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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219653/the-neurocognitive-basis-of-borrowed-context-information
#1
Meagan O'Neill, Rachel A Diana
Falsely remembered items can be accompanied by episodic context retrieval. This finding is difficult to explain because there is no episode that binds the remembered item to the experimenter-controlled context features. The current study examines the neural correlates of false context retrieval when the context features can be traced to encoding episodes of semantically-similar items. Our neuroimaging results support a "dissociated source" mechanism for context borrowing in false memory. We found that parahippocampal cortex (PHc) activation, thought to indicate context retrieval, was greater during trials that involved context borrowing (an incorrect, but plausible source decision) than during baseline correct context retrieval...
January 30, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216314/visual-working-memory-requires-permissive-and-instructive-no-cgmp-signaling-at-presynapses-in-the-drosophila-central-brain
#2
Sara Kuntz, Burkhard Poeck, Roland Strauss
The gaseous second messenger nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to regulate memory formation by activating retrograde signaling cascades from post- to presynapse that involve cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production to induce synaptic plasticity and transcriptional changes. In this study, we analyzed the role of NO in the formation of a visual working memory that lasts only a few seconds. This memory is encoded in a subset of ring neurons that form the ellipsoid body in the Drosophila brain. Using genetic and pharmacological manipulations, we show that NO signaling is required for cGMP-mediated CREB activation, leading to the expression of competence factors like the synaptic homer protein...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195219/constitutive-activation-of-creb-in-mice-enhances-temporal-association-learning-and-increases-hippocampal-ca1-neuronal-spine-density-and-complexity
#3
Tatsurou Serita, Hotaka Fukushima, Satoshi Kida
Transcription factor CREB is believed to play essential roles in the formation of long-term memory (LTM), but not in learning and short-term memory (STM). Surprisingly, we previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a dominant active mutant of CREB (DIEDML) in the forebrain (DIEDML mice) demonstrated enhanced STM and LTM in hippocampal-dependent, rapid, one-trial learning tasks. Here we show that constitutive activation of CREB enhances hippocampal-dependent learning of temporal association in trace fear conditioning and delayed matching-to-place tasks...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171767/extinction-during-reconsolidation-eliminates-recovery-of-fear-conditioned-to-fear-irrelevant-and-fear-relevant-stimuli
#4
Alina Thompson, Ottmar V Lipp
Extant literature suggests that extinction training delivered during the memory reconsolidation period is superior to traditional extinction training in the reduction of fear recovery, as it targets the original fear memory trace. At present it is debated whether different types of fear memories are differentially sensitive to behavioral manipulations of reconsolidation. Here, we examined post-reconsolidation recovery of fear as a function of conditioned stimulus (CS) fear-relevance, using the unconditioned stimulus (US) to reactivate and destabilize conditioned fear memories...
February 2, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158285/asynchronous-ripple-oscillations-between-left-and-right-hippocampi-during-slow-wave-sleep
#5
Claudio Villalobos, Pedro E Maldonado, José L Valdés
Spatial memory, among many other brain processes, shows hemispheric lateralization. Most of the published evidence suggests that the right hippocampus plays a leading role in the manipulation of spatial information. Concurrently in the hippocampus, memory consolidation during sleep periods is one of the key steps in the formation of newly acquired spatial memory traces. One of the most characteristic oscillatory patterns in the hippocampus are sharp-wave ripple (SWR) complexes. Within this complex, fast-field oscillations or ripples have been demonstrated to be instrumental in the memory consolidation process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150124/consolidation-and-restoration-of-memory-traces-in-working-memory
#6
Sébastien De Schrijver, Pierre Barrouillet
Consolidation is the process through which ephemeral sensory traces are transformed into more stable short-term memory traces. It has been shown that consolidation plays a crucial role in working memory (WM) performance, by strengthening memory traces that then better resist interference and decay. In a recent study, Bayliss, Bogdanovs, and Jarrold (Journal of Memory and Language, 81, 34-50, 2015) argued that this process is separate from the processes known to restore WM traces after degradation, such as attentional refreshing and verbal rehearsal...
February 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139682/updating-procedures-can-reorganize-the-neural-circuit-supporting-a-fear-memory
#7
Janine L Kwapis, Timothy J Jarome, Nicole C Ferrara, Fred J Helmstetter
Established memories undergo a period of vulnerability following retrieval, a process termed 'reconsolidation.' Recent work has shown that the hypothetical process of reconsolidation is only triggered when new information is presented during retrieval, suggesting that this process may allow existing memories to be modified. Reconsolidation has received increasing attention as a possible therapeutic target for treating disorders that stem from traumatic memories, yet little is known about how this process changes the original memory...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138942/misremembering-emotion-inductive-category-effects-for-complex-emotional-stimuli
#8
Jonathan C Corbin, L Elizabeth Crawford, Dylan T Vavra
Memories of objects are biased toward what is typical of the category to which they belong. Prior research on memory for emotional facial expressions has demonstrated a bias towards an emotional expression prototype (e.g., slightly happy faces are remembered as happier). We investigate an alternate source of bias in memory for emotional expressions - the central tendency bias. The central tendency bias skews reconstruction of a memory trace towards the center of the distribution for a particular attribute. This bias has been attributed to a Bayesian combination of an imprecise memory for a particular object with prior information about its category...
January 30, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137967/selenomethionine-mitigates-cognitive-decline-by-targeting-both-tau-hyperphosphorylation-and-autophagic-clearance-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#9
Zhong-Hao Zhang, Qiu-Yan Wu, Rui Zheng, Chen Chen, Yao Chen, Qiong Liu, Peter R Hoffmann, Jia-Zuan Ni, Guo-Li Song
: Tau pathology was recently identified as a key driver of disease progression and an attractive therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selenomethionine (Se-Met), a major bioactive form of selenium (Se) in organisms with significant antioxidant capacity, reduced the levels of total tau and hyperphosphorylated tau and ameliorated cognitive deficits in younger triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice. Whether Se-Met has a similar effect on tau pathology and the specific mechanism of action in older 3xTg-AD mice remains unknown...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126819/overlapping-memory-trace-indispensable-for-linking-but-not-recalling-individual-memories
#10
Jun Yokose, Reiko Okubo-Suzuki, Masanori Nomoto, Noriaki Ohkawa, Hirofumi Nishizono, Akinobu Suzuki, Mina Matsuo, Shuhei Tsujimura, Yukari Takahashi, Masashi Nagase, Ayako M Watabe, Masakiyo Sasahara, Fusao Kato, Kaoru Inokuchi
Memories are not stored in isolation from other memories but are integrated into associative networks. However, the mechanisms underlying memory association remain elusive. Using two amygdala-dependent behavioral paradigms-conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and auditory-cued fear conditioning (AFC)-in mice, we found that presenting the conditioned stimulus used for the CTA task triggered the conditioned response of the AFC task after natural coreactivation of the memories. This was accompanied through an increase in the overlapping neuronal ensemble in the basolateral amygdala...
January 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119127/antagonizing-the-different-stages-of-kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-selectively-and-independently-attenuates-acquisition-and-consolidation-of-associative-memories
#11
Ryan Loh, Lily Chau, Ali Aijaz, Kevin Wu, Roberto Galvez
Previous work from our laboratory has shown that nonspecific kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonism in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) can inhibit acquisition for the forebrain-dependent associative task, Whisker-Trace Eyeblink conditioning (WTEB). Although studies have demonstrated that KOR activation can alter stimuli salience, our studies controlled for these factors, demonstrating that KOR also plays a role in facilitating learning. KOR has two distinct phases of activation followed by internalization/downregulation, that each independently activate kinases and transcription factors known to mediate task acquisition and memory consolidation respectively...
January 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112466/tinnitus-distress-is-linked-to-enhanced-resting-state-functional-connectivity-from-the-limbic-system-to-the-auditory-cortex
#12
Yu-Chen Chen, Wenqing Xia, Huiyou Chen, Yuan Feng, Jin-Jing Xu, Jian-Ping Gu, Richard Salvi, Xindao Yin
The phantom sound of tinnitus is believed to be triggered by aberrant neural activity in the central auditory pathway, but since this debilitating condition is often associated with emotional distress and anxiety, these comorbidities likely arise from maladaptive functional connections to limbic structures such as the amygdala and hippocampus. To test this hypothesis, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify aberrant effective connectivity of the amygdala and hippocampus in tinnitus patients and to determine the relationship with tinnitus characteristics...
January 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110089/causal-evidence-of-the-involvement-of-the-right-occipital-face-area-in-face-identity-acquisition
#13
Géza Gergely Ambrus, Fabienne Windel, A Mike Burton, Gyula Kovács
There is growing evidence that the occipital face area (OFA), originally thought to be involved in the construction of a low-level representation of the physical features of a face, is also taking part in higher-level face processing. To test whether the OFA is causally involved in the learning of novel face identities, we have used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) together with a sequential sorting - face matching paradigm (Andrews et al. 2015). First, participants sorted images of two unknown persons during the initial learning phase while either their right OFA or the Vertex was stimulated using TMS...
January 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100032/sequential-learning-during-contextual-fear-conditioning-guides-the-rate-of-systems-consolidation-implications-for-consolidation-of-multiple-memory-traces
#14
Lizeth K Pedraza, Rodrigo O Sierra, Ana P Crestani, Jorge A Quillfeldt, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares
Systems consolidation has been described as a time-dependent reorganization process involving the neocortical and hippocampal networks underlying memory storage and retrieval. Previous studies of our lab were able to demonstrate that systems consolidation is a dynamic process, rather than a merely passive, time-dependent phenomenon. Here, we studied the influence of sequential learning in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) with different training intensities in the time-course of hippocampal dependency and contextual specificity...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096845/cognitive-impairment-after-sudden-cardiac-arrest
#15
Magdalena Jaszke-Psonka, Magdalena Piegza, Piotr Ścisło, Robert Pudlo, Jacek Piegza, Karina Badura-Brzoza, Aleksandra Leksowska, Robert T Hese, Piotr W Gorczyca
AIM: To evaluate the incidence and severity of the impairment of selected cognitive functions in patients after sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in comparison to patients after myocardial infarction without SCA and healthy subjects and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic and clinical parameters and the duration of cardiac arrest on the presence and severity of the described disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group comprised 30 cardiac arrest survivors, the reference group comprised 31 survivors of myocardial infarction without cardiac arrest, and the control group comprised 30 healthy subjects...
December 2016: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077709/semantic-congruence-accelerates-the-onset-of-the-neural-signals-of-successful-memory-encoding
#16
Pau A Packard, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Nico Bunzeck, Berta Nicolás, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer, Lluís Fuentemilla
: As the stream of experience unfolds, our memory system rapidly transforms current inputs into long-lasting meaningful memories. A putative neural mechanism that strongly influences how input elements are transformed into meaningful memory codes relies on the ability to integrate them with existing structures of knowledge or schemas. However, it is not yet clear whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding. In the current investigation, we examined the encoding-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077707/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#17
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. Although studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077263/learning-in-mosquito-larvae-aedes-aegypti-habituation-to-a-visual-danger-signal
#18
Hugo Baglan, Claudio Lazzari, Fernando Guerrieri
In spite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti being a vector of several infectious diseases, a limited number of studies has been undertaken on learning in this species. Moreover, larval stages have been neglected as model organisms, although they are active, aquatic and perform stereotyped behavioural responses, e.g. the escape response when disturbed. To study the learning abilities of mosquito larvae, we focused on habituation, a form of non-associative learning widely studied in vertebrates and invertebrates. Habituation was defined as the progressive and reversible decrease in response to a reiterative stimulus...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069463/extinction-and-recovery-of-an-avoidance-memory-impaired-by-scopolamine
#19
N M Navarro, M C Krawczyk, M M Boccia, M G Blake
Pre-training administration of scopolamine (SCP) resembles situations of cholinergic dysfunction, leading to memory impairment of mice trained in an inhibitory avoidance task. We suggest here that SCP does not impair memory formation, but acquisition is affected in a way that reduces the strength of the stored memory, thus making this memory less able to control behavior when tested. Hence, a memory trace is stored, but is poorly expressed during the test. Although weakly expressed, this memory shows extinction during successive tests, and can be strengthened by using a reminder...
January 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068117/the-neural-representation-of-the-gender-of-faces-in-the-primate-visual-system-a-computer-modeling-study
#20
Thomas Minot, Hannah L Dury, Akihiro Eguchi, Glyn W Humphreys, Simon M Stringer
We use an established neural network model of the primate visual system to show how neurons might learn to encode the gender of faces. The model consists of a hierarchy of 4 competitive neuronal layers with associatively modifiable feedforward synaptic connections between successive layers. During training, the network was presented with many realistic images of male and female faces, during which the synaptic connections are modified using biologically plausible local associative learning rules. After training, we found that different subsets of output neurons have learned to respond exclusively to either male or female faces...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Review
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