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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548457/on-the-research-of-time-past-the-hunt-for-the-substrate-of-memory
#1
REVIEW
Bridget N Queenan, Tomás J Ryan, Michael S Gazzaniga, Charles R Gallistel
The search for memory is one of the oldest quests in written human history. For at least two millennia, we have tried to understand how we learn and remember. We have gradually converged on the brain and looked inside it to find the basis of knowledge, the trace of memory. The search for memory has been conducted on multiple levels, from the organ to the cell to the synapse, and has been distributed across disciplines with less chronological or intellectual overlap than one might hope. Frequently, the study of the mind and its memories has been severely restricted by technological or philosophical limitations...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541919/can-we-speculate-running-application-with-server-power-consumption-trace
#2
Yuanlong Li, Han Hu, Yonggang Wen, Jun Zhang
In this paper, we propose to detect the running applications in a server by classifying the observed power consumption series for the purpose of data center energy consumption monitoring and analysis. Time series classification problem has been extensively studied with various distance measurements developed; also recently the deep learning-based sequence models have been proved to be promising. In this paper, we propose a novel distance measurement and build a time series classification algorithm hybridizing nearest neighbor and long short term memory (LSTM) neural network...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539392/sodium-pump-regulation-of-locomotor-control-circuits
#3
Laurence David Picton, HongYan Zhang, Keith Thomas Sillar
Sodium pumps are ubiquitously expressed membrane proteins that extrude three N(a+) ions in exchange for two K(+) ions using ATP as an energy source. Recent studies have illuminated additional, dynamic roles for sodium pumps in regulating the excitability of neuronal networks in an activity-dependent fashion. Here we review their role in a novel form of short-term memory within rhythmic locomotor networks. The data we review derives mainly from recent studies on Xenopus tadpoles and neonatal mice. The role and underlying mechanisms of pump action broadly match previously published data from an invertebrate, the Drosophila larva...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533331/chronic-stimulation-of-renin-cells-leads-to-vascular-pathology
#4
Masafumi Oka, Silvia Medrano, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lόpez, R Ariel Gómez
Experimental or spontaneous genomic mutations of the renin-angiotensin system or its pharmacological inhibition in early life leads to renal abnormalities, including poorly developed renal medulla, papillary atrophy, hydronephrosis, inability to concentrate the urine, polyuria, polydipsia, renal failure, and anemia. At the core of such complex phenotype is the presence of unique vascular abnormalities: the renal arterioles do not branch or elongate properly and they have disorganized, concentric hypertrophy...
May 22, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522983/a-dynamical-model-of-pitch-memory-provides-an-improved-basis-for-implied-harmony-estimation
#5
Ji Chul Kim
Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507135/parallel-memory-traces-are-built-after-an-experience-containing-aversive-and-appetitive-components-in-the-crab-neohelice
#6
Martín Klappenbach, Ayelén Nally, Fernando Federico Locatelli
The neurobiology of learning and memory has been mainly studied by focusing on pure aversive or appetitive experiences. Here, we challenged this approach considering that real-life stimuli come normally associated with competing aversive and appetitive consequences and that interaction between conflicting information must be intrinsic part of the memory processes. We used Neohelice crabs, taking advantage of two well-described appetitive and aversive learning paradigms and combining them in a single training session to evaluate how this affects memory...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506629/hippocampal-information-processing-across-sleep-wake-cycles
#7
REVIEW
Kenji Mizuseki, Hiroyuki Miyawaki
According to a two-stage memory consolidation model, during waking theta states, afferent activity from the neocortex to the hippocampus induces transient synaptic modification in the hippocampus, where the information is deposited as a labile form of memory trace. During subsequent sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs), the newly acquired hippocampal information is transferred to the neocortex and stored as a long-lasting memory trace. Consistent with this hypothesis, waking theta states and SPW-Rs distinctly control information flow in the hippocampal-entorhinal loop...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502663/memory-reactivation-enables-long-term-prevention-of-interference
#8
Jasmine Herszage, Nitzan Censor
The ability of the human brain to successively learn or perform two competing tasks constitutes a major challenge in daily function. Indeed, exposing the brain to two different competing memories within a short temporal offset can induce interference, resulting in deteriorated performance in at least one of the learned memories [1-4]. Although previous studies have investigated online interference and its effects on performance [5-13], whether the human brain can enable long-term prevention of future interference is unknown...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502066/ebselen-ameliorates-%C3%AE-amyloid-pathology-tau-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-triple-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#9
Yongli Xie, Yibin Tan, Youbiao Zheng, Xiubo Du, Qiong Liu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease which is clinically characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline caused by protein misfolding and aggregation. Imbalance between free radicals and the antioxidant system is a prominent and early feature in the neuropathology of AD. Selenium (Se), a vital trace element with excellent antioxidant potential, is preferentially retained in the brain in Se-limited conditions and has been reported to provide neuroprotection through resisting oxidative damage...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500488/-analysis-of-intrusion-errors-in-free-recall
#10
H F A Diesfeldt
Extra-list intrusion errors during five trials of the eight-word list-learning task of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADST) were investigated in 823 consecutive psychogeriatric patients (87.1% suffering from major neurocognitive disorder). Almost half of the participants (45.9%) produced one or more intrusion errors on the verbal recall test. Correct responses were lower when subjects made intrusion errors, but learning slopes did not differ between subjects who committed intrusion errors and those who did not so...
May 12, 2017: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498866/cognitive-adaptation-in-asexual-and-sexual-wasps-living-in-contrasted-environments
#11
Lucie Froissart, Martin Giurfa, Sandrine Sauzet, Emmanuel Desouhant
Differences in learning and memory dynamics between populations are suspected to result from differences in ecological constraints such as resource distribution. The two reproductive modes (strains) of the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens share the same geographical areas but live in contrasting habitats: arrhenotokous wasps live in the wild (generally orchards), whereas thelytokous ones live mostly in stored-products buildings (e.g. granaries). This species thus represents a relevant biological model for understanding the relationship between the ecological constraints faced by a species and its memory and learning ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483587/driving-and-regulating-temporal-association-learning-coordinated-by-entorhinal-hippocampal-network
#12
REVIEW
Takashi Kitamura
Episodic memories shape future behaviour and by aiding adaptive behaviour, are therefore important for survival in nature. Entorhinal cortex (EC)-hippocampal (HPC) networks have a crucial role in the formation of episodic memory, which consists of associations of space, objects, individuals and time. Neural circuits have been identified in the EC-HPC networks that provide spatial, contextual and object information. However, the specific neural circuits that allow animals to associate two temporally segregated events, called temporal association learning, are still nebulous...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469565/in-search-for-boundary-conditions-of-reconsolidation-a-failure-of-fear-memory-interference
#13
Natalie Schroyens, Tom Beckers, Merel Kindt
The presentation of a fear memory cue can result in mere memory retrieval, destabilization of the reactivated memory trace, or the formation of an extinction memory. The interaction between the degree of novelty during reactivation and previous learning conditions is thought to determine the outcome of a reactivation session. This study aimed to evaluate whether contextual novelty can prevent cue-induced destabilization and disruption of a fear memory acquired by non-asymptotic learning. To this end, fear memory was reactivated in a novel context or in the original context of learning, and fear memory reactivation was followed by the administration of propranolol, an amnestic drug...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469009/heroes-of-the-engram
#14
Sheena A Josselyn, Stefan Köhler, Paul W Frankland
In 1904, Richard Semon introduced the term "engram" to describe the neural substrate responsible for (or at least important in) storing and recalling memories (i.e., a memory trace). The recent introduction of a vast array of powerful new tools to probe and manipulate memory function at the cell and neuronal circuit level has spurred an explosion of interest in studying the engram. However, the present "engram renaissance" was not borne in isolation but rather builds on a long tradition of memory research. We believe it is important to acknowledge the debts our current generation of scientists owes to those scientists who have offered key ideas, persevered through failed experiments and made important discoveries before us...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458471/suppressing-unwanted-memories-reduces-their-unintended-influences
#15
Xiaoqing Hu, Zara M Bergström, Pierre Gagnepain, Michael C Anderson
The ability to control unwanted memories is critical for maintaining cognitive function and mental health. Prior research has shown that suppressing the retrieval of unwanted memories impairs their retention, as measured using intentional (direct) memory tests. Here, we review emerging evidence revealing that retrieval suppression can also reduce the unintended influence of suppressed traces. In particular, retrieval suppression (a) gradually diminishes the tendency for memories to intrude into awareness and (b) reduces memories' unintended expressions on indirect memory tests...
April 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457681/-the-plague-a-disease-that-is-still-haunting-our-collective-memory
#16
N Peiffer-Smadja, M Thomas
Although the plague has practically disappeared from Europe since the beginning of the 20th century, it is still present in everyone's memory. Owing to three pandemics, it has left an indelible mark on mankind and has given rise to many popular phrases, paintings, books or more recently movies and video games. After a brief description of the plague as a disease, we will try to trace the history of the plague through some of the works of art it inspired and then to show how the plague is still haunting our collective memory...
April 27, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453642/facilitation-of-contextual-fear-extinction-by-orexin-1-receptor-antagonism-is-associated-with-the-activation-of-specific-amygdala-cell-subpopulations
#17
África Flores, Cyril Herry, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Berrendero
Background: Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides recently involved in the regulation of emotional memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA), an area orchestrating fear memory processes, appears to be modulated by orexin transmission during fear extinction. However, the neuronal types within the BLA involved in this modulation remain to be elucidated. Methods: We used retrograde tracing combined with immunofluorescence techniques in mice to identify BLA projection neurons and cell subpopulations in this brain region influenced by orexin transmission during contextual fear extinction consolidation...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450831/cycle-triggered-cortical-stimulation-during-slow-wave-sleep-facilitates-learning-a-bmi-task-a-case-report-in-a-non-human-primate
#18
Irene Rembado, Stavros Zanos, Eberhard E Fetz
Slow wave sleep (SWS) has been identified as the sleep stage involved in consolidating newly acquired information. A growing body of evidence has shown that delta (1-4 Hz) oscillatory activity, the characteristic electroencephalographic signature of SWS, is involved in coordinating interaction between the hippocampus and the neocortex and is thought to take a role in stabilizing memory traces related to a novel task. This case report describes a new protocol that uses neuroprosthetics training of a non-human primate to evaluate the effects of surface cortical electrical stimulation triggered from SWS cycles...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444634/watching-diagnoses-develop-eye-movements-reveal-symptom-processing-during-diagnostic-reasoning
#19
Agnes Scholz, Josef F Krems, Georg Jahn
Finding a probable explanation for observed symptoms is a highly complex task that draws on information retrieval from memory. Recent research suggests that observed symptoms are interpreted in a way that maximizes coherence for a single likely explanation. This becomes particularly clear if symptom sequences support more than one explanation. However, there are no existing process data available that allow coherence maximization to be traced in ambiguous diagnostic situations, where critical information has to be retrieved from memory...
April 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443005/waking-up-buried-memories-of-old-tv-programs
#20
Christelle Larzabal, Nadège Bacon-Macé, Sophie Muratot, Simon J Thorpe
Although it has been demonstrated that visual and auditory stimuli can be recalled decades after the initial exposure, previous studies have generally not ruled out the possibility that the material may have been seen or heard during the intervening period. Evidence shows that reactivations of a long-term memory trace play a role in its update and maintenance. In the case of remote or very long-term memories, it is most likely that these reactivations are triggered by the actual re-exposure to the stimulus...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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