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Cristina García-Aljaro, Anicet R Blanch, Claudia Campos, Juan Jofre, Francisco Lucena
The objective of this review is to assess the current state of knowledge of pathogens, general faecal indicators and human-specific microbial source tracking markers in sewage. Most of the microbes present in sewage are from the microbiota of the human gut, including pathogens. Bacteria and viruses are the most abundant groups of microbes in the human gut microbiota. Most reports of this topic show that raw sewage microbiological profiles reflect the human gut microbiota. Human and animal faeces share many commensal microbes as well as pathogens...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Shuang Liu, Maya Miyoshi
In this chapter, a long-term drug delivery system for preclinical therapeutic research is introduced. By using a subcutaneously implanted ALZET® osmotic pump, continuous zero-order delivery of drugs under investigation that need repeated oral or intravenous dosing is realizable. Compared to traditional delivery systems, implanted osmotic pumps present several advantages such as that no external connections or researcher intervention is required during infusion and that it is possible to save time by eliminating the need for frequent animal handling and repetitive injection schedules...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zhewei Lou, Chi Zhang, Ting Gong, Chao Xue, Austin Scholp, Jack J Jiang
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been promoted for its beneficial effects on tissue healing and pain relief for skin and oral applications. However, there is no corresponding literature reporting on vocal fold wound healing. Our purpose was to assess the potential wound-healing effects of LLLT on primary human vocal fold epithelial cells (VFECs). In this study, normal vocal fold tissue was obtained from a 58-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with postcricoid carcinoma without involvement of the vocal folds and underwent total laryngectomy...
September 22, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Yang Liu, Yoshifumi Baba, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yukiharu Hiyoshi, Yuji Miyamoto, Naoya Yoshida, Rong Wu, Hideo Baba
Microbiome research is a rapidly advancing field in human cancers. Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral bacterium, indigenous to the human oral cavity, that plays a role in periodontal disease. Recent studies have found that F. nucleatum can promote gastrointestinal tumor progression and affect the prognosis of the disease. In addition, F. nucleatum may contribute to the chemo-resistance of gastrointestinal cancers. This review summarizes recent progress in the pathogenesis of F. nucleatum and its impact on gastrointestinal cancer...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Jafari Davod, Dehghan Nayeri Fatemeh, Hossein Honari, Ramin Hosseini
Shigella dysenteriae causing shigellosis is one of the diseases that threaten the health of human society in the developing countries. In Shigella, IpaD gene is one of the key pathogenic genes causing strong mucosal immune system reactions. Anthrax disease is caused by Bacillus anthracis. PA protective antigen is one of the subunits in anthrax toxin complex responsible for the transfer of other subunits into the cytosol of host cells. The 20 kDa subunit of PA (PA20) has the property of immunogenicity. CTxB or B subunit of Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) is a non-toxic protein and has the function to transfer toxic subunit into cytosol of the host cells by binding to GM1 receptor...
September 22, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Constantino Ledesma-Montes, María Dolores Jiménez-Farfán, Juan Carlos Hernández-Guerrero
OBJECTIVES: To test a more complete set of morphometric radiographic parameters to evaluate the idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) lesions located in the maxillomandibular area and to know their features during routine radiographic evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiographs from patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic of our institution were reviewed. Evaluated parameters were gender and age of the patients, size, side, homogeneity, morphology, radiodensity, mineralization, borders, relation to roots, affected tooth or teeth and location of the analyzed lesions...
September 22, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Kimberly C Claeys, Evan J Zasowski, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Noor Sabagha, Donald P Levine, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
INTRODUCTION: Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) represent a large burden to the US healthcare system. There is little evidence-based guidance regarding the appropriate level of care for ABSSSIs. This study aimed to develop a prediction model and risk-scoring tool to determine appropriate levels of care. METHODS: This was a single-center observational cohort study of adult patients treated for ABSSSIs from 2012 to 2015 at the Detroit Medical Center...
September 22, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Funda Tamer, Fatma Gülru Erdoğan, Didem Dinçer Rota, Dilsun Yıldırım
Behçet's disease is a rare disorder of unknown etiology that is classified as a systemic vasculitis. The prevalence of the disease is high in countries in the Far East, Mediterranean Basin, and East Asia. Thus, it is also known as the Silk Road Disease. Behçet's disease is characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital sores, and ocular lesions. However, it can present with severe clinical manifestations as a result of cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal tract involvement...
September 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
Monica Andreassen, Knut Rudi, Inga Leena Angell, Hubert Dirven, Unni C Nygaard
BACKGROUND: The incidence of food allergies in western countries has increased in recent decades. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between gut bacterial microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and food allergy in a mouse model. METHODS: After oral immunizations with the human food allergen lupine with the adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) (or buffer in controls), sensitization and anaphylactic responses were determined. Gastrointestinal content was collected from the distal ileum, cecum, colon, and fecal pellets, and the bacterial diversity and composition was determined by deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
September 21, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Lakshmipathi Naik Banavath, Rakesh Kumar, Devi Dayal, Jaivinder Yadav, Naresh Sachdeva, Joseph L Mathew, Pankaj C Vaidya, Meenu Singh
Background Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a common comorbidity reported in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). There is a dearth of data on glucose intolerance or CFRD in children with CF from developing countries. So, we planned to study the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) in children with CF and its relation with the duration and severity of CF. Methods We performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on children (2-18 years old) having CF for at least 6 months. Two-hour plasma glucose levels on OGTT were correlated with various disease-related factors...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Dan Henrohn, Kristoffer Björkstrand, Jon O Lundberg, Sven-Olof Granstam, Tomasz Baron, Inga J Ingimarsdóttir, Hans Hedenström, Andrei Malinovschi, Mona-Lisa Wernroth, Martin Jansson, Mikael Hedeland, Gerhard Wikström
BACKGROUND: The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway may represent a potential therapeutic target in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We explored the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, by use of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BRJ), in patients with PAH. METHODS: We prospectively studied 15 patients with PAH in an exploratory randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. The patients received nitrate-rich beetroot juice (∼16 mmol nitrate per day) and placebo in two treatment periods of seven days each...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Ali Hosni, Shao Hui Huang, Kevin Chiu, Wei Xu, Jie Su, Andrew Bayley, Scott V Bratman, John Cho, Meredith Giuliani, John Kim, Brian O'Sullivan, Jolie Ringash, John Waldron, Anna Spreafico, Eugene Yu, John R de Almeida, Eric Monteiro, Douglas B Chepeha, Jonathan C Irish, David P Goldstein, Andrew Hope
PURPOSE: To determine predictors and outcomes for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients who had early recurrence before commencement of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). METHODS: Retrospective review was performed for OSCC patients treated with PORT between 2003-2015 following curative-intent surgery. Early recurrence was defined as tumor recurrence following surgical resection and before initiating planned PORT. Patients were classified into: 1) adjuvant-PORT group (no early recurrence), 2) salvage-PORT group (had locoregional early recurrence), and palliative-PORT group (had locoregional and distant early recurrence)...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Fernando Cobo, Elizabeth Calatrava, Javier Rodríguez-Granger, Antonio Sampedro, Luis Aliaga-Martínez, José María Navarro-Marí
Prevotella dentalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic rod involved in various human diseases, especially oral infections. We report a rare case of a pleural effusion due to this microorganism in an elderly patient. An 88-year-old man with chronic respiratory disease presented with a left pleural effusion for more than 1 month. Culture of drained pleural fluid resulted in isolation of P. dentalis. Resistance to penicillin and moxifloxacin was documented. Treatment with drainage and clindamycin was established, but the patient developed cognitive impairment and died after a worsening of his general condition...
September 19, 2018: Anaerobe
Kirt R Phipps, Nigel Baldwin, Barry Lynch, Diane R Stannard, Alica Šoltesová, Ben Gilby, Marta H Mikš, Christoph H Röhrig
Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) is one of the most abundant oligosaccharides that are endogenously present in human breast milk. To simulate the composition of human breast milk more closely, commercial infant formula can be supplemented with human-identical milk oligosaccharides, which are manufactured structurally identical versions of their naturally occurring counterparts. As part of the safety evaluation of LNT, in vitro genotoxicity tests and a subchronic oral gavage toxicity study (in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats) were conducted...
September 19, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Lydia Woelflingseder, Giorgia Del Favero, Tina Blažević, Elke H Heiss, Maximilian Haider, Benedikt Warth, Gerhard Adam, Doris Marko
DON, NX-3 and butenolide (BUT) are secondary metabolites formed by Fusarium graminearum. Evidence for formation of DON-glutathione adducts exists in plants, and also in human liver (HepG2) cells mass spectrometric evidence for GSH-adduct formation was reported. NX-3 is a DON derivative lacking structural features for Thiol-Michael addition, while BUT has the structural requirements (conjugated double bond and keto group). In the present study, we addressed whether these structural differences affect levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells, and if intracellular GSH levels influence toxic effects induced by DON; NX-3 and BUT...
September 19, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Hao Helen Hou, Aniruddha Rajesh, Keyur Pandya, Joseph W Lubach, Ariel Muliadi, Edward Yost, Wei Jia, Karthik Nagapudi
Usage of the amorphous phase of compounds has become the method of choice to overcome oral bioavailability problems related to poor solubility. Due to the unstable nature of glasses, it is clear that the method preparation of the amorphous glass will have an impact on physical/chemical stability and in turn in vivo performance. The method of preparation can also have a profound impact on the mechanical properties of the amorphous phase. We have explored the impact of preparation method on the mechanical properties of an amorphous solid dispersion using a development compound, GDC-0810...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Weichao Chen, Aimei Zou, Huayong Zhang, Xiaoyan Fu, Fan Yao, Ankui Yang
Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is the most common cancers of oral, owing to the high invasive and metastatic ability, patients with TSCC have poor prognosis, it's important to explore the regulatory mechanism of TSCC invasion and metastasis. Previous studies suggest OSR1 suppresses the progression of gastric cancer and renal cell carcinoma, but its role in TSCC hasn't been studied. Here, we found OSR1 was downregulated in TSCC cells and specimens, Transwell and 3D spheroid invasion assay suggested OSR1 overexpression inhibited TSCC cell migration and invasion, while its knockdown promoted TSCC cell migration and invasion...
September 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Deepakraj Gajanana, William S Weintraub, Paul Kolm, Toby Rogers, Micaela Iantorno, Kyle D Buchanan, Itsik Ben-Dor, Augusto D Pichard, Lowell F Satler, Vinod H Thourani, Rebecca Torguson, Petros G Okubagzi, Ron Waksman
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) varies after placement of drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Our aim was to study patient characteristics and predictors of switching, in-hospital or at discharge, from clopidogrel (CLO) to ticagrelor (TIC) or vice versa. METHODS/MATERIALS: The study population included patients with ACS who had DES and initially received either CLO or TIC between January 2011 and December 2017...
September 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Molly Housley Smith, Indraneel Bhattacharyya, Donald M Cohen, Steven R Hinze, Mohammed N Islam
BACKGROUND: Glomus tumors are benign neoplasms that most commonly present in the subungual region. Their occurrence in the oral cavity is exceedingly rare. Here, we present 2 cases from the oral cavity, detail their clinical and histopathologic features, and review the literature for solitary cases involving the oral regions. STUDY DESIGN: The English language literature was queried for cases of benign glomus tumors in/around the oral cavity. Additional citations were cross-referenced from the identified sources...
August 17, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Niebla Bezerra de Melo, Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Daniela Pita de Melo, Daliana Queiroga Castro Gomes, Patrícia Meira Bento
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients under treatment for head and neck cancer and to identify the associated factors. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 102 patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer at 2 medical centers. Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Brazilian versions of the Medical Outcomes Study 36 (SF-36) and the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires to assess HRQoL and OHRQoL, respectively...
August 22, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
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