Taylor, Tad T Brunyé
Action-compatibility effects (ACEs) arise due to incongruity between perceptuo-motor traces stored in memory and the perceptuo-motor demands of a retrieval task. Recent research has suggested that ACEs arising during spatial memory retrieval are additionally modulated by individual differences in how experienced participants are with a college campus environment. However, the extent and nature of experience with a real-world environment is difficult to assess and control, and characteristics of the retrieval task itself might modulate ACEs during spatial memory retrieval...
January 9, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284750/cyclic-amp-dependent-plasticity-underlies-rapid-changes-in-odor-coding-associated-with-reward-learning
#20
Thierry Louis, Aaron Stahl, Tamara Boto, Seth M Tomchik
Learning and memory rely on dopamine and downstream cAMP-dependent plasticity across diverse organisms. Despite the central role of cAMP signaling, it is not known how cAMP-dependent plasticity drives coherent changes in neuronal physiology that encode the memory trace, or engram. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is critically involved in olfactory classical conditioning, and cAMP signaling molecules are necessary and sufficient for normal memory in intrinsic MB neurons. To evaluate the role of cAMP-dependent plasticity in learning, we examined how cAMP manipulations and olfactory classical conditioning modulate olfactory responses in the MB with in vivo imaging...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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