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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430044/syntactic-complexity-and-frequency-in-the-neurocognitive-language-system
#1
Yun-Hsuan Yang, William D Marslen-Wilson, Mirjana Bozic
Prominent neurobiological models of language follow the widely accepted assumption that language comprehension requires two principal mechanisms: a lexicon storing the sound-to-meaning mapping of words, primarily involving bilateral temporal regions, and a combinatorial processor for syntactically structured items, such as phrases and sentences, localized in a left-lateralized network linking left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal areas. However, recent research showing that the processing of simple phrasal sequences may engage only bilateral temporal areas, together with the claims of distributional approaches to grammar, raises the question of whether frequent phrases are stored alongside individual words in temporal areas...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429887/effects-of-aluminium-on-long-term-memory-in-rats-and-on-sirt1-mediating-the-transcription-of-creb-dependent-gene-in-hippocampus
#2
Dongying Yan, Cuihong Jin, Yang Cao, Lulu Wang, Xiaobo Lu, Jinghua Yang, Shengwen Wu, Yuan Cai
Epidemiological investigations have shown that aluminium (Al) is an important neurotoxicant which can be absorbed by organisms via various routes. Previous studies have confirmed that exposure to Al could cause neurodegenerative diseases, decline CREB phosphorylation and then down-regulate the transcription and protein expression of its target genes including BDNF. However, recent studies revealed that CREB activation alone was far from enough to activate the expression of long-term memory (LTM) related genes; there might be other regulatory factors involved in this process...
April 21, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429177/learning-from-one-s-own-errors-and-those-of-others
#3
Janet Metcalfe, Judy Xu
Three experiments investigated the effects of making errors oneself, as compared to just hearing the correct answer without error generation, hearing another person make an error, or being "on-the-hook," that is, possibly but not necessarily being the person who would be "called-on" to give a response. In all three experiments, generating either an error of commission or generating the correct response, oneself, out loud, compared to being a person who heard another's commission errors (or correct responses), was beneficial for later recall of the correct answer...
April 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428166/vascular-cognitive-impairment-in-a-memory-clinic-population-rationale-and-design-of-the-utrecht-amsterdam-clinical-features-and-prognosis-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-trace-vci-study
#4
EDITORIAL
Jooske Marije Funke Boomsma, Lieza Geertje Exalto, Frederik Barkhof, Esther van den Berg, Jeroen de Bresser, Rutger Heinen, Huiberdina Lena Koek, Niels Daniël Prins, Philip Scheltens, Henry Chanoch Weinstein, Wiesje Maria van der Flier, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) refers to cognitive dysfunction due to vascular brain injury, as a single cause or in combination with other, often neurodegenerative, etiologies. VCI is a broad construct that captures a heterogeneous patient population both in terms of cognitive and noncognitive symptoms and in terms of etiology and prognosis. This provides a challenge when applying this construct in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the rationale and design of the TRACE-VCI study, which investigates the clinical features and prognosis of VCI in a memory clinic setting...
April 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427713/on-the-efficiency-of-instruction-based-rule-encoding
#5
Hannes Ruge, Tatjana Karcz, Tony Mark, Victoria Martin, Katharina Zwosta, Uta Wolfensteller
Instructions have long been considered a highly efficient route to knowledge acquisition especially compared to trial-and-error learning. We aimed at substantiating this claim by identifying boundary conditions for such an efficiency gain, including the influence of active learning intention, repeated instructions, and working memory load and span. Our experimental design allowed us to not only assess how well the instructed stimulus-response (S-R) rules were implemented later on, but also to directly measure prior instruction encoding processes...
April 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426734/study-of-deaths-by-suicide-of-homosexual-prisoners-in-nazi-sachsenhausen-concentration-camp
#6
Esther Cuerda-Galindo, Francisco López-Muñoz, Matthis Krischel, Astrid Ley
Living conditions in Nazi concentration camps were harsh and inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg, Germany) was a concentration camp that operated from 1936 to 1945. More than 200,000 people were detained there under Nazi rule. This study analyzes deaths classified as suicides by inmates in this camp, classified as homosexuals, both according to the surviving Nazi files. This collective was especially repressed by the Nazi authorities. Data was collected from the archives of Sachsenhausen Memorial and the International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#7
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillations, namely theta and ripples, have been implicated in encoding and consolidation of new memories, respectively. According to existing literature, hippocampal dentate spikes are prominent, short-duration (<30 ms), large-amplitude (∼2-4 mV) fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials that take place during awake immobility and sleep. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that during dentate spikes dentate gyrus granule cells increase their firing while firing of CA1 pyramidal cells are suppressed, thus resulting in momentary uncoupling of the two hippocampal subregions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422976/reactivation-or-transformation-motor-memory-consolidation-associated-with-cerebral-activation-time-locked-to-sleep-spindles
#8
Stuart Fogel, Genevieve Albouy, Bradley R King, Ovidiu Lungu, Catherine Vien, Arnaud Bore, Basile Pinsard, Habib Benali, Julie Carrier, Julien Doyon
Motor memory consolidation is thought to depend on sleep-dependent reactivation of brain areas recruited during learning. However, up to this point, there has been no direct evidence to support this assertion in humans, and the physiological processes supporting such reactivation are unknown. Here, simultaneous electroencephalographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) recordings were conducted during post-learning sleep to directly investigate the spindle-related reactivation of a memory trace formed during motor sequence learning (MSL), and its relationship to overnight enhancement in performance (reflecting consolidation)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414333/dynamic-hidden-states-underlying-working-memory-guided-behavior
#9
Michael J Wolff, Janina Jochim, Elkan G Akyürek, Mark G Stokes
Recent theoretical models propose that working memory is mediated by rapid transitions in 'activity-silent' neural states (for example, short-term synaptic plasticity). According to the dynamic coding framework, such hidden state transitions flexibly configure memory networks for memory-guided behavior and dissolve them equally fast to allow forgetting. We developed a perturbation approach to measure mnemonic hidden states in an electroencephalogram. By 'pinging' the brain during maintenance, we show that memory-item-specific information is decodable from the impulse response, even in the absence of attention and lingering delay activity...
April 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412502/enriched-environment-effects-on-remote-object-recognition-memory
#10
Riccardo Melani, Gabriele Chelini, Maria Cristina Cenni, Nicoletta Berardi
Since Ebbinghaus' classical work on oblivion and saving effects, we know that declarative memories may become at first spontaneously irretrievable and only subsequently completely extinguished. Recently, this time-dependent path towards memory-trace loss has been shown to correlate with different patterns of brain activation. Environmental enrichment (EE) enhances learning and memory and affects system memory consolidation. However, there is no evidence on whether and how EE could affect the time-dependent path towards oblivion...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409319/the-effect-of-gamma-enhancing-binaural-beats-on-the-control-of-feature-bindings
#11
Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Roberta Sellaro
Binaural beats represent the auditory experience of an oscillating sound that occurs when two sounds with neighboring frequencies are presented to one's left and right ear separately. Binaural beats have been shown to impact information processing via their putative role in increasing neural synchronization. Recent studies of feature-repetition effects demonstrated interactions between perceptual features and action-related features: repeating only some, but not all features of a perception-action episode hinders performance...
April 13, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401950/auditory-conditioned-stimulus-presentation-during-nrem-sleep-impairs-fear-memory-in-mice
#12
Ross J Purple, Takeshi Sakurai, Masanori Sakaguchi
Externally manipulating memories by presenting conditioned stimuli (CS) during sleep is a new approach to investigating memory processing during sleep. However, whether presenting a CS during REM or NREM sleep enhances or extinguishes fear memory has not been clearly delineated. In this study, mice underwent trace fear conditioning consisting of an auditory CS paired with a foot shock, and the auditory CS was re-presented during subsequent REM or NREM sleep. Mice that received auditory cueing during NREM but not REM sleep showed impaired fear memory upon later presentation of the auditory CS...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396586/statistical-learning-leads-to-persistent-memory-evidence-for-one-year-consolidation
#13
Andrea Kóbor, Karolina Janacsek, Ádám Takács, Dezso Nemeth
Statistical learning is a robust mechanism of the brain that enables the extraction of environmental patterns, which is crucial in perceptual and cognitive domains. However, the dynamical change of processes underlying long-term statistical memory formation has not been tested in an appropriately controlled design. Here we show that a memory trace acquired by statistical learning is resistant to inference as well as to forgetting after one year. Participants performed a statistical learning task and were retested one year later without further practice...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391135/the-residual-protective-effects-of-enactment
#14
Jeffrey D Wammes, Myra A Fernandes
Research has demonstrated the importance of the quality of initial retrieval events (Test 1) for performance on later memory tests (Test 2). We explored whether enacting words at encoding, relative to simply reading them, provided protection against the detrimental effects of a degraded retrieval experience, through the addition of motor processing to the extant memory representation. Participants encoded a mixed list of enacted and read words, then completed Test 1, and a later Test 2. Encoding and Test 2 were always completed under full attention (FA)...
April 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389383/flexible-rapid-and-automatic-neocortical-word-form-acquisition-mechanism-in-children-as-revealed-by-neuromagnetic-brain-response-dynamics
#15
Eino Partanen, Alina Leminen, Stine de Paoli, Anette Bundgaard, Osman Skjold Kingo, Peter Krøjgaard, Yury Shtyrov
Children learn new words and word forms with ease, often acquiring a new word after very few repetitions. Recent neurophysiological research on word form acquisition in adults indicates that novel words can be acquired within minutes of repetitive exposure to them, regardless of the individual's focused attention on the speech input. Although it is well-known that children surpass adults in language acquisition, the developmental aspects of such rapid and automatic neural acquisition mechanisms remain unexplored...
April 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388664/the-therapeutic-protection-of-a-living-and-dead-lactobacillus-strain-against-aluminum-induced-brain-and-liver-injuries-in-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Fengwei Tian, Leilei Yu, Qixiao Zhai, Yue Xiao, Ying Shi, Jinchi Jiang, Xiaoming Liu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Our previous study found that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 had the ability to alleviate acute aluminum (Al) toxicity when the strain was introduced simultaneously with Al exposure. This research was designed to elucidate the therapeutic effects of living and dead L. plantarum CCFM639 against chronic Al toxicity and to gain insight into the protection modes of this strain. Animals were assigned into control, Al only, Al + living CCFM639, and Al + dead CCFM639 groups. The Al exposure model was established by drinking water for the first 4 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386586/teaching-students-to-think-spatially-through-embodied-actions-design-principles-for-learning-environments-in-science-technology-engineering-and-mathematics
#17
D DeSutter, M Stieff
Spatial thinking is a vital component of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curriculum. However, to date, broad development of learning environments that target domain-specific spatial thinking is incomplete. The present article visits the problem of improving spatial thinking by first reviewing the evidence that the human mind is embodied: that cognition, memory, and knowledge representation maintain traces of sensorimotor impressions from acting and perceiving in a physical environment...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385873/synaptic-targeting-of-double-projecting-ventral-ca1-hippocampal-neurons-to-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-basal-amygdala
#18
Woong Bin Kim, Jun-Hyeong Cho
The acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory requires coordinated neural activity in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and amygdala. The contextual information encoded in the hippocampus is conveyed to the mPFC and amygdala for contextual fear conditioning. Previous studies have suggested that a CA1 neuronal population in the ventral hippocampus (VH) projects to both the mPFC and amygdala and is recruited in context-dependent control of conditioned fear. However, how double-projecting ventral CA1 (vCA1) neurons modulate the activity of the mPFC and amygdala at the synaptic level has not been previously determined...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383958/ad-hoc-categories-and-false-memories-memory-illusions-for-categories-created-on-the-spot
#19
Jerônimo C Soro, Mário B Ferreira, Gün R Semin, André Mata, Paula Carneiro
Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment 1 revealed considerable levels of false recognitions of critical words from ad hoc categories. False recognitions occurred even when the lists were presented without an organizing theme (i...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383111/changes-in-the-stimulus-preceding-negativity-and-lateralized-readiness-potential-during-reinforcement-learning
#20
Xi Ren, Fernando Valle-Inclán, Sergii Tukaiev, Steven A Hackley
According to reinforcement learning theory, dopamine-dependent anticipatory processes play a critical role in learning from action outcomes such as feedback or reward. To better understand outcome anticipation, we examined variation in slow cortical potentials and assessed their changes over the course of motor-skill acquisition. Healthy young adults learned a series of precisely timed, key press sequences. Feedback was delivered at a delay of either 2.5 or 8 s, to encourage use of either the striatally mediated, habit learning system or the hippocampus-dependent, episodic memory system, respectively...
April 6, 2017: Psychophysiology
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