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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345168/cardinal-and-anti-cardinal-points-equalities-and-chromatic-dependence
#1
Tanya Evans, William F Harris
PURPOSE: Cardinal points are used for ray tracing through Gaussian systems. Anti-principal and anti-nodal points (which we shall refer to as the anti-cardinal points), along with the six familiar cardinal points, belong to a much larger set of special points. The purpose of this paper is to obtain a set of relationships and resulting equalities among the cardinal and anti-cardinal points and to illustrate them using Pascal's ring. METHODS: The methodology used relies on Gaussian optics and the transference T...
March 27, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340449/right-hemisphere-pitch-mismatch-negativity-reduction-in-patients-with-major-depression-an-meg-study
#2
Noriaki Hirakawa, Yoji Hirano, Itta Nakamura, Shogo Hirano, Jinya Sato, Naoya Oribe, Takefumi Ueno, Shigenobu Kanba, Toshiaki Onitsuka
BACKGROUND: The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potential and its magnetic counterpart, the MMNm, are generated by a mismatch between the physical features of a deviant stimulus and a neuronal sensory-memory trace produced by repetitive standard stimuli. Deficits in the MMN/MMNm have been reported in patients with major depression; however, the results are inconsistent. The present study investigated the pitch-MMNm in patients with major depression using whole-head 306-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338743/incidental-memory-for-faces-in-children-with-different-genetic-subtypes-of-prader-willi-syndrome
#3
Alexandra P Key, Elisabeth M Dykens
The present study examined the effects of genetic subtype on social memory in children (7-16 years) with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Visual event-related potentials (ERPs) during a passive viewing task were used to compare incidental memory traces for repeated vs single presentations of previously unfamiliar social (faces) and nonsocial (houses) images in 15 children with the deletion subtype and 13 children with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD). While all participants perceived faces as different from houses (N170 responses), repeated faces elicited more positive ERP amplitudes ('old/new' effect, 250-500ms) only in children with the deletion subtype...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331016/brain-wide-maps-of-fos-expression-during-fear-learning-and-recall
#4
Jin-Hyung Cho, Sam D Rendall, Jesse M Gray
Fos induction during learning labels neuronal ensembles in the hippocampus that encode a specific physical environment, revealing a memory trace. In the cortex and other regions, the extent to which Fos induction during learning reveals specific sensory representations is unknown. Here we generate high-quality brain-wide maps of Fos mRNA expression during auditory fear conditioning and recall in the setting of the home cage. These maps reveal a brain-wide pattern of Fos induction that is remarkably similar among fear conditioning, shock-only, tone-only, and fear recall conditions, casting doubt on the idea that Fos reveals auditory-specific sensory representations...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330743/temporal-dynamics-of-immediate-early-gene-expression-during-cellular-consolidation-of-spatial-memory
#5
Daniel N Barry, Sean Commins
The consolidation of newly acquired memories on a cellular level is thought to take place in the first few hours following learning. This process is dependent on de novo protein synthesis during this time, which ultimately leads to long-term structural and functional neuronal changes and the stabilisation of a memory trace. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are rapidly expressed in neurons following learning, and previous research has suggested more than one wave of IEG expression facilitates consolidation in the hours following learning...
March 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326050/what-to-choose-next-a-paradigm-for-testing-human-sequential-decision-making
#6
Elisa M Tartaglia, Aaron M Clarke, Michael H Herzog
Many of the decisions we make in our everyday lives are sequential and entail sparse rewards. While sequential decision-making has been extensively investigated in theory (e.g., by reinforcement learning models) there is no systematic experimental paradigm to test it. Here, we developed such a paradigm and investigated key components of reinforcement learning models: the eligibility trace (i.e., the memory trace of previous decision steps), the external reward, and the ability to exploit the statistics of the environment's structure (model-free vs...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324703/arousal-amplifies-biased-competition-between-high-and-low-priority-memories-more-in-women-than-in-men-the-role-of-elevated-noradrenergic-activity
#7
David Clewett, Michiko Sakaki, Ringo Huang, Shawn E Nielsen, Mara Mather
Recent findings indicate that emotional arousal can enhance memory consolidation of goal-relevant stimuli while impairing it for irrelevant stimuli. According to one recent model, these goal-dependent memory tradeoffs are driven by arousal-induced release of norepinephrine (NE), which amplifies neural gain in target sensory and memory processing brain regions. Past work also shows that ovarian hormones modulate activity in the same regions thought to support NE's effects on memory, such as the amygdala, suggesting that men and women may be differentially susceptible to arousal's dual effects on episodic memory...
February 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321179/neurophysiological-and-behavioral-responses-of-mandarin-lexical-tone-processing
#8
Yan H Yu, Valerie L Shafer, Elyse S Sussman
Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294944/the-computational-nature-of-memory-modification
#9
Samuel J Gershman, Marie-H Monfils, Kenneth A Norman, Yael Niv
Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations...
March 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291944/pyrolyzable-nanoparticle-tracers-for-environmental-interrogation-and-monitoring
#10
Jason R Cox, Mohammed Alsenani, Scott E Miller, James A Roush, Rena Shi, Hooisweng Ow, Sehoon Chang, Anthony A Kmetz, Shannon L Eichmann, Martin E Poitzsch
Environmental tracing applications require materials that can be detected in complex fluids composed of multiple phases and contaminants. Moreover, large libraries of tracers are necessary in order to mitigate memory effects and to deploy multiple tracers simultaneously in complex oil fields. Herein, we disclose a novel approach based on the thermal decomposition of polymeric nanoparticles comprised of styrenic and methacrylic monomers. Polymeric nanoparticles derived from these monomers cleanly decompose into their constituent monomers at elevated temperatures, thereby maximizing atom economy wherein the entire nanoparticle mass contributes to the generation of detectable units...
March 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288397/neural-mechanisms-of-vocal-imitation-the-role-of-sleep-replay-in-shaping-mirror-neurons
#11
REVIEW
Nicolas Giret, Jean-Marc Edeline, Catherine Del Negro
Learning by imitation involves not only perceiving another individual's action to copy it, but also the formation of a memory trace in order to gradually establish a correspondence between the sensory and motor codes, which represent this action through sensorimotor experience. Memory and sensorimotor processes are closely intertwined. Mirror neurons, which fire both when the same action is performed or perceived, have received considerable attention in the context of imitation. An influential view of memory processes considers that the consolidation of newly acquired information or skills involves an active offline reprocessing of memories during sleep within the neuronal networks that were initially used for encoding...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288386/sleep-regulation-of-the-distribution-of-cortical-firing-rates
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Levenstein, Brendon O Watson, John Rinzel, György Buzsáki
Sleep is thought to mediate both mnemonic and homeostatic functions. However, the mechanism by which this brain state can simultaneously implement the 'selective' plasticity needed to consolidate novel memory traces and the 'general' plasticity necessary to maintain a well-functioning neuronal system is unclear. Recent findings show that both of these functions differentially affect neurons based on their intrinsic firing rate, a ubiquitous neuronal heterogeneity. Furthermore, they are both implemented by the NREM slow oscillation, which also distinguishes neurons based on firing rate during sequential activity at the DOWN→UP transition...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287764/pushing-typists-back-on-the-learning-curve-memory-chunking-improves-retrieval-of-prior-typing-episodes
#13
Motonori Yamaguchi, James M Randle, Thomas L Wilson, Gordon D Logan
Hierarchical control of skilled performance depends on chunking of several lower-level units into a single higher-level unit. The present study examined the relationship between chunking and recognition of trained materials in the context of typewriting. In 3 experiments, participants were trained with typing nonwords and were later tested on their recognition of the trained materials. In Experiment 1, participants typed the same words or nonwords in 5 consecutive trials while performing a concurrent memory task...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285131/retrieval-under-stress-decreases-the-long-term-expression-of-a-human-declarative-memory-via-reconsolidation
#14
Pablo Nicolás Fernández Larrosa, Alejandro Ojea, Ignacio Ojea, Victor Alejandro Molina, María Aurelia Zorrilla-Zubilete, Alejandro Delorenzi
Acute stress impairs memory retrieval of several types of memories. An increase in glucocorticoids, several minutes after stressful events, is described as essential to the impairing retrieval-effects of stressors. Moreover, memory retrieval under stress can have long-term consequences. Through what process does the reactivated memory under stress, despite the disrupting retrieval effects, modify long-term memories? The reconsolidation hypothesis proposes that a previously consolidated memory reactivated by a reminder enters a vulnerability phase (labilization) during which it is transiently sensitive to modulation, followed by a re-stabilization phase...
March 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274823/bdnf-controls-object-recognition-memory-reconsolidation
#15
Andressa Radiske, Janine I Rossato, Maria Carolina Gonzalez, Cristiano A Köhler, Lia R Bevilaqua, Martín Cammarota
Reconsolidation restabilizes memory after reactivation. Previously, we reported that the hippocampus is engaged in object recognition memory reconsolidation to allow incorporation of new information into the original engram. Here we show that BDNF is sufficient for this process, and that blockade of BDNF function in dorsal CA1 impairs updating of the reactivated recognition memory trace.
March 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261544/trace-a-high-throughput-tomographic-reconstruction-engine-for-large-scale-datasets
#16
Tekin Bicer, Doğa Gürsoy, Vincent De Andrade, Rajkumar Kettimuthu, William Scullin, Francesco De Carlo, Ian T Foster
BACKGROUND: Modern synchrotron light sources and detectors produce data at such scale and complexity that large-scale computation is required to unleash their full power. One of the widely used imaging techniques that generates data at tens of gigabytes per second is computed tomography (CT). Although CT experiments result in rapid data generation, the analysis and reconstruction of the collected data may require hours or even days of computation time with a medium-sized workstation, which hinders the scientific progress that relies on the results of analysis...
2017: Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256620/time-lapse-imaging-reveals-highly-dynamic-structural-maturation-of-postnatally-born-dentate-granule-cells-in-organotypic-entorhino-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#17
Tijana Radic, Tassilo Jungenitz, Mathias Singer, Marcel Beining, Hermann Cuntz, Andreas Vlachos, Thomas Deller, Stephan W Schwarzacher
Neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells (GCs) persists throughout mammalian life and is important for learning and memory. How newborn GCs differentiate and mature into an existing circuit during this time period is not yet fully understood. We established a method to visualize postnatally generated GCs in organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures (OTCs) using retroviral (RV) GFP-labeling and performed time-lapse imaging to study their morphological development in vitro. Using anterograde tracing we could, furthermore, demonstrate that the postnatally generated GCs in OTCs, similar to adult born GCs, grow into an existing entorhino-dentate circuitry...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251336/the-effects-of-task-relevant-saccadic-eye-movements-performed-during-the-encoding-of-a-serial-sequence-on-visuospatial-memory-performance
#18
Leonardo Martin, Anthony Tapper, David A Gonzalez, Michelle Leclerc, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is a set of cognitive processes used to encode, maintain and manipulate spatial information. One important feature of VSWM is that it has a limited capacity such that only few items can be actively stored and manipulated simultaneously. Given the limited capacity, it is important to determine the conditions that affect memory performance as this will improve our understanding of the architecture and function of VSWM. Previous studies have shown that VSWM is disrupted when task-irrelevant eye movements are performed during the maintenance phase; however, relatively fewer studies examined the role of eye movements performed during the encoding phase...
March 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219653/the-neurocognitive-basis-of-borrowed-context-information
#19
Meagan O'Neill, Rachel A Diana
Falsely remembered items can be accompanied by episodic context retrieval. This finding is difficult to explain because there is no episode that binds the remembered item to the experimenter-controlled context features. The current study examines the neural correlates of false context retrieval when the context features can be traced to encoding episodes of semantically-similar items. Our neuroimaging results support a "dissociated source" mechanism for context borrowing in false memory. We found that parahippocampal cortex (PHc) activation, thought to indicate context retrieval, was greater during trials that involved context borrowing (an incorrect, but plausible source decision) than during baseline correct context retrieval...
January 30, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216314/visual-working-memory-requires-permissive-and-instructive-no-cgmp-signaling-at-presynapses-in-the-drosophila-central-brain
#20
Sara Kuntz, Burkhard Poeck, Roland Strauss
The gaseous second messenger nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to regulate memory formation by activating retrograde signaling cascades from post- to presynapse that involve cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production to induce synaptic plasticity and transcriptional changes. In this study, we analyzed the role of NO in the formation of a visual working memory that lasts only a few seconds. This memory is encoded in a subset of ring neurons that form the ellipsoid body in the Drosophila brain. Using genetic and pharmacological manipulations, we show that NO signaling is required for cGMP-mediated CREB activation, leading to the expression of competence factors like the synaptic homer protein...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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